Notes and Queries, Number 181, April 16, 1853 online

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agree the rest, with the exception of the _Metropolitana_; that
Encyclopædia gives the meaning, "The descendant of an European and an
American Indian." A friend advocating the first meaning derives the word
from the Spanish. Another friend, in favour of the second meaning,
derives it originally from ~kerannumi~, _to mix_; which word is
fetched, perhaps far-fetched, from ~keras~, the horn in which
liquors are _mixed_. Light on this word would be acceptable.


_Shearman Family._ - Is there a family named _Shearman_ or _Sherman_ in
Yorkshire, or in the city of York? What are their arms? Is there any
record of any of that family settling in Ireland, in the county or city
of Kilkenny, about the middle of the seventeenth century, or at an
earlier period in Cork? Are there any genealogical records of them? Was
Robert Shearman, warden of the hospital of St. Cross in Winchester, of
that family? Was Roger Shearman, who signed the Declaration {382} of
American Independence, a member of same? Is there any record of three
brothers, Robert, Oliver, and Francis Shearman, coming to England in the
army of William the Conqueror?



_Traitors' Ford._ - There is a place called Traitors' Ford on the borders
of Warwickshire and Oxfordshire, near the source of the little river
Stour, about two miles from the village of Whichford, in the former
county. What is the origin of the name? There is no notice of it in
Dugdale's _Warwickshire_, nor is it mentioned in the older maps of the
county of Warwick. The vicinity to the field of Edge-Hill would lead one
to suppose it may be connected with some event of the period of the
Civil Wars.


"_Your most obedient humble Servant._" - In Beloe's _Anecdotes of
Literature_, vol. ii. p. 93., mention is made of a poem entitled _The
Historie of Edward the Second, surnamed Carnarvon_. The author, Sir
Francis Hubert, in 1629, when closing the dedication of this poem to his
brother, Mr. Richard Hubert, thus remarks:

"And so, humbly desiring the Almighty to blesse you both in
soule, body, and estate, I rest not your _servant_, according to
the _new_, and fine, but false phrase of the time, but in honest
old English, your loving brother and true friend for ever."

Query, At what time, and with whom did this very common and most
unmeaning term in English correspondence have its origin?

W. W.


_Version of a Proverb._ - What, and where to be found, is the true
version of "Qui facit per alium, facit per se?"


_Ellis Walker._ - Can any reader of "N. & Q." give any information as to
Ellis Walker, who made a _Poetical Paraphrase of the Enchiridion of
Epictetus_? He dedicates it to "his honoured uncle, Mr. Samuel Walker of
York," and speaks of having taken Epictetus for his companion when he
fled from the "present troubles in Ireland." My edition is printed in
London, 1716, but of what edition is not mentioned; but I presume the
work to have been of earlier date, probably in 1690-1, as indeed I find
it to have been, by inserted addresses to the author, of date in the
latter year. Any information as to the translator will oblige.

A. B. R.


"_The Northerne Castle._" - Pepys, in his _Diary_, 14th September, 1667,
says, "To the King's playhouse, to see _The Northerne Castle_, which I
think I never did see before." Is anything known of this play and its
authorship? or was it _The Northern Lass_, by Richard Brome, first
published in 1632? Perhaps Pepys has quoted the second title of some

J. Y.

_Prayer-Book in French._ - Can any of your readers give some satisfactory
information respecting the earliest translations of the English
Prayer-Book into French? By whom, when, for whom, were they first made?
Does any copy still exist of one (which I have seen somewhere alluded
to) published before Dean Durel's editions? By what authority have they
been put forth? Is there any information to be found collected by any
writer on this subject?

O. W. J.

_"Navita Erythræum," &c._ - Running the risk of being smiled at for my
ignorance, I wish to have a reference to the following lines:

"Navita Erythræum pavidus qui navigat æquor,
In proræ et puppis summo resonantia pendet
Tintinnabula; eo sonitu prægrandia Cete,
Balenas, et monstra marina a navibus arcet."


_Edmund Burke._ - Can any of your correspondents tell me when and where
he was married?

B. E. B.

_Plan of London._ - Is there any good plan of London, showing its present
extent? The answer is, None. What is more, there never was a decent plan
of this vast metropolis. There is published occasionally, on a small
sheet of paper, a wretched and disgraceful pretence to one, bedaubed
with paint. Can you explain the cause of this? Every other capital in
Europe has handsome plans, easy to be obtained: nay more, almost every
provincial town, whether in this country or on the Continent, possesses
better engraved and more accurate plans than this great capital can
pretend to. Try and use your influence to get this defect supplied.

L. S. W.

_Minchin._ - Could any of your Irish correspondents give me any
information with regard to the sons of Col. Thomas Walcot (c. 1683), or
the families of Minchin and Fitzgerald, co. Tipperary, he would much


* * * * *


_Leapor's "Unhappy Father."_ - Can you tell me where the scene of this
play, a tragedy by Mary Leapor, is laid, and the names of the _dramatis
personæ_? It is to be found in the second volume of _Poems_, by Mary
Leapor, 8vo. 1751. This authoress was the daughter of a gardener in
Northamptonshire, and the only education she received consisted in being
taught reading and writing. She was born in 1722, and died in 1746, at
the early age of twenty-four. Her poetical {383} merit is commemorated
in the Rev. John Duncombe's poem of the _Feminead_.


[The scene, a gentleman's country house. The _dramatis personæ_:
Dycarbas, the unhappy father; Lycander and Polonius, sons of
Dycarbas, in love with Terentia; Eustathius, nephew of Dycarbas,
and husband of Emilia; Leonardo, cousin of Eustathius; Paulus,
servant of Dycarbas; Plynus, servant to Eustathius; Timnus,
servant to Polonius; Emilia, daughter of Dycarbas; Terentia, a
young lady under the guardianship of Dycarbas; Claudia, servant
to Terentia.]

_Meaning of "The Litten" or "Litton."_ - This name is given to a small
piece of land, now pasture, inclosed within the moat of the ancient
manor of Marwell, formerly Merewelle, in Hants, once the property of the
see of Winchester. It does not appear to have been ever covered by
buildings. What is the meaning or derivation of the term? Does the name
exist in any other place, as applied to a piece of land situated as the
above-described piece? I have spelt it as pronounced by the bailiff of
the farm.

W. H. G.


[Junius and Ray derive it from the Anglo-Saxon lictun,
_coemiterium_, a burying-place. Our correspondent, however, will
find its etymology discussed in the _Gentleman's Magazine_, vol.
lxxviii. pp. 216. 303. and 319.]

_St. James' Market House._ - In a biography of Richard Baxter, the
Nonconformist divine, about 1671:

"Mr. Baxter came up to London, and was one of the Tuesday
lecturers at Pinner's Hall, and a Friday lecturer at Fetter
Lane; but on Sundays he for some time preached only
occasionally, and afterwards more statedly in St. James's Market

Where was the Market House situate?

P. T.

[Cunningham, in his _Handbook of London_, under the head of St.
James' Market, Jermyn Street, St. James', tells us that "here,
in a room over the Market House, preached Richard Baxter, the
celebrated Nonconformist. On the occasion of his first Sermon,
the main beam of the building cracked beneath the weight of the
congregation." We recollect the old market and Market House,
which must have stood on the ground now occupied by Waterloo

* * * * *



(Vol. vii., pp. 108. 268.)

REGINENSIS has been referred by F. R. A. to Drake's _Essays_ for an
account of this journal. Drake's account is, however, very incorrect.
The _Grub Street Journal_ did not terminate, as he states, on the 24th
August, 1732, but was continued in the original folio size to the 29th
Dec., 1737; the last No. being 418., instead of 138., as he incorrectly
gives it. He appears to have supposed that the 12mo. abridgment in two
volumes contained all the essays in the paper; whereas it did not
comprise more than a third of them. He mentions as the principal writers
Dr. Richard Russel and Dr. John Martyn. Budgell, however, in _The Bee_
(February, 1733) says, "The person thought to be at the head of the
paper is Mr. R - l (Russel), a nonjuring clergyman, Mr. P - e (Pope), and
some other gentlemen." Whether Pope wrote in it or not, it seems to have
been used as a vehicle by his friends for their attacks upon his foes,
and the war against the Dunces is carried on with great wit and spirit
in its pages. It is by far the most entertaining of the old newspapers,
and throws no small light upon the literary history of the time. I have
a complete series of the journal in folio, as well as of the
continuation, in a large 4to. form, under the title of _The Literary
Courier of Grub Street_, which commenced January 5, 1738, and appears to
have terminated at the 30th No., on the 27th July, 1738. I never saw
another complete copy. _The Grub Street Journal_ would afford materials
for many curious and amusing extracts. One very entertaining part of it
is the "Domestic News," under which head it gives the various and often
contradictory accounts of the daily newspapers, with a most humorous
running commentary.


* * * * *


(Vol. v., p. 122.)

SIR JAMES EMERSON TENNENT, in his learned and curious Note on stone
worship in Ireland, desires information as to the present existence of
worship of stone pillars in Orkney. When he says it continued till a
late period, I suppose he must allude to the standing stone at Stenness,
perforated by a hole, with the sanctity attached to promises confirmed
by the junction of hands through the hole, called the promise of Odin.
Dr. Daniel Wilson enters into this fully in _Præhistoric Annals of
Scotland_, pp. 99, 100, 101. It has been told myself that if a lad and
lass promised marriage with joined hands through the hole, the promise
was held to be binding. Whence the sanctity attached to such a promise I
could not ascertain to be known, and I did not hear of any other
superstition connected with this stone, which was destroyed in 1814. In
the remote island of North Ronaldshay is another standing stone,
perforated by a hole, but there is no superstition of this nature
attached to it. At the Yule time the inhabitants danced about it, and
when there were yule dancings in neighbouring houses, they began the
dancing at the stone, and danced from the stone all the road to what was
called to {384} me the dancing-house. The sword dance, with a great
deal of intricate crossing, and its peculiar simple tune, still exists
in Orkney, but is not danced with swords, though I heard of clubs or
sticks having been substituted. There are found in these islands the two
circles of stones at Stenness, and single standing stones. One of these,
at Swannay in Birsay, is said by tradition to have been raised to mark
the spot where the procession rested when carrying the body of St.

Magnus after his murder in Egilshay in 1110, from that island to
Christ's Kirk in Birsay, where it was first interred. Here is a date and
a purpose. The single standing stones, in accordance with SIR JAMES'S
opinion, and to use nearly his expressions, are said to mark the
burial-places of distinguished men, to commemorate battles and great
events, and to denote boundaries; and these, and still more the circles,
are objects of respect as belonging to ages gone by, but principally
with the educated classes, and there is no superstition remaining with
any. Such a thing as the swathing stone of South Inchkea is not known to
have existed. The stones in the two circles, and the single standing
stones, are all plain; but there was found lately a stone of the
sculptured symbolical class, inserted to form the base of a window in
St. Peter's Kirk, South Ronaldshay, and another of the same class in the
island of Bressay, in Zetland. The first is now in the Museum of
Scottish Antiquaries in Edinburgh; and the Zetland stone, understood to
be very curious, is either there or in Newcastle, and both are forming
the subject of antiquarian inquiry.

W. H. F.

* * * * *


(_Continued from_ Vol. vii., p. 255.)

The following are probably trifling, but may be considered worth
recording. Facing the title-page to _The Works of Mr. Alexander Pope_,
London, W. Bowyer, for Bernard Lintot, &c., 1717, 8vo., no date at end
of preface, is in (no doubt) his own hand:

"To the Right Honorable the Lord Viscount Bolingbroke, from his
ever-oblig'd, most faithfull, and affectionate servant, ALEX.

Cranmer's _Bible_, title gone, but at end, Maye 1541:

"This Bible was given to me by my ffather Coke when I went to
keepe Christmas with him at Holckam, anno Domini 1658. WILL.

Sir William Cobbe of Beverley, York, knight, married Winifred, sixth
daughter of John (fourth son of the chief justice), who was born 9th
May, 1589.

This copy has, before Joshua and Psalms, a page of engravings, being the
"seconde" and "thyrde parte;" also before the New Testament, the
well-known one of Henry VIII. giving the Bible, but the space for
Cromwell's arms is left blank or white. Cromwell was executed July 1540;
but do his arms appear in the 1540 impressions?

Cranmer's quarterings are, 1 and 4, Cranmer; 2, six lions r.; 3, fusils
of Aslacton. In the _Gent. Mag._, vol. lxii. pp. 976. 991., is an
engraving of a stone of Cranmer's father, with the fusils on his right,
and Cranmer on his left. The note at p. 991. calls the birds cranes, but
states that Glover's Yorkshire and other pedigrees have pelicans; and
Southey (_Book of the Church_, ii. p. 97.) states that Henry VIII.
altered the cranes to pelicans, telling him that he, like them, should
be ready to shed his blood. The engraving, however, clearly represents
drops of blood falling, and those in the Bible appear to be pelicans

This Bible has the days of the month in MS. against the proper psalms,
and where a leaf has been repaired, "A.D. 1608, per me Davidem Winsdon

A. C.

* * * * *


(Vol. vii., pp. 107. 307.)

I think I can supply I. E. with another example of the application of
this name to a place. A few miles east or south-east of Exeter, on the
borders of a waste tract of down extending from Woodbury towards the
sea, there is a village which is spelt on the ordnance map, and is
commonly called, _Greendale_. In strictness there are, I believe, two
Greendales, an upper and a lower Greendale. A small stream, tributary to
the Clyst river, flows past them.

Now this place formerly belonged to the family of Aumerle, or Alba
Marla, as part of the manor of Woodbury. From that family it passed to
William Briwere, the founder of Tor Abbey, and was by him made part of
the endowment of that monastery in the reign of Richard I. In the two
cartularies of that house, of which abstracts will be found in Oliver's
_Monasticon_, there are many instruments relating to this place, which
is there called Grendel, Grindel, and Gryndell. In none of them does the
name of Greendale occur, which appears to be a very recent form. Even
Lysons, in his _Devonshire_, does not seem to be aware of this mode of
spelling it, but always adopts one of the old ways of writing the word.

I have not seen the spot very lately, but, according to the best of my
recollection, it has not now any feature in keeping with the
mythological character of the fiend of the moor and fen. The
neighbouring district of down and common land would not be an
inappropriate habitat for such a personage. It has few trees of any
pretension to age, and is still covered in great part with a dark and
scanty vegetation, which is sufficiently dreary except at those seasons
when the brilliant colours of the blooming heath and dwarf furze give it
an aspect of remarkable beauty.

Whether the present name of Greendale be a mere corruption of the
earliest name, or be not, in fact, a restoration of it to its original
meaning, is a matter which I am not prepared to discuss. As a general
rule, a sound etymologist will not hastily desert an obvious and trite
explanation to go in search of a more recondite import. He will not have
recourse to the devil for the solution of a _nodus_, till he has
exhausted more legitimate sources of assistance.

The "N. & Q." have readers nearer to the spot in question than I am, who
may, perhaps, be able to throw some light on the subject, and inform us
whether Greendale still possesses the trace of any of those natural
features which would justify the demoniacal derivation proposed by I. E.
It must not, however, be forgotten that three centuries and a half of
laborious culture bestowed upon the property by the monks of Tor, must
have gone far to exorcise and reclaim it.

E. S.

Some years ago I asked the meaning of _Grindle_ or _Grundle_, as applied
to a deep, narrow watercourse at Wattisfield in Suffolk. The Grundle
lies between the high road and the "Croft," adjoining a mansion which
once belonged to the Abbots of Bury. The clear and rapid water was
almost hidden by brambles and underwood; and the roots of a row of fine
trees standing in the Croft were washed bare by its winter fury. The
bank on that side was high and broken; the bed of the Grundle I observed
to lie above the surface of the road, on the opposite side of which the
ground rises rapidly to the table land of clay. My fancy instantly
suggested a river flowing through this hollow, and the idea was
strengthened by the appearance of the landscape. The village stands on
irregular ground, descending by steep slopes into narrow valleys and
contracted meadows. I can well imagine that water was an enemy or
"fiend" to the first settlers, and I was told that in winter the Grundle
is still a roaring brook.

I find I have a Note that "in Charters, places bearing the name Grendel
are always connected with water."

F. C. B.


* * * * *


(Vol. vii., p. 332.)

MR. ELLACOMBE will find some account of this personage, who was Prior of
Kilmainham, and for several years served the office of Lord Justice of
Ireland, in Holinshed's _Chronicles of Ireland_, sub anno 1325, _et
seq._: also in "The Annals of Ireland," in the second volume of Gibson's
_Camden_, 3rd edition, sub eod. anno. He was nearly related to the lady
Alice Kettle, and her son William Utlawe, al. Outlaw; against whom that
singular charge of sorcery was brought by Richard Lederede, Bishop of
Ossory. The account of this charge is so curious that, for the benefit
of those readers of "N. & Q." who may not have the means of referring to
the books above cited, I am tempted to extract it from Holinshed:

"In these daies lived, in the Diocese of Ossorie, the Ladie
Alice Kettle, whome the Bishop ascited to purge hir selfe of the
fame of inchantment and witchcraft imposed unto hir, and to one
Petronill and Basill, hir complices. She was charged to have
nightlie conference with a spirit called Robin Artisson, to
whome she sacrificed in the high waie nine red cocks, and nine
peacocks' eies. Also, that she swept the streets of Kilkennie
betweene compleine and twilight, raking all the filth towards
the doores of hir sonne William Outlaw, murmuring and muttering
secretlie with hir selfe these words:

"'To the house of William my sonne
Hie all the wealth of Kilkennie towne.'

"At the first conviction, they abjured and did penance; but
shortlie after, they were found in relapse, and then was
Petronill burnt at Kilkennie: the other twaine might not be
heard of. She, at the hour of hir death, accused the said
William as privie to their sorceries, whome the bishop held in
durance nine weeks; forbidding his keepers to eat or to drinke
with him, or to speake to him more than once in the daie. But at
length, thorough the sute and instance of Arnold le Powre, then
seneschall of Kilkennie, he was delivered, and after corrupted
with bribes the seneschall to persecute the bishop: so that he
thrust him into prison for three moneths. In rifling the closet
of the ladie, they found a wafer of sacramentall bread, having
the divel's name stamped thereon insteed of Jesus Christ's; and
a pipe of ointment, wherewith she greased a staffe, upon which
she ambled and gallopped thorough thicke and thin when and in
what maner she listed. This businesse about these witches
troubled all the state of Ireland the more; for that the ladie
was supported by certeine of the nobilitie, and lastlie conveied
over into England; since which time it could never be understood
what became of hir."

Roger Outlawe, the Prior of Kilmainham, was made Lord Justice for the
first time in 1327. The Bishop of Ossory was then seeking his revenge on
Arnold le Powre, for he had given information against him as being -

"Convented and convicted in his consistorie of certeine
hereticall opinions; but because the beginning of Powres
accusation concerned the justice's kinsman, and the bishop was
mistrusted to prosecute his owne wrong, and the person of the
man, rather than the fault, a daie was limited for the
justifieing of the bill, the partie being apprehended and
respited thereunto. This dealing the bishop (who durst not
stirre out of {386} Kilkennie to prosecute his accusation) was
reputed parciall: and when by meanes hereof the matter hanged in
suspense, he infamed the said prior as an abettor and favourer
of Arnold's heresie. The Prior submitted himselfe to the trial."

Proclamation was made, "That it should be lawful for anie man ... to
accuse, &c. the Lord Justice; but none came." In the end, six
inquisitors were appointed to examine the bishops and other persons, and
they -

"All with universal consent deposed for the Prior, affirming
that (to their judgements) he was a zelous and a faithfull child
of the Catholike Church. In the meane time, Arnold le Powre, the
prisoner, deceased in the castell; and because he stood
unpurged, long he laie unburied."

In 1332, William Outlawe is said to have been Prior of Kilmainham, and
lieutenant of John Lord Darcie, Lord Justice.

This Bishop of Ossorie, Richard Lederede, was a minorite of London: he
had a troubled episcopate, and was long in banishment in England. I have
met with his name in the Register of Adam de Orlton, Bishop of
Winchester, where he is recorded as assisting that prelate in some of
his duties, A.D. 1336. He died however peaceably in his see, and was a
benefactor to his cathedral. (See Ware's _History of Ireland_.)

W. H. G.


[It may be added, that much information respecting both Roger
Outlawe and the trial of Alice Kyteler would be found in the
interesting volume published by the Camden society in 1842,
under the editorship of Mr. Wright, entitled _Proceedings
against Dame Alice Kyteler, prosecuted for Sorcery in 1324_.]

Your correspondent H. T. ELLACOMBE asks who this Roger Outlawe was, and
expresses his surprise that a prior of a religious house should "sit as
_locum tenens_ of a judge in a law court."

But the words "tenens locum Johannis Darcy le cosyn justiciarii
Hiberniæ" do not imply that Outlawe sat as _locum tenens_ of a judge in
a law court. For this Sir John Darcy was Lord Justice, or Lord
Lieutenant (as we would now say), of Ireland, and Roger Outlawe was his
_locum tenens_.

Nothing, however, was more common at that period than for ecclesiastics
to be judges in law courts; and it happens that this very Roger was Lord
Chancellor of Ireland in 1321 to 1325, and again, 1326 - 1330: again,

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Online LibraryVariousNotes and Queries, Number 181, April 16, 1853 → online text (page 3 of 6)