Notes and Queries, Number 20, March 16, 1850 online

. (page 1 of 4)
Online LibraryVariousNotes and Queries, Number 20, March 16, 1850 → online text (page 1 of 4)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

Produced by Jon Ingram, Internet Library of Early Journals,
Jeremy Weatherford, and the Online Distributed Proofreading
Team at



* * * * *

"When found, make a note of." - CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

* * * * *

No. 20.]
[Price Threepence. Stamped Edition 4d.

* * * * *


NOTES: - Page
Alfred's Geography of Europe, by S.W. Singer 313
The First Coffee Houses in England, by E.F.
Rimbault, LL.D. 314
True Tragedy of Richard III. 315
Folk-Lore - Merry Lwyd - Deathbed Superstition 315
Passage in L'Allegro - Milton's Minor Poems 315
Doctor Dobbs - Golden Age of Magazines 316
Use of Beaver Hats in England, by E.F.
Rimbault, LL.D. 317
Extracts from Old Records, by R. Cole 317

Queries on Outline 318
Christ's Hospital - Old Songs once popular there 318
Watching the Sepulchre, &c. 318
Minor Queries: - Conrad of Salisbury - Peruse or
Pervise - Cromlech - Meaning of Grummett - Vertue's
MSS. - Loscop - Ormonde House - As Morse caught
the Mare - Dustpot, Forthlot - Tracts attributed to
Eachard - Queen of Hearts - Guildhalls - Vox
Populi - Use of Coffins - Rococo - Howlet the
Engraver - The Bear, &c. 319

Letter attributed to Sir R. Walpole 321
College Salting 321
Junius 322
White Hart Inn, Scole 323
Parkership, Porkership, Pokership 323
Replies to Minor Queries: - Coleridge's Christabel -
Sir William Rider - God tempers the Wind -
Complutensian Polyglot - Tickhill - Bishop Blaise -
Sangred - Judas Bell - La Mer des Histoires 324

Tale of a Tub - A Genius - Dedications 326

Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c. 326
Notices to Correspondents 326
Advertisements 327

* * * * *


There is no other printed copy of the A.-S. _Orosius_ than the very
imperfect edition of Daines Barrington, which is perhaps the most
striking example of incompetent editorship which could be adduced. The
text was printed from a transcript of a transcript, without much pains
bestowed on collation, as he tells us himself. How much it is to be
lamented that the materials for a more complete edition are diminished
by the disappearance of the _Lauderdale MS._, which, I believe, when Mr.
Kemble wished to consult it, could not be found in the Library at Ham.

Perhaps no more important illustration of the Geography of the Middle
Ages exists than Alfred's very interesting description of the _Geography
of Europe_, and the _Voyages of Othere and Wulfstan_; and this portion
of the _Hormesta_ has received considerable attention from continental
scholars, of which it appears Mr. Hampson is not aware. As long since as
1815 Erasmus Rask (to whom, after Jacob Grimm, Anglo-Saxon students are
most deeply indebted) published in the _Journal of the Scandinavian
Literary Society_ (ii. 106. sq.) the Anglo-Saxon Text, with a Danish
translation, introduction, and notes, in which many of the errors of
Barrington and Forster are pointed out and corrected. This was reprinted
by Rask's son in the _Collection_ he gave of his father's
_Dissertation_, in 2 vols. Copenhagen, 1834.

Mr. Thorpe, in the 2nd edit. of his _Analecta_, has given "Alfred's
Geography," &c., no doubt accurately printed from the Cotton MS., and
has rightly explained _Apdrede_ and _Wylte_ in his Glossary, but does
not mention _Æfeldan_; and Dr. Leo, in his _Sprachproben_, has given a
small portion from Rask, with a few geographical notes. Dr. Ingram says:
"I hope on some future occasion to publish the whole of 'Alfred's
Geography,' accompanied with accurate maps."

Rask has anticipated Mr. Hampson's correction respecting the _Wilti_,
and thus translates the passage: "men norden for Oldsakserne er
Obotriternes Land, og i Nordost Vilterne, som man kalder Æfelder." The
mistake of Barrington and Dr. Ingram is the more extraordinary when it
is recollected that no people are so frequently mentioned in the
chronicles of the Middle Ages as this Sclavonic tribe: citations might
be given out of number, in which their contests with their neighbours
the Obotriti, _Abodriti_, or _Apdrede_ of Alfred are noticed. Why the
Wilti were sometimes called _Æfeldi_ or _Heveldi_, will appear from
their location, as pointed out by Ubbo Emmius: "_Wilsos_, Henetorum
gentem, ad _Havelam_ trans Albim sedes habentem." (Rer. Fris. Hist. l.
iv. p. 67.) Schaffarik remarks, "Die Stoderaner und _Havelaner_ waren
ein und derselbe, nur durch zwei namen interscheiden zweige des
_Weleten_ stammes;" and Albinus says: "Es sein aber die riehten _Wilzen_
Wender sonderlich an der _Havel_ wonhaft." They were frequently
designated by the name of _Lutici_, {314} as appears from Adam of Bremen,
Helmond, and others, and the Sclavonic word _liuti_ signified _wild,
fierce_, &c. Being a _wild_ and contentious people, not easily brought
under the gentle yoke of Christianity, they figure in some of the old
Russian sagas, much as the Jutes do in those of Scandinavia; and it is
remarkable that the names of both should have signified giants or
monsters. Notker, in his Teutonic paraphrase of Martianus Capella,
speaking of other Anthropophagi, relates that the _Wilti_ were not
ashamed to say that they had more right to eat their parents than the
worms.[1] Mone wrote a Dissertation upon the Weleti, which is printed in
the _Anzeigen für Kunde des Mittelalters_, 1834, but with very
inconclusive and erroneous results; some remarks on these Sclavonic
people, and a map, will be found in Count Ossolinski's _Vincent
Kadlubek_, Warsaw, 1822; and in Count Potocki's _Fragments Histor. sur
la Scythie, la Sarmatie, et les Slaves_, Brunsw., 1796, &c. 4 vols.
4to.; who has also printed Wulfstan's _Voyage_, with a French
translation. The recent works of Zeuss, of Schaffarik, and above all the
_Geschichte der Deutschen Sprache_, of Jacob Grimm, throw much light on
the subject.

On the names _Horithi_ and _Mægtha Land_ Rask has a long note, in which
he states the different opinions that have been advanced; his own
conclusions differ from Mr. Hampson's suggestion. He assigns reasons
for thinking that the initial _H_ in _Horithi_ should be _P_, and that
we should read _Porithi_ for _Porizzi_, the old name for _Prussians_.
Some imagined that _Mægtha Land_ was identical with _Cwen Land_, with
reference to the fabulous Northern Amazons; but Alfred has placed
Cwenland in another locality; and Rask conjectures that _Mægth_
signifies here _provincia, natio gens_, and that it stood for
_Gardariki_, of which it appears to be a direct translation.

It appears to me that the _Horiti_ of Alfred are undoubtedly the
_Croati_, or _Chrowati_, of Pomerania, who still pronounce their name
_Horuati_, the _H_ supplying, as in numerous other instances, the
place of the aspirate _Ch_. Nor does it seem unreasonable to presume
that the _Harudes_ of Cæsar (_De Bell. Gall._ b. i. 31. 37. 51.) were
also _Croats_; for they must have been a numerous and widely spread
race, and are all called _Ch_arudes, [Greek: Aroudes]. The following
passage from the _Annales Fuldensis_, A. 852., will strengthen this
supposition: - "Inde transiens per Angros, _Harudos_, Suabos, et Hosingos
... Thuringiam ingreditur."

Mr. Kemble[2], with his wonted acumen, has not failed to perceive that
our _Coritavi_ derived their name in the same manner; but his derivation
of the word from Hor, _lutum_, Horilit, _lutosus_, is singularly at
issue with Herr Leo's, who derives it from the Bohemian Hora, a
mountain, Horet a mountaineer, and he places the _Horiti_ in the Ober
Lanbitz and part of the Silesian mountains.

Schaffarik again, says that _Mægtha Land_ is, according to its proper
signification, unknown; but that as Adam of Bremen places Amazons on the
Baltic coast, probably from mistaking of the _Mazovians_? it is possible
that _Mægthaland_ has thus arisen. In 1822 Dahlmann (_Forschungen auf
dem Gebiete der Geschichte_, t. i. 422.) gave a German version of King
Alfred's narration, where the passage is also correctly translated; but
as regards the illustration of the names of the people of Sclavonic
race, much yet remains to be done.

It is to be hoped that some competent northern scholar among us may
still remove, what I must consider to be a national reproach - the want
of a correct and well illustrated edition of the _Hormesta_, or at any
rate of this singularly interesting and valuable portion of it.


Feb. 21. 1850.

[Footnote 1: "Aber _Welitabi_, die in Germania sizzent, tie wir _Wilze_
heizen, die ni scáment sih niche ze chedenne, daz sih iro parentes mit
mêrem réhte ézen súlin danne die wurme." Albinus, in his _Meissnische
Chronicle_, says they had their name from their _wolfish_ nature.]

[Footnote 2: _The Saxons in England_, vol. i. p. 9. note.]

* * * * *


As a Supplement to your "NOTES ON COFFEE," I send you the following

Aubrey, in his account of Sir Henry Blount, (MS. in the Bodleian
Library), says of this worthy knight,

"When coffee first came in he was a great upholder of it, and hath
ever since been a constant frequenter of coffee-houses, especially
Mr. Farres at the Rainbowe, by Inner Temple Gate, and lately John's
Coffee-house, in Fuller's Rents. The first coffee-house in London
was in St. Michael's Alley, in Cornhill, opposite to the church,
which was set up by one - - Bowman (coachman to Mr. Hodges, a
Turkey merchant, who putt him upon it) in or about the yeare 1652.
'Twas about 4 yeares before any other was sett up, and that was by
Mr. Farr. Jonathan Paynter, over against to St. Michael's Church,
was the first apprentice to the trade, viz. to Bowman. - Mem. The
Bagneo, in Newgate Street, was built and first opened in Decemb.
1679: built by ... Turkish merchants."

Of this James Farr, Edward Hatton, in his _New View of London_, 1708,
(vol. i. p. 30) says: -

"I find it recorded that one James Farr, a barber, who kept the
coffee-house which is now the Rainbow, by the Inner Temple Gate,
(one of the first in England), was in the year 1657, prosecuted by
the inquest of St. Dunstan's in the West, for making and selling a
sort of liquor called coffee, as a great nuisance and prejudice to
the neighbourhood, &c., and who would then have thought London
would ever have had near three thousand such nuisances, and that
coffee would have been, as now, so much drank by the best of
quality and physicians." {315}

Howel, in noticing Sir Henry Blount's _Organon Salutis_, 1659, observes
that -

"This coffe-drink hath caused a great sobriety among all nations:
formerly apprentices, clerks, &c., used to take their morning
draughts in ale, beer, or wine, which often made them unfit for
business. Now they play the good-fellows in this wakeful and civil
drink. The worthy gentleman, Sir James Muddiford, who introduced
the practice hereof first in London, deserves much respect of the
whole nation."

From these extracts it appears that the use of this berry was introduced
by other Turkey merchants besides Edwards and his servant Pasqua.

Anthony Wood in his _Diary_, records, under the year 1654, that -

"Coffey, which had been drank by some persons in Oxon. 1650, was
this yeare publickly sold at or neare the Angel, within the Easte
Gate of Oxon., as also chocolate, by an outlander or Jew."

And in another place he says -

"This yeere Jacob a Jew opened a Coffey-house at the Angel, in the
parish of St. Peter in the East, Oxon., and there it was by some,
who delighted in noveltie, drank. When he left Oxon. he sold it in
Old Southampton Buildings in Holborne, near London, and was living
there 1671."


* * * * *


In _The True Tragedy of Richard the Third_, the following passage -

"His treacherous father hath neglect his word,
And done imparshall past by dint of sword."

is considered by Mr. Baron Field as unintelligible. It seems to me that
the correction of it is obvious, and the explanation probable, though
not exactly fitting what had been said before, which is merely that Lord
Stanley had refused to come to Richard, not that he had actually joined
Richmond, much less fought for him. I read -

"And dome imparshall;"

_i.e._ and _doom impartial_, and interpret, "pass'd upon himself impartial
judgment," or rather on his son, as is said just before: -

"The father's fact condemns the son to die."

It is possible that doom by dint of sword may mean, to be executed by
dint of sword; that is, on the son. The _doom_ in the Scotch court, in
the _Heart of Mid Lothian_, is not the verdict, but the punishment.

Immediately before, we have this passage, also described as
unintelligible: -

"_King._ Did not your selves, in presence, see the bondes sealde
and assignde?

"_Lo._ What tho my lord, the _vardits own_, the titles doth resign.

"_King._ The bond is broke, and I will sue the fine."

I see no emendation for this but the _vardits own_ to mean, "the party
who has the verdict in his favour," and the speech to be a question. The
King tries to persuade himself that there is, _ipso facto_, no room for
forgiveness. Lovel answers, upon the principle of the rule of law, "Qui
vis potest renunciare juri pro se introducto."


* * * * *


_Merry-Lwyd._ - My attention has been called to an inquiry in No. 11. p.
173., as to the origin and etymology of the Merry-Lwyd, still kept up in

I believe that all these mummings may be traced to the disguisings which
formed so popular an amusement in the Middle Ages, and that the name
applied in Wales to this remnant of our ancient pastimes is nothing more
than a compound of our English adjective "merry" and a corruption of the
Latin word "Ludi," which these masquings were formerly termed.

Strutt, in his _Sports and Pastimes_, Book iii. chap. 13., speaks of
Christmas Spectacles in the time of Edward III., as known by the name of
Ludi; and in Warton's _History of English Poetry_, it is said of these
representations that "by the ridiculous and exaggerated oddity of the
Vizors, and by the singularity and splendour of the dresses, every thing
was out of nature and propriety." In Strutt's 16th Plate, specimens will
be found of the whimsical habit and attire in which the mummers were
wont to appear.

My impression that the Merry-Lwyd was by no means a diversion
exclusively Welsh is corroborated by the fact noticed in your Number of
the 23rd of Feb., of its being found to exist in Cheshire. And we know
that many ancient customs lingered in the principality long after they
fell into disuse in England.


Glamorganshire, March 1. 1850.

_Death-bed Superstition._ - When a curate in Exeter I met with the
following superstition, which I do not remember to have seen noticed
before. I had long visited a poor man, who was dying of a very painful
disease, and was daily expecting his death. Upon calling one morning to
see my poor friend, his wife informed me that she thought he would have
died during the night, and consequently she and her friends unfastened
_every lock in the house_. On my inquiring the reason, I was told that
any bolt or lock fastened was supposed to cause uneasiness to, and
hinder the departure of the soul, and consequently upon the approach of
death all the boxes, doors, &c., in the house were unlocked. Can any of
your readers tell me whether this is in any way a general superstition
amongst the lower orders, or is it confined to the West of England?

R.H. {316}

[This remarkable superstition forms the subject of a communication of
the _Athenæum_ (No. 990.) of 17th Oct. 1846: in a comment upon which it
is there stated "that it originates from the belief which formerly
prevailed that the soul flew out of the mouth of the dying in the
likeness of a bird."]

* * * * *


The suggestion of your correspondent B.H.K. (No. 18. p. 286.) has been
anticipated by Mr. Warton, who, in his 1st edition of _Milton's Poems_,
notices a similar interpretation of the passage, as the suggestion of an
unknown correspondent. In the 2nd edition this correspondent is
mentioned to have been Mr. Headley; and the editor discusses the point
in a note of upwards of a page, illustrating it with parallel passages,
and an analysis of the context. As the book is one of ready access, I
need not trouble you with a quotation; but I may mention that Mr.
Gilchrist has added, in a MS. note in my copy, that "Among the poems
appended to those of Lord Surrey and Sir Thomas Wyatt, is one of
considerable elegance in the same measure as those of Milton, nor is it
unlike in its subject: the following lines may throw some light on the
present inquiry (p. 200. ed. 1717): -

'On hills then shewe the ewe and lambe
And every young one with his damme;
Then lovers walke and _tell their tale_
Both of their bliss and of their bale.'"

[The passage is at p. 57. of the 1st vol. of Dr. Nott's edition.]

I am glad of the present opportunity of mentioning, for the benefit of
all whom it may concern, that my copy of the 1st edition of Warton's
_Milton_ is enriched with numerous notes and parallel passages by Mr.
Gilchrist; and a copy of the 2nd edition has been similarly, but less
copiously, illustrated by Mr. Dunston. I shall be glad if my mention of
them should lead to their being made useful - or, if you wish it, I shall
be happy to transcribe the notes for occasional insertion in your

May I be allowed to suggest that similar notifications _to_ intending
editors would have some tendency to do the same good results which may
be expected from the announcements _by_ intending editors suggested by
your correspondent R.R. at p. 243? There must be hundreds of volumes
enriched by the notes of scholars, such as those I have had occasion to
mention, which are dispersed in private libraries, and might, by means
of similar announcements, be made available to the cause of literature.


[We are much indebted to our valued correspondent for the offer he has
so kindly made us of the MS. Notes in question, which we shall gladly
receive; and also for his extremely useful suggestion of the advantage
of such notifications to intending editors, as he describes.]

_Milton's L'Allegro._ - Your correspondent (No. 18. p. 286.) has been
anticipated by Headley, who suggested, long ago, that the word _tale_
here implied the _numbering_ sheep. When Handel composed his beautiful
air, "Let me wander not unseen," he plainly regarded this word in the
more poetical sense. The song breathes the shepherd's tale of _love_
(perhaps addressed to "the milkmaid singing blithe") far more than it
conveys a dull computation of the _number_ of "his fleecy care." Despite
of that excellent commentator, Tom Warton, who adopted Headley's
suggestion, it is to be hoped that readers will continue, though it may
be in error, to understand the line as your correspondent _used_ to do:
an amatory _tête-à-tête_ is surely better suited to "the hawthorn in the
dale," than either mental arithmetic, or the study of Cocker.


* * * * *


It appears from the preface to the last edition of _The Doctor, &c._
that the story of Dr. Daniel Dove and his horse was one well known in
Southey's domestic circle.

A letter is there quoted from Mrs. Southey (then Miss Caroline Bowles),
in which she says: -

"There is a story of Dr. D.D. of D. and of his horse Nobs, which
has I believe been made into a Hawker's Book. Coleridge used to
tell it, and the humour lay in making it as long-winded as
possible; it suited, however, my long-windedness better than his,
and I was frequently called upon for it by those who enjoyed it,
and sometimes I volunteered it, when Coleridge protested against
its being told."

While upon the subject of _The Doctor_, may I direct your attention to
the following passage on p. 269. of the one volume edition, which you
will admit in many respects accurately describes your "NOTES AND

"Our Doctor flourished in the golden age of magazines, when their
pages were filled with voluntary contributions from men who never
aimed at dazzling the public, but each came with his scrap of
information or his humble question, or his hard problem, or his
attempt in verse.

"In those days A was an antiquary, and wrote articles upon altars
and abbeys, and architecture. B made a blunder, which C corrected.
D demonstrated that E was in error, and that F was wrong in
philology, and neither philosopher nor physician, though he
affected to be both. G was a genealogist. H was an herald who
helped him. I was an inquisitive inquirer who found reason for
suspecting J to be a Jesuit. M was a mathematician. N noted the
weather. O observed the stars. P was a poet who peddled in
pastorals, {317} and prayed Mr. Urban to print them. Q came in the
corner of the page with his query. R arrogated to himself the right
of reprehending every one who differed from him. S sighed and sued
in song. T told an old tale, and when he was wrong, U used to set
him right. V was a virtuoso. W warred against Warburton. X excelled
in algebra. Y yearned for immortality in rhyme, and Z in his zeal
was always in a puzzle."

Surely, Sir, you have revived the Golden Age of magazines, and long may
you flourish.


* * * * *


The notice from Fairholt's _Costume in England_, concerning the earliest
use of a beaver hat in England, is not very satisfactory. Beaver hats
were certainly used in this country long before Stubbes's time. They
were originally, like many other articles of dress, manufactured abroad,
and imported here. Indeed, this was a great source of complaint by the
English artizan until a comparatively late period. The author of _A
Brief Discourse of English Poesy_, n.d. (temp. Eliz.) says: -

"I merveil no man taketh heed to it, what number of trifles come
hither from beyond the seas, that we might clean spare, or else
make them within our realme. For the which we either pay
inestimable treasure every year, or else exchange substantial wares
and necessaries for them, for the which we might receive great

"The _beaver_ or felt hats (says J.H. Burn, in his interesting
_History of the Foreign Refugees_, p. 257.) worn in the reign of
Edward III., and for a long time afterwards, were made in Flanders.
The refugees in Norfolk introduced the manufacture of felts and
thrummed hats into that country; and by a statute of 5 and 6 Edward
VI., that trade was confined to Norwich, and all other corporate
and market towns in the country."

"About that time (says a _History of Trade_, published in 1702) we
suffered a great herd of French tradesmen to come in, and
particularly hat-makers, who brought with them the fashion of
making a slight, coarse, mean commodity, viz. felt hats, now called
_Carolinas_; a very inferior article to beavers and demicastors,
the former of which then sold at from 24s. to 48s. a piece."

In the _Privy-Purse Expenses of Henry VIII._, we read, under the date

1 3 4

Online LibraryVariousNotes and Queries, Number 20, March 16, 1850 → online text (page 1 of 4)