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* * * * *

"When found, make a note of." - CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

* * * * *

No. 185.]
Saturday, May 14, 1853.
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

* * * * *


NOTES: - Page
English Books of Emblems, by the Rev. Thomas Corser 469
Author of Tract on "Advantages of the East India
Trade, 1720, 8vo.," by James Crossley 471
"Ake" and "Ache," by Thomas Keightley 472
Localities mentioned in Anglo-Saxon Charters, by B.
Williams 473
Inedited Letter 473
A Shaksperian Book 474
MINOR NOTES: - Shakspeare's Monument - Archbishop
Leighton and Pope: Curious Coincidence Of Thought
and Expression - Grant of Slaves - Sealing-wax 475

Walmer Castle, by C. Waymor 475
Scotchmen in Poland, by Peter Cunningham 475
Bishop Juxon and Walton's Polyglott Bible 476
MINOR QUERIES: - Was Andrew Marvell poisoned? - Anonymous
Pamphlet by Dr. Wallis - Mrs. Cobb's
Diary - Compass Flower - Nuns of the Hotel Dieu -
Purlieu - Jennings Family - Latimer's Brothers-in-
Law - Autobiographical Sketch - Schonbornerus - Symbol
of Globe and Cross - Booth Family - Ennui - Bankruptcy
Records - Golden Bees - The Grindstone
Oak - Hogarth - Adamsons of Perth - Cursitor Barons
of the Exchequer - Syriac Scriptures 476

Psalmanazar, by Rev. Dr. Maitland 479
Consecrated Roses, &c., by William J. Thoms 480
Campbell's Imitations 481
"The Hanover Rat" 481
Font Inscriptions 482
Irish Rhymes: English Provincialisms: Lowland Scotch 483
Pictures by Hogarth 484
Process - Colouring Collodion Pictures - Wanted, a
simple Test for a good Lens - Photographic Tent:
Restoration of Faded Negatives 484
REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES: - Gibbon's Library - Robert
Drury - Grub Street Journal - Wives of Ecclesiastics - Blanco
White - Captain Ayloff - General
Monk and the University of Cambridge - The Ribston
Pippin - Cross and Pile - Ellis Walker - Blackguard -
Talleyrand - Lord King and Sclater - "Beware the
Cat" - "Bis dat qui cito dat" - High Spirits a Presage
of Evil - Colonel Thomas Walcott - Wood of the
Cross: Mistletoe - Irish Office for Prisoners - Andries
de Græff: Portraits at Brickwall House - "Qui facit
per alium, facit per se" - Christian Names - Lamech's
War-song - Traitor's Ford 485

Notes on Books, &c. 489
Books and Odd Volumes wanted 490
Notices to Correspondents 490
Advertisements 490

* * * * *



It is a remarkable circumstance that whilst the emblems of Alciatus Vent
through almost innumerable editions, and were translated into most of the
continental languages, no version of these Emblems should ever have been
printed in this country, although we believe that MS. translations of them
are in existence. It is remarkable also that more than half century should
have elapsed after their appearance, before any English publication on this
subject should have been committed to the press. Our English authors of
Books of Emblems were not only late in their appearance, but are few in
number, and in their embellishments not very original, the plates being for
the most part mere copies of those already published abroad by Herman Hugo,
Rollenhagius, and others. The notices of the English writers on this
entertaining subject are also but meagre and imperfect, and restricted to a
very few works; both Dibdin, in his slight and rapid sketch on Books of
Emblems in the _Bibliogr. Decam._, vol. i. p. 254., and the writer in the
_Retrosp. Rev._, vol. ix. p. 123., having confined their remarks to some
one or two of the leading writers only, Arwaker, Peacham, Quarles, Whitney,
and Wither. With the exception of an occasional article in the _Bibl. Ang.
Poet._, _Cens. Liter. Restituta_, and similar bibliographical volumes, we
are not aware that any other notice has been taken of this particular
branch of our literature[1], nor does there exist, {470} that we know of,
any complete, separate, and distinct catalogue of such works.

Being anxious, therefore, to obtain a correct account of what may be termed
the English Series of Books of Emblems, I inclose a list of all those in my
own possession, and of the titles of such others as I have been able to
collect; and I shall be glad if any of your readers can make any additions
to the series, confining them at the same time strictly to Books of
Emblems, and not admitting fables, heraldic works, or older publications
not coming within the same category. A good comprehensive work on this
subject of Books of Emblems, not confined merely to the English series, but
embracing the whole foreign range, giving an account both of the writers of
the verses, and also of the engravers, and the different styles of art in
each, is still a great desideratum in our literary history; and if ably and
artistically done, with suitable illustrations of the various engravings
and other ornaments, would form a very interesting, instructive, and
entertaining volume; and I sincerely hope that the time will not be far
distant when such a volume will be found in our libraries.

I conclude with a Query of inquiry, whether anything is known of the
present resting-place of a _Treatise on Emblems_, which the late Mr. Beloe
informs us, at the close of his _Literary Anecdotes_, vol. vi. p. 406., he
had written at "considerable length," from communications furnished him by
the Marquis of Blandford, whose collection of Emblems was at that time one
of the richest and most extensive in the kingdom, and whose treatise, if
published, might perhaps prove a valuable addition to our information on
this portion of our literature.

I would also inquire who was Thomas Combe, and what did he write, who is
thus mentioned by Meres in his _Palladis Tamia: Wits Treasury_, Lond. 1598,
8vo., as one of our English writers of Emblems: "As the Latines have those
emblematists, Andreas Alciatus, Reusnerus, and Sambucus, so we have these,
Geffrey Whitney, Andrew Willet, and _Thomas Combe_." Is anything known of
the latter, or of his writings?


Stand Rectory.

_List of English Writers of Books of Emblems._

A. (H.) Parthenia Sacra, of the Mysterious and Delicious Garden of the
Sacred Parthenis: Symbolically set forth and enriched with Pious Devises
and Emblems for the entertainment of devout Soules, &c. By H. A. Plates.
8vo. Printed by John Cousturier, 1633.

Abricht (John A. M.). Divine Emblems. Embellished with Etchings of Copper
after the fashion of Master Francis Quarles. 12mo. Lond. 1838.

Arwaker (Edmund). Pia Desideria, or Divine Addresses in Three Books. With
47 Copper Plates by Sturt. 8vo. Lond. 1686.

Ashrea: or the Grove of Beatitudes. Represented in Emblemes: and by the Art
of Memory to be read on our Blessed Saviour Crucified, &c. 12mo. Lond.

Astry (Sir James). The Royal Politician represented in One Hundred Emblems.
Written in Spanish by Don Diego Saavedra Faxardo, &c. Done into English
from the Original. By Sir James Astry. In Two Vols. With Portrait of
William Duke of Gloucester, and other Plates. 8vo. Lond. 1700. Printed for
Matthew Gylliflower.

Ayres (Philip). Emblemata Amatoria. Emblems of Love in Four Languages.
Dedicated to the Ladys. By Ph. Ayres, Esq. With 44 Plates on Copper. 8vo.
Lond. 1683.

Barclay (Alexander).[2] The Ship of Fooles, wherein is shewed the folly of
all States, &c. Translated out of Latin into Englishe. With numerous
Woodcuts. Imprinted by John Cawood. Folio, bl. letter, Lond. 1570.

Blount (Thomas). The Art of making Devises: treating of Hieroglyphicks,
Symboles, Emblemes, Ænigmas, &c. Translated from the French of Henry
Estienne. 4to. Lond. 1646.

Bunyan (John). Emblems by J. Bunyan. [I have not seen this work, but
suspect it is only a common chap-book. A copy was in one of Lilly's

Burton (R.). Choice Emblems, Divine and Moral, Ancient and Modern; or
Delights for the Ingenious in above Fifty Select Emblems, Curiously
Ingraven upon Copper Plates. With engraved Frontispiece, &c. 12mo. Lond.
1721. Printed for Edmund Parker.

Castanoza (John). The Spiritual Conflict, or The Arraignment of the Spirit
of Selfe-Love and Sensuality at the Barre of Truth and Reason. First
published in Spanish by the Reverend Father John Castanoza, afterwards put
into the Latin, Italian, German, French, and English Languages. With
numerous Engravings. 12mo. at Paris, 1652.

Choice Emblems, Natural, Historical, Fabulous, Moral, and Divine. 12mo.
Lond. 1772.

Colman (W.). La Dance Machabre, or Death's Duell, by W. C. With engraved
Frontispiece by Cecil, and Plate. 8vo. Lond. 163 - .

Compendious Emblematist; or Writing and Drawing made easy. With many
Plates. 4to. Lond.

Emblems Divine, Moral, Natural, and Historical, Expressed in Sculpture, and
applied to the several Ages, Occasions, and Conditions of the Life of Man.
By a Person of Quality. With Woodcut Engravings and Metrical Illustrations.
8vo. Lond. 1673. Printed by J. C. for Will. Miller.

Emblems for the Entertainment and Improvement of Youth, with Explanations,
on 62 Copper Plates. White Knights. 8vo. n. d., Part I.

Emblems of Mortality. With Holbein's Cuts of the Dance of Death, modernized
and engraved by Bewick. Three Editions. 8vo. Lond. 1789.

Farlie (Robert). Lychnocausia, sive Moralia Facum Emblemata. Lights Morall
Emblems. Kalendarium {471} Humanæ Vitæ. The Kalendar of Man's Life. With
Frontispiece and numerous Woodcuts. 8vo. Lond. 1638.

Fransi (Abrahami). Insignium Armorum Emblematum Hieroglyphicorum et
Symbolorum Explicatio. No Plates. 4to. Lond. 1588.

G. (H.). The Mirrour of Majestie: or the Badges of Honour conceitedly
emblazoned. With Emblems annexed. 4to. 1618. [This is the rarest of the
English series; only two copies known, one perfect _penes_ me, and another

Gent (Thomas). Divine Entertainments; of Penitential Desires, Sighs, and
Groans of the Wounded Soul. In Two Books, adorned with suitable Cuts. In
Verse. With numerous Woodcuts. 12mo. Lond. 1724.

Hall (John). Emblems, with elegant Figures newly published. Sparkles of
Divine Love. Engraved Frontispiece and Plates. 12mo. Lond. 1648.

Heywood (Thomas). Pleasant Dialogues and Dramas, selected out of Lucian,
&c. With sundry Emblems, extracted from the most elegant Iacobus Catsius,
&c. 8vo. Lond. 1637. No Plates.

Jenner (Thomas). The Soules Solace; or Thirtie and one Spirituall Emblems.
With Plates on Copper, and Verses. 4to. Lond. 1631.

- - The Ages of Sin, of Sinnes Birth and Growth. With the Steppes and
Degrees of Sin, from Thought to finall Impenitence. Nine leaves containing
nine emblematical engravings, each with six metrical lines beneath. 4to. No
printer's name, place, or date.

- - A Work for none but Angels and Men, that is, to be able to look into,
and to know themselves, &c. It contains eight Engravings emblematic of the
Senses, and is in fact Sir John Davis's poem on the Immortality of the Soul
turned into prose. 4to. Lond. 1650. Printed by M. S. for Thomas Jenner.

- - Wonderful and Strange Punishments inflicted on the Breakers of the Ten
Commandments. With curious Plates. 4to. Lond. 1650.

Montenay (Georgette de). A Booke of Armes, or Remembrance: wherein are a
hundred Godly Emblemata; first invented and elaborated in the French
Tongue, but now in severall Languages. With Plates. 8vo. Franckfort. 1619.

Murray (Rev. T. B.). An Alphabet of Emblems. With neatly executed Woodcuts.
12mo. Lond. 1844.

Peacham (Henry). Minerva Britannia, or, A Garden of Heroickall Devises,
furnished and adorned with Emblemes and Impressas, &c. Numerous Woodcuts.
4to. Lond. n. d. (1612.)

Protestant's (The) Vade Mecum, or Popery Displayed in its proper Colours,
in Thirty Emblems, lively representing all the Jesuitical Plots against
this Nation. With thirty engraved Emblems on copper. 8vo. Lond. 1680.
Printed for Daniel Brown.

Quarles (Francis). Emblemes by Fra. Quarles. The First Edition. With Plates
by W. Marshall and others. Rare. 8vo. Lond. 1635. Printed by G. M. at John

- - Hieroglyphickes of the Life of Man, by Fra. Quarles. In a Series of
engraved Emblems on Copper by Will. Marshall. With Verses. 8vo. Lond. 1638.
Printed by M. Flesher.

Richardson (George). Iconology; or a Collection of Emblematical Figures,
Moral and Instructive. In Two Volumes. With Plates. 4to. Lond. 1777-79.

Riley (George). Emblems for Youth. Reprinted in 1775, and again in 1779.
12mo. Lond. 1772.

Ripa (Cæsar). Iconologia; or Morall Emblems. Wherein are express'd various
Images of Virtues, Vices, &c. Illustrated with 326 Human Figures engraved
on Copper. By the care and charge of P. Tempest. 4to. Lond. 1709.

S. (P.) The Heroical Devises of M. Claudius Paradin, Canon of Beauvieu.
Whereunto are added the Lord Gabriel Symons and others. Translated out of
Latin into English by P. S. With Woodcuts. 16mo. Lond. 1591. Imprinted by
William Kearney.

Stirry (Thomas). A Rot among the Bishops, or a terrible Tempest in the Sea
of Canterbury, a Poem with lively Emblems. A Satire against Archbishop
Laud. With Four Wood Engravings. Rare. 8vo. Lond. 1641.

Thurston (J.). Religious Emblems; being a Series of Engravings on Wood,
from the Designs of J. Thurston, with Descriptions by the Rev. J. Thomas.
4to. Lond. 1810.

Vicars (John). A Sight of y^e Transactions of these latter Yeares
Emblemized with engraven Plates, which men may read without Spectacles.
Collected by John Vicars. With Engravings of Copper. 4to. Lond. n. d., are
to be sould by Thomas Jenner at his shop.

- - Prodigies and Apparitions, or England's Warning Pieces. Being a
seasonable Description by lively figures and apt illustrations of many
remarkable and prodigious forerunners and apparent Predictions of God's
Wrath against England, if not timely prevented by true Repentance. Written
by J. V. With curious Frontispiece and six other Plates. 8vo. Lond. n. d.,
are to bee sould by Tho. Bates.

Whitney (Geoffrey). A Choice of Emblems and other Devises. Englished and
Moralized by Geoffrey Whitney. With numerous Woodcuts. 4to. Leyden, 1586.
Imprinted at Leyden in the house of Christopher, by Grancis Raphalengius.

Willet (Andrew). Sacrorum Emblematum Centuria Una quæ tam ad exemplum aptè
expressa sunt, &c. No Plates. 4to. Cantabr. n. d. (1598.)

Wither (George). A Collection of Emblems, Ancient and Moderne: Quickened
with Metricall Illustrations both Morall and Divine. The Plates, 200 in
number, were engraved by Crispin Pass. Folio, Lond. 1635. Printed by A. M.
for Henry Taunton.

Wynne (John Huddlestone). Choice Emblems for the Improvement of Youth.
Plates. 12mo. Lond. 1772.

[Footnote 1: We must exempt from this sweeping assertion a very interesting
and well-written account of works on this subject, entitled "A Sketch of
that Branch of Literature called Books of Emblems, as it flourished during
the 16th and 17th centuries, by Joseph Brooks Yates, Esq., F.S.A.," of West
Dingle, near Liverpool, the friend of Roscoe, and the worthy and
intelligent President of the Literary and Philosophical Society of
Liverpool, read at their meetings, and of which two parts have already been
printed in their volumes of _Proceedings_. This "Sketch" only requires to
be enlarged and completed, with specimens added of the different styles of
the engravings, to render it everything that is to be desired on the

[Footnote 2: Perhaps this, and the works of Colman and Heywood, are
scarcely to be considered as _Books of Emblems_.]

* * * * *


Of this pamphlet, originally published in 1701, 8vo., under the title of
_Considerations upon the East India Trade_, and afterwards in 1720, 8vo.,
with a new title-page, _The Advantages of the East India Trade to England
considered_, containing {472} 128 pages, inclusive of Preface, the author
never yet been ascertained.

Mr. M^cCulloch accords to it, and very deservedly, the highest praise. He
styles it (_Literature of Political Economy_, p. 100.) "a profound, able,
and most ingenious tract;" and observes that he has "set the powerful
influence of the division of labour in the most striking point of view, and
has illustrated it with a skill and felicity which even Smith has not
surpassed, but by which he most probably profited." Addison's admirable
paper in _The Spectator_ (No. 69.) on the advantages of commerce, is only
an expansion of some of the paragraphs in this pamphlet. In some parts I
think he has scarcely equalled the force of his original. Take, for
instance, the following sentences, which admit of fair comparison:

"We taste the spices of Arabia, yet never feel the scorching sun which
brings them forth; we shine in silks which our hands have never
wrought; we drink of vineyards which we never planted; the treasures of
those mines are ours which we have never digged; we only plough the
deep, and reap the harvest of every country in the world." - _Advantages
of East India Trade_, p. 59.

"Whilst we enjoy the remotest products of the north and south, we are
free from those extremities of weather which give them birth; our eyes
are refreshed with the green fields of Britain, at the same time that
our palates are feasted with fruits that rise between the
tropics." - _Spectator_, No. 69.

Mr. M^cCulloch makes no conjecture as to the probable author of this very
able tract; but it appears to me that it may on good grounds be ascribed to
Henry Martyn, who afterwards - not certainly in accordance with the
enlightened principles he lays down in this pamphlet - took an active part
in opposing the treaty of commerce with France, and was rewarded by the
appointment of Inspector-General of the exports and imports of the customs.
(See an account of him in Ward's _Lives of Gresham Professors_, p. 332.) He
was a contributor to _The Spectator_, and Nos. 180. 200. and 232. have been
attributed to him; and the matter of Sir Andrew Freeport's speculations
appears to have been furnished by him as Addison and Steele's oracle on
trade and commerce. It will be seen that in No. 232. he makes exactly the
same use of Sir William Petty's example of the watch as is done in the
tract (p.69.), and the coincidence seems to point out one common author of
both compositions. But, without placing too much stress on this similarity,
I find, that Collins's _Catalogue_, which was compiled with great care, and
where it mentions the authors of anonymous works may always be relied upon,
attributes this tract to Martyn (Collins's _Cat_. 1730-1, 8vo., Part I.,
No. 3130.). I have a copy of the edition of 1701, in the original binding
and lettering - lettered "Martyn on the East India Trade " - and copies of
the edition of 1720 in two separate collections of tracts; one of which
belonged to A. Chamier, and the other to George Chalmers; in both of which
the name of Martyn is written as its author on the title-page, and in the
latter in Chalmers's handwriting. I think therefore we may conclude that
this tract, which well deserves being more generally known than it is at
present, was written by Henry Martyn.


* * * * *


John Kemble, it is well known, maintained that the latter was the mode of
pronouncing this word in Shakspeare's days. He was right, and he was wrong;
for, as I shall show, both modes prevailed, at least in poetry, till the
end of the seventeenth century. So it was with some other words, _show_ and
_shew_, for instance. It is, perhaps, hardly necessary to observe that the
sounds _k, ch, sh, kh_ (guttural) are commutable. Thus the letter _h_ is
named in Italian, _acca_; in French, _ache_, in English, _aitch_, perhaps
originally _atch_: our _church_ is the Scottish _kirk_, &c. Accordingly, we
meet in Shakspeare _reckless_ and _rechless_, _reeky_ and _reechy_; "As I
could _pike_ (pitch) my lance." (Coriol., Act I. Sc. 1.) Hall has (_Sat_.
vi. 1.) "Lucan _streaked_ (stretched) on his marble bed." So also there
were _like_ and _liche_, and the vulgar _cham_ for _I am_ (_Ic eom_, A.-S.)

Having now to show that both _ake_ and _ache_ were in use, I commence with
the former:

"Like a milch-doe, whose swelling dugs do _ake_,
Hasting to find her fawn hid in some brake."
Shakspeare's _Venus and Adonis_

"By turns now half asleep, now half awake,
My wounds began to smart, my hurt to _ake_."
Fairfax, _Godf. of Bull._, viii, 26.

"Yet, ere she went, her vex'd heart, which did _ake_,
Somewhat to ease, thus to the king she spake."
Drayton, _Barons' Wars_, iii. 75.

"And cramm'd them till their guts did _ake_
With caudle, custard, and plumcake."
_Hudibras_, ii. 2.

The following is rather dubious:

"If chance once in the spring his head should _ach_,
It was foretold: thus says my almanack."
Hall, _Sat._ ii. 7., ed. Singer.

The _aitch_, or rather, as I think, the _atch_ sound, occurs in the
following places:

"_B._ Heigh ho!
_M._ For a hawk, a horse, or a husband?
_B._ For the letter that begins them all, _H_."
_Much Ado about Nothing_, Act III. Sc. 4.

"Their fears of hostile strokes, their _aches_, losses."
_Timon of Athens_, Act V. Sc. 2.

"Yea, fright all _aches_ from your bones."
Jonson, _Fox_, ii. 2.


"Wherefore with mine thou dow thy musick match,
Or hath the crampe thy ionts benom'd with _ache_."
Spenser, _Shep. Cal._, viii. 4.

"Or Gellia wore a velvet mastic-patch
Upon her temples, when no tooth did _ach_."
Hall, _Sat._ vi. 1.

"As no man of his own self catches
The itch, or amorous French _aches_."
_Hudibras_, ii, 2.

"The natural effect of love,
As other flames and _aches_ prove."
_Ib._, iii. 1.

"Can by their pangs and _aches_ find
All turns and changes of the wind."
_Ib._, iii. 2.

These, in Butler, are, I believe, the latest instances of this form of the


* * * * *


When Mr. Kemble published the index to his truly national code of
Anglo-Saxon Charters, he expressly stated that there were many places of
which he was in doubt, and which are indicated by Italics.

It is only by minute local knowledge that many places can be verified, and
with the view of eliciting from others the result of their investigations,
I send you my humble contribution of corrections of places known to myself.

Bemtún, 940. Bampton, Oxon.
Bleódon, 587, 1182. Bleadon, Somerset.
Bóclond, 1050. Buckland, Berks.
Brixges stán, 813. Brixton, Surrey.
Ceomina lacu, 714. Chimney, Oxon.
Ceommenige, 940. Idem.
Cingestún, 1268, 1276, 1277. Kingston Bagpuxe, Berks.
Cingtuninga gemære, 1221. Idem.
Colmenora, 1283. Cumnor, Berks.
Crócgelád, 1305. Cricklade, Wilts.

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