Notes and Queries, Number 181, April 16, 1853 online

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1333: again (a fourth time), 1335: and a fifth time in 1339: for even
then, as now, we were cursed in Ireland by perpetual changes of
administration and of law officers, so that we have scarcely had any
uniform practice, and our respect for law has been proportionally small.

Sir John Darcy was Lord Justice, or Lord Lieutenant, in 1322, in 1324,
in 1328 (in which year Roger Outlawe was his _locum tenens_ during his
absence), in 1322, and on to 1340.

Roger Outlawe was Lord Justice, either in his own right or as _locum
tenens_ for others, in 1328, 1330, and 1340, in which last year he died
in office. His death is thus recorded in Clyn's _Annals_ (edited by Dean
Butler for the Irish Archæological Society), p. 29.:

"Item die Martis, in crastino beatæ Agathæ virginis, obiit
frater Rogerus Outlawe, prior hospitalis in Hibernia, apud Any,
tunc locum justiciarii tenens: et etiam Cancellarius Domini
Regis, trium simul functus officio. Vir prudens et graciosus,
qui multas possessiones, ecclesias, et redditus ordini suo
adquisivit sua industria, et regis Angliæ gratia speciali et

To this day, in the absence of the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, _Lords
Justices_ are appointed.


Trin. Coll., Dublin.

* * * * *


(Vol. v., pp. 25. 65.; Vol. vii., p. 341.)

I am obliged to DR. RIMBAULT for noticing, what had escaped me, that
this Prospectus has been reprinted in the _Censura Literaria_, vol. vi.
p. 352. With respect to my ground for attributing it to Johnson, it
will, I think, be obvious enough to any one who reads my remarks, that
it was on the internal evidence alone, on which, as every one is aware,
many additions have been made to his acknowledged compositions. Your
correspondent C., with whom I always regret to differ, is so far at
variance with me as to state it as his opinion that "nothing can be less
like Johnson's peculiar style," and refers me to a note, with which I
was perfectly familiar, to show - but which I must say I cannot see that
it does in the slightest degree - "that it is impossible that Johnson
could have written this Prospectus." Another correspondent, whose
communication I am unable immediately to refer to, likewise recorded his
dissent from my conclusion. Next follows DR. RIMBAULT, whom I understand
to differ from me also, and who says (but where is the authority for the
statement?) "Haslewood believed it to have been the production of
Messrs. Cibber and Shields." I have every respect for Haslewood as a
diligent antiquary, but I confess I do not attach much weight to his
opinion on a question of critical taste or nice discrimination of style.
I had, as I have observed, assigned the Prospectus to Dr. Johnson on the
internal evidence alone; but since it appeared in "N. & Q." I have
become aware of an important corroboration of my opinion in a copy of
Cibber's _Lives_ which formerly belonged to Isaac Reed, and which I have
recently purchased. At the beginning of the first volume he has pasted
in the Prospectus, and under it is the following note in his {387}
handwriting: "The above advertisement was written or revised by Dr.
Johnson. - J. R." Reed's general correctness and capacity of judging in
literary matters are too well known to render it necessary for me to
enlarge upon them; and with this support I am quite content to leave the
point in issue between your correspondents and myself to the decision of
that part of your readers who take an interest in similar literary

It will be observed that I have confined myself in my remarks to the
Prospectus exclusively. The authorship of the _Lives_ themselves is
another question, and a very curious one, and not, by any means, as your
correspondent C. appears to think, "settled." Perhaps I may, on a future
occasion, trouble you with some remarks upon the _Lives_ in detail,
endeavouring to assign the respective portions to the several


* * * * *


(Vol. vii., p. 23.)

As I consider that the true origin of _pic-nic_ remains yet to be
discovered, permit me to try and trace the word through France into
Italy, and to endeavour to show that the land with the "fatal gift of
beauty" was its birthplace; and that when the Medici married into
France, the august ladies probably imported, together with fans, gloves,
and poisons, a pastime which, under the name of _pique-nique_, became,
as Leroux says in his _Dictionnaire Comique_, "un divertissement fort à
la mode à Paris."

I will not occupy space by quoting the article "at length" from Leroux,
but the substance is this: - Persons of quality, of both sexes, who
wished to enjoy themselves, and feast together, either in the open air
or in the house of one of the number, imposed upon each one the task of
bringing some particular article, or doing some particular duty in
connexion with the feast. And to show how stringent was the expression
_pique-nique_ in imposing a specific task, Leroux quotes "considérant
que chacun avait besoin de ses pièces, prononça un _arrêt_ de
pique-nique." (_Rec. de Pièc. Com._)

Thus, I think Leroux and also Cotgrave show that the word _pique-nique_
involves the idea of a task, or particular office, undertaken by each
individual for the general benefit.

Let us now go to Italian, and look at the word _nicchia_. Both from
Alberti and from Baretti we find it to bear the meaning of "a charge, a
duty, or an employment;" and if before this word we place the adjective
_piccola_, we have _piccola nicchia_, "a small task, or trifling service
to be performed." Now I think no one can fail to see the identity of the
_meanings_ of the expressions _piccola nicchia_ and _pique-nique_; but
it remains to show how the words themselves may be identical. Those who
have been in the habit of reading much of the older Italian authors
(subsequent to Boccacio) will bear me out in my statement of the
frequency of contraction of words in familiar use: the plays,
particularly, show it, from the dialogues in Machiavelli or Goldoni to
the libretto of a modern opera; so much as to render it very probable
that _piccola nicchia_ might stand as _picc' nicc'_, just as we
ourselves have been in the habit of degrading _scandalum magnatum_ into
_scan. mag._ It only remains now to carry this _picc' nicc'_ into
France, and, according to what is usual in Gallicising Italian words, to
change the _c_ or _ch_ into _que_, to have what I started with, viz. the
_divertissement_ concerning which Leroux enlarges, and in which, I am
afraid, it may be said I have followed his example.

However, I consider the _Decameron_ of Boccacio as a probable period
where the temporary queen of the day would impose the _arrêt_ of
_pique-nique_ upon her subjects; and when I look over the engravings of
the manners and customs of the Italians of the Middle Ages, all
indicating the frequency of the _al fresco_ banquets, and find that
subsequently Watteau and Lancret revel in similar amusements in France,
where the personages of the _fête_ manifestly wear Italian-fashioned
garments; and when we are taught that such parties of pleasure were
called _pique-niques_, I think it is fair to infer that the expression
is a Gallicised one from an Italian phrase of the same signification.

I do not know if it will be conceded that I have proved my case
_positively_, but I might go so far _negatively_ as to show that in no
other European language can I find any word or words which, having a
similar sound, will bear an analysis of adaptation; and though there is
every probability that the custom of _pic-nic_ing obtained in preference
in the sunny south, there are few, I think, that would rush for an
explanation into the Eastern languages, on the plea that the Crusaders,
being in the habit of _al fresco_ banquetting, might have brought home
the expression _pic-nic_.


Washwood, Birmingham.

This word would seem to be derived from the French. Wailly, in his
_Nouveau Vocabulaire_, describes it as "repas où chacun paye son écot,"
a feast towards which each guest contributes a portion of the expense.
Its etymology is thus explained by Girault-Duvivier, in his _Grammaire
des Grammaires_:

"_Pique-nique_, plur. des _pique-nique_: des repas où ceux qui
_piquent_, qui _mangent_, font signe de la tête qu'ils paieront.

"Les Allemands, dit M. Lemare, ont aussi leur _picknick_, qui a
le même sens que le nôtre. _Picken_ signifie _piquer_,
_becqueter_, et _nicken_ signifie _faire signe de la {388} tête_.
_Pique-nique_ est donc, comme _passe-passe_, un composé de deux
verbes; Il est dans l'analogie de cette phrase, 'Qui touche,


* * * * *


(Vol. iii., p. 38.)

Your correspondent's inquiry with respect to the missing MSS. of Peter
Sterry, which were intended to form a second volume of his posthumous
works, published without printer's name in 1710, 4to., and of which MSS.
a list is given in vol. i., does not seem to have led to any result. As
I feel equal interest with himself in every production of Sterry, I am
tempted again to repeat the Query, in the hope of some discovery being
made of these valuable remains. I have no doubt the editor of the
"Appearance of God to Man," and the other discourses printed in the
first volume, was R. Roach, who edited Jeremiah White's _Persuasion to
Moderation_, Lond., 1708, 8vo.; and afterwards published _The Great
Crisis_, and _The Imperial Standard of Messiah Triumphant_, 1727, 8vo.;
and probably Sterry's MSS. may be found if Roach's papers can be traced.
It is curious that a similar loss of MSS. seems to have occurred with
regard to several of the works of Jeremiah White, who, like Sterry, was
a chaplain of Cromwell (how well that great man knew how to select
them!), and, like Sterry, was of that admirable Cambridge theological
school which Whichcot, John Smith, and Cudworth have made so renowned.
Neither of these distinguished men have yet, that I am aware of, found
their way into any biographical dictionary. White is slightly noticed by
Calamy (vol. ii. p. 57.; vol. iv. p. 85.). Sterry, it appears, died on
Nov. 19, 1672. White survived him many years, and died in the
seventy-eighth year of his age, 1707. Of the latter, there is an
engraved portrait; of the former, none that I know of; nor am I aware of
the burial-place of either. The works which I have met with of Sterry
are his seven sermons preached before Parliament, &c., and published in
different years; his _Rise, Race, and Royalty of the Kingdom of God in
the Soul of Man_, 1683, 4to.; his _Discourse of the Freedom of the Will_
(a title which does not by any means convey the character of the book),
Lond., 1675, fol.; and the 4to. before mentioned, being vol. i. of his
_Remains_, published in 1710. Of White I only knew a Funeral Sermon on
Mr. Francis Fuller; his _Persuasion to Moderation_, above noticed, which
is an enlargement of part of his preface to Sterry's _Rise, &c._; and
his _Treatise on the Restoration of all Things_, 1712, 8vo., which has
recently been republished by Dr. Thom. To his _Persuasion_ is appended
an advertisement:

"There being a design of publishing the rest of Mr. White's
works, any that have either Letters or other Manuscripts of his
by them are desired to communicate them to Mr. John Tarrey,
distiller, at the Golden Fleece, near Shadwick Dock."

This design, with the exception of the publication of _The Restoration_,
seems to have proved abortive. White entertained many opinions in common
with Sterry, which he advocates with great power. He does not however,
like his fellow chaplain, soar into the pure empyrean of theology with
unfailing pinions. Sterry has frequently sentences which Milton might
not have been ashamed to own. His _Discourse of the Freedom of the Will_
is a noble performance, and the preface will well bear a comparison with
Cudworth's famous sermon on the same subject.


* * * * *


_Colouring Collodion Portraits._ - I shall be obliged if any brother
photographer will kindly inform me, through the medium of "N. & Q.," the
best method of colouring collodion portraits and views in a style
similar to the hyalotypes shown at the Great Exhibition.

We country photographers are much indebted to DR. DIAMOND for the
valuable information we have obtained through his excellent papers in
"N. & Q.," and perceiving he is shortly about to give us the benefit of
his experience in a compact form, under the modest title of
_Photographic Notes_, I suggest that, if one of his Notes should contain
the best method of colouring collodion proofs, so as to render them
applicable for dissolving views, &c., he will be conferring a benefit on
many of your subscribers; and, as one of your oldest, allow me to
subscribe myself


_On some Points in the Collodion Process._ - In your impression of this
day's date (Vol. vii., p. 363.), the Rev. J. L. SISSON desires the
opinion of other photographers relative to lifting the plate with the
film of collodion up and down several times in the bath of nit. silv.
solution; and as my experience on this point is diametrically opposed to
his own, I venture to state it with the view of eliciting a discussion.

The _evenness_ of the film is not at all dependent upon this practice;
but its sensibility to light appears to be considerably increased.

The plate, after being plunged in, should be allowed to repose quietly
from twenty to thirty minutes, _and then rapidly_ slid in and out
several times, until the liquid flows off in one continuous and even
_sheet_ of liquid; and this also has a beneficial effect in washing off
any little particles of collodion, dust, oxide, or any foreign matter
which, if adherent, would form centres of chemical action, and cause
spottiness in the negative.

I find that the plate is more sensitive also, if not exposed before all
the exciting fluid that can be _drained off_ is got rid of; that is,
while still quite moist, but without any _flowing_ liquid.

As to redipping the plate before development, it is, I believe, _in
general_ useless; but when the plate has got _very_ dry it may be dipped
again, but should be then _well drained_ before the developing solution
is applied.

MR. F. MAXWELL LYTE (p. 364.) quotes the price of the purest iodide of
potassium at 1s. 3d. per oz. I should be glad to know where it can
be obtained, as I find the price constantly varies, and upon the last
occasion I paid 4s. per oz., and I think never less than 1s. 8d.

MR. L. MERRITT will probably succeed in applying the cement for a glass
bath thus: - Place the pieces of glass upon wood of any kind in an oven
with the door open until he can only just handle them; then, with a roll
of the cement, melting the end in the flame of a spirit-lamp, apply it
as if for sealing a letter. This should be done as quickly as possible.
The glasses may then be passed over the flame of the lamp (in contact
with it), so as to raise the temperature, until the cement is quite soft
and nearly boiling (this can be done without heating the parts near the
fingers); and while hot the two separate pieces should be applied by
putting one down on a piece of wood covered with flannel, and pressing
the other with any wooden instrument: metal in contact would cause an
instantaneous fracture.

MR. MERRITT's difficulty with the developing solutions depends most
probably in the case of the pyrogallic acid mixture not having enough
acetic acid. The protonitrate of iron, if made according to DR.
DIAMOND's formula, does _not_ require any acetic acid, and flows quite
readily; but the protosulphate solution requires a bath, and the same
solution may be used over and over again.


London, April 9, 1853.

_Economical Iodizing Process._ - MR. MAXWELL LYTE is probably as good a
judge as myself, as to where any weak point or difficulty is found in
iodizing paper with the carbonate of potass: if any chemical is likely
to be the cause of unusual activity, it is the carbonic acid, and not
the cyanide of potash. I still continue to use that formula, and have
not iodized paper with any other: though I have made some variations
which may perhaps be of use. I found that the nitrate of potash is
almost the same in its effects as the carbonate. I would as soon use the
one as the other; but the state I conceive to be the most effective, is
the diluted liquor potassæ: that would be with iodine about the same
state as the iodide of potash, but hitherto I have not tried it, though
mean to do so.

I am not quite certain as to whether, theoretically, this position is
right; but I find in iodide of potash, and in the above formula, that
the iodine is absorbed in greater quantities by the silver, than the
alkaline potash by the nitric acid. Thus, by using a solution for some
time, it will at last contain but very little iodine at all, and not
enough for the purpose of the photographer; hence it requires renewing.
And I have lately observed that paper is much more effective, in every
way, if it is floated on free iodine twice before it is used in the
camera, viz. once when it is made, and again when it is dry: the last
time containing a little bromine water and glacial acetic acid. It
appears to me that the paper will absorb its proper dose of iodine
better when dry, and the glacial acetic acid will set free any small
amount of alkaline potash there may be on the surface; so that it will
not embrown on applying gallic acid. By using the ammonio-nitrate of
silver in iodizing, and proceeding as above, I find it all I can wish as
far as regards the power of my camera. With this paper I can use an
aperture of half an inch diameter, and take anything in the shade and
open air in five or six minutes, in the sun in less time. The yellow
colour also comes off better in the hypo. sulph.

I think MR. MAXWELL LYTE has made a mistake as to the price he quotes:
about here I cannot get any iodide of potash under 2s. per ounce, and
the five grains to the ounce added to the common dose of nitrate of
silver is hardly worth speaking of; it would amount, in fact, to about
fifteen grains in a quire of Whatman's paper, - no great hardship,
because many use much higher doses of silver for iodizing; forty grains
to the ounce is not uncommonly used, but I believe twenty-five grains
quite enough.

I presume, in SIR WM. NEWTON's mode of treating positives, the acid of
the alum decomposes the alkali of the hypo. sulph. And it would be, I
suppose, better for the picture, if its state were entirely neutral when
put away or framed; but if alum is added, acid must remain, since SIR
WM. says it combines with the size. What I should imagine is, that the
idea is good; but experience can only decide if the picture is better
put away in an acid condition. I should think there are more available
acids for the purpose, for alum has an injurious effect upon colour; and
a positive is nothing but colour, the organic matter of the paper
stained as it were by the silver: for, after all its washings and
application of re-agents, no silver can possibly remain in the paper.
The safest state therefore of putting away ought to be ascertained and
decided upon; as it is no use doing them if they fade, or even lose
their tones.


N.B. - The iodized ammonio-nitrate paper will not bear exposure to the
sun; it will keep any {390} length of time, but should be kept in a
paper, and away from any considerable degree of light.

* * * * *


_Bishop Juxon's Account of Vendible Books in England_ (Vol. vi., pp.
515. 592.). - The following note in Wilson's _History of the Merchant
Taylors' School_, p. 783., solves the Query respecting the authorship of
this bibliographical work.

"_The Catalogue of Books in England alphabetically digested_,
printed at London, 1658, 4to., is ascribed to Bishop Juxon in
Osborne's _Catalogue_ for 1755, p. 40. But, as Mr. Watts, the
judicious librarian of Sion College, has observed to me, this is
no authority, the Epistle Dedicatory bearing internal evidence
against it. The author's name was _William London_, whence arose
the mistake!"



_Dutensiana_ (Vol. vi., p. 376.; Vol. vii., p. 26.). - The following
statement, extracted from Quérard's _France Littéraire_, sub voce
Dutens, will account for the discrepancies mentioned by your
correspondents with reference to the works of Louis Dutens.

Dutens published three volumes of _Memoirs_, which he afterwards
committed to the flames, out of consideration for certain living
characters. He then published, in three volumes, his _Mémoires d'un
Voyageur qui se repose_, the two first containing the author's life, and
the third being the _Dutensiana_.

Your correspondent W. (Vol. vi., p. 376.) says that Dutens published at
Geneva, in six volumes 4to., with prefaces, the entire works of
Leibnitz. This statement is thus qualified by the _Biographie

"L. Dutens est l'Editeur de _Leibnitii opera omnia_, mais c'est
à tort que quelques bibliographes lui attribuent les
_Institutions Leibnitiennes_. Cet ouvrage est de l'Abbé

The same correspondent inquires whether Dutens was not also the author
of _Correspondence inteceptée_: and SIR W. C. TREVELYAN (Vol. vii., p.
26.) says he had seen a presentation copy of it, although it is not
included in the list of Dutens' _Works_ given by Lowndes.

This is explained by the fact that the work, originally published under
the title of _Correspondence interceptée_, was afterwards embodied in
the _Mémoires d'un Voyageur_. Lowndes seems to have had no knowledge of
it as a separate publication.


St. Lucia.

_Vicars-Apostolic_ (Vol. vii., pp. 309, 310.). - Allow me to correct an
error or two in my list of the vicars-apostolic, which appeared in your
178th Number, p 309. The three archpriests were _appointed_ to their
office, not _consecrated_.

P. 309. - _Northern District._ Bishop Witham was consecrated 1703, not
1716. He was _translated_ from the Midland to the Northern District in

P. 310. - In the list of the present Roman Catholic prelates in England
and Wales, the bishops - from Archbishop Wiseman to Bishop Hendren
inclusive - were _translated_ in 1850, not _consecrated_.

J. R. W.


_Tombstone in Churchyard_ (Vol. vii., p. 331.). - In Ecclesfield
churchyard is the following inscription, cut in bold capitals, and as
legible as when the slab was first laid down:

"Here lieth the bodie of Richard Lord, late Vicar of
Ecclesfield, 1600."

If, however, A. C.'s Query be not limited to slabs in the open air, he
will probably be interested by the following, copied by me from the
floors of the respective churches, which are all in this neighbourhood.
The first is from the unused church of St. John at Laughton-le-Morthing,
near Roche Abbey, and is, according to Mr. Hunter, one of the earliest
specimens of a monumental inscription in the vernacular:

"Here lyeth Robt. Dinningto' and Alis his wyfe. Robert dyed [=i]
y'e fest of San James M'mo ccc iiij'xx xiij'mo. Alis dyed o'
Tisday [=i] Pas. Woke, a'o D[=n]i M'o ccc'mo xxx'o whose saules
God assoyl for is m'cy. Ame'."

The next three are partly pewed over; but the uncovered parts are
perfectly legible. The first two are from Tankersley, the third from

"Hic jacet d[=n]s Thomas Toykyl ... die mensis Aprilis anno
d[=n]i M. cccc. lxxxx. sc[=d]o...."

" ... Mensis Octob. an[=o] dni Milli[=m]o cccc. xxx. quinto."

" ... An[=o] d[=n]i Millesimo cccc. xxxx. vi. cuius ai[=e] deus

Also in Ecclesfield Church is a slab bearing the dates 1571, and J. W.
1593; and the remains of two others, with dates "M'o ccccc'o xix'o," and
"M'o ccccc'o xxx'o vi'o."


Ecclesfield Hall, Sheffield.

"_Her face is like," &c._ (Vol. vii., p. 305.). -

"Her face is like the milky way i' the sky, -
A meeting of gentle lights without a name."

These lines are from Act III. of Sir John Suckling's tragedy of
_Brennoralt_, and are uttered by a lover contemplating his _sleeping_
mistress; a circumstance which it is important to mention, as the truth

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