Notes and Queries, Number 235, April 29, 1854 online

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Form and Thanksgiving for Victories in the Sutledge. 1846.

Form and Thanksgiving, for Delivery of the Queen, and Birth of a
Princess. 1846.

Form for Relief from Dearth and Scarcity. 1846.

Form for Removal of Dearth and Scarcity. Fast. 1847.

Form and Thanksgiving for abundant Harvest. 1847.

Form and Thanksgiving for Delivery of the Queen, and Birth of a
Princess. 1848.

Form for Maintenance of Peace and Tranquillity. 1848.

Form for Removal of Disease. 1849.

Form and Thanksgiving for Removal of Disease. 1849.

Form and Thanksgiving for Delivery of the Queen, and Birth of a Prince.


* * * * *


_Photographic Query._ - Given the diameter and focal length of a simple
achromatic lens; at what distance from it must a diaphragm of given
diameter be placed to give the best possible image?


_Improvement in Collodion._ - As there are many photographers who are not
members of the Photographic Society, and who do not see the journal
published by that body, a statement of what I think will be found a very
material improvement in the manufacture of collodion may not be
unacceptable to the readers of "N. & Q." To five drachms of pure _washed_
ether, add one drachm alcohol 60° over proof, and dissolve therein
sufficient soluble cotton to make it of the consistence of oil (the exact
quantity must depend rather upon the dexterity of the operator, as the
thicker it is the more difficult to use) then add twenty minims of
chloroform, dropping in the latter, which will fall to the bottom, but is
readily dissolved on shaking the mixture for a few minutes.

To two drachms of the same alcohol add the iodizing material preferred, and
mix with the other ingredients.

The above will be found to flow very evenly smoothly over the plate; is
tough, intense, and _structureless_ in appearance. I have not yet
determined what is the best iodizing mixture, but at present I prefer
iodide of potassium _alone_, if pure, and twenty grains to the ounce of
alcohol is the proportion I generally adopt; thus having five grains in
each ounce of collodion.

Lastly, as regards the soluble cotton, I cannot find any better material
than that produced according to the formula published by Mr. Hadow, in the
March Number of the _Photographic Journal_, thus: "Take of nit. potash,
five parts; sulphuric acid, ten parts; water, one part; _all by weight_.
Add the water to the nitrate of potash, and then the acid, and immediately
immerse as much cotton wool as can be thoroughly saturated by the mixture,
leaving it in for _at least_ ten minutes, and wash with a great abundance
of water. The object of adding the cotton immediately that the acid has
been mixed with the nitrate of potash, is to expose it to the action of the
chemicals while they are at a temperature of from 120° to 130°. For farther
particulars on this head, I must refer to Mr. Hadow's paper.


[This application is not a novelty to us: DR. DIAMOND has for some time
added a small portion of his amber varnish (which is prepared from
chloroform) to his collodion, and with satisfactory results. It is a
pity that so admirable a varnish is not to be procured at the
generality of photographic warehouses. We have never yet been able to
procure any which will bear comparison with some which DR. DIAMOND was
good enough to prepare for us. - ED. "N. & Q."]

_Printing Positives._ - I will venture to assure AMATEUR that, - if he will
follow DR. DIAMOND'S formula for albumenizing Canson paper, either positive
or negative, viz.,

Chloride of sodium (salt) 5 grs.
Chloride of ammonium 5 grs.
Water 1 oz.
Albumen, or the white of one egg, which
is near enough for the purpose 1 oz.

and will excite this paper by floating it for about two minutes on a
solution of nitrate of silver twenty grains to the ounce, distilled
water, - provided his chemicals are good, he will obtain perfectly
satisfactory results.

Let his fixing bath be a saturated solution of hypo. soda, and if newly
made let him, as recommended by DR. DIAMOND, add 40 grains of chloride of
silver to every 8 ounces of the solution. The addition of a grain of sel
d'or to every 8 ounces of solution will greatly improve the tones of
colour; and if, after some {407} time, the positives become more of a brown
tint than he likes, let him add a small quantity of sel d'or, half a grain
to a bath of from 12 to 16 ounces, and he will find the dark tints

I inclose a copy of the print of "Horse-shoeing," obtained precisely by the
method described. It is rather overprinted; but if AMATEUR will give you
his address, and you will forward it to him, it will show him what tones of
colour and depth may be procured by following the foregoing directions.

C. E. F.

_Photographic Excursions._ - A few Fellows of the Society of Antiquaries
have formed themselves into a Photographic Club for the purpose of making
periodical excursions into the country, and so securing accurate views of
the objects of antiquarian interest in the different localities they may
visit. As it is intended that a copy of every photograph so taken shall be
deposited in the portfolios of the Society, the advantages likely to result
from this little reunion, both to the Society of Antiquaries and to
Archæology generally, are very obvious.

* * * * *

Replies to Minor Queries.

"_To Garble_" (Vol. ix., pp. 243. 359.). - I venture, with deference, to
express a doubt as to whether E. S. T. T. has correctly defined either the
former or the present meaning of the verb _to garble_, when he says "it
meant a selection of the good and the discarding of the bad parts of
anything: its present meaning is exactly the reverse of this." The statutes
referred to by your correspondent, the first enacting that no bow staves
shall be sold ungarbled, and the second imposing a penalty on the sale of
spices and drugs not garbled, appear to me to indicate the former meaning
of the word to have been the selection (picking out) of the _bad_ and the
discarding of it. Experience shows that in all operations, involving the
separation of objects worthless and of value, such as weeding, sifting, and
winnowing, the former is removed from the latter and discarded. This view
of the case seems to be supported by the fact of the dust and dross sifted
from spices being called "garbles." The weeder removes weeds from flowers
or plants, the garbler removes garbles from spices and bad bow staves from
amongst good ones. Richardson's _Dictionary_ contains the following notes
under the head _Garble_:

"Fr. _Grabeler_; It. _Garbellare_. Cotgrave says, Grabeller, to garble
spices, &c., (and hence) also to examine precisely, sift nearly, look
narrowly, search curiously into."

After giving some examples of its use, Richardson says:

"As usually applied in England, to garble is to pick out, sift out what
may serve a particular purpose, and thus destroy or mutilate the fair
character of the whole."

To go no farther, the reports of the parliamentary debates, when a "Blue
Book" happens to furnish matter for discussion, amply confirm Richardson's
definition, that _to garble_ is to pick out what may serve a purpose. In
this sense, however, E. S. T. T. must admit that it would be as much
garbling to quote all the _good_ passages of a work as to quote all the bad
ones. May we not then assume the present meaning of the word _garble_ to be
this - to quote passages with the view of conveying an impression of the
ability or intention of a writer, which is not warranted by the general
scope of the work?


_"Lyra Apostolica_" (Vol. ix., p. 304.). - There is, I believe, a slight
inaccuracy in the rotation of the names given at the above page as the
writers in the _Lyra Apostolica_. They go in alphabetical order, thus
[alpha], Bowden; [beta], Froude; [gamma], Keble; [delta], Newman;
[epsilon], Wilberforce; [zeta], Williams.

B. R. A. Y.

The poems signed [zeta]. were written by _Williams_, not by _Wilberforce_.

Can you explain the meaning of the motto on the title-page -

"[Greek: Gnoien d', hôs dê dêron egô polemoio pepaumai]"?

M. D.

[This motto is from Homer, _Iliad_, xviii. 125. Its literal translation
is, They (the enemy) shall know that it was I who have long kept away
from the war," and, by implication, that I have now returned to it;
even I, the great hero Achilles; for he is the taunting speaker. Had it
not been for my absence, he intimates, the Trojans had not gained so
many and great victories. We must leave our correspondent to apply this
Homeric verse to the Protestant dark ages of the Georgian era, and to
the theological movement of 1833.]

_John Bale, Bishop of Ossory_ (Vol. ix., p. 324.). - A catalogue, professing
to be a complete one, of this over-ardent reformer's voluminous works, with
a portrait, may be seen in Holland's _Heroölogia Anglica_, fol. 165-7.
There are some curious notices concerning him in Blomefield's _History of
Norwich_ (fol. 1741), pp. 154, 155, 794., where reference is also made to
his brother Robert as a learned man and great writer.



_Burial in an erect Posture_ (Vol. viii., pp. 5. 59. 233. 455. 630.; Vol.
ix., p. 279.). - How strange it is that all of us should have forgotten
Charlemagne. When his tomb at Aix-la-Chapelle was opened by the Emperor
Frederic Barbarossa in 1165, "he found the body of Charlemagne, not
reclining in his coffin, as is the usual fashion of the dead, but seated in
his throne, as one alive, clothed in the imperial robes, bearing the
sceptre in his hand, and on his knees a copy of the gospels." (See Murray's
{408} _Handbook to Belgium_.) The throne in which the body was seated, the
sarcophagus (of Parian marble, the work of Roman or Greek artists,
ornamented with a fine bas-relief of the Rape of Proserpine) in which the
feet of the dead king were placed, are still preserved in the cathedral,
where I saw them last year, together with some portions of the robes, and
some curious ancient embroidery: these last are not usually exhibited to


"_Carronade_" (Vol. ix., p. 246.). - "The folk story," as to the derivation
of this word (if such a comparatively modern invention deserves such an
epithet, for the Carron works, I believe, did not exist a hundred years
ago) is quite correct. This gun is said to have been invented in Ireland by
General Melville; but having been perfected at Carron, it thence took its

Landmann (no mean authority at the beginning of this century), in his
_Questions and Answers on Artillery_, says: "The carronade takes its name
from being first made at Carron."


"_Largesse_" (Vol. v., p. 557.; Vol. ix., p. 209.). - The use of this word
is not confined to Essex and Northamptonshire, but extends also to Norfolk.
It is met with in many parishes in the western division of Norfolk: where,
at the time of harvest, after accompanying the last load of corn home with
the procession of the "Harvest Lady," it is customary that the labourers on
the several farms should go round their respective parishes, and collect
various sums of money, under the name of _largesse_, at the houses of the
chief inhabitants, whether lay or clerical. Few were to be met with who
refused this species of "black mail" thus levied on them; doubtless
regarding it as one out of many means of testifying their thankfulness to
the "Lord of the Harvest" for "filling their mouth with good things," and
giving them an abundance of "corn and wine and oil."


This word is of common occurrence in Suffolk during the shooting season,
where sportsmen are affrays greeted with it, for a donation, by the
labourers on the land where game is sought for.

N. L. J.

_Precious Stones_ (Vol. viii., p. 539.; Vol. ix., pp. 37. 88. 284.). - As
the titles of so many works on this subject have been already given in your
pages, perhaps I may be of some service to your correspondents in farther
completing the list, and referring them to the following in my own

On the Origin of Gems, by the Hon. Robert Boyle: London, 12mo.

The Mirror of Stones, in which the Nature, Generation, &c., of more
than 200 Jewels, &c., are distinctly described by Camillus Leonardus,
12mo.: London, 1750.

A Treatise on Diamonds and Pearls, by David Jeffries, 2nd edit., 8vo.:
London, 1751. [This work, which was very scarce, has been recently
reprinted by E. Lumley for 6s.]

Traité des Pierres précieuses et des Pierres fines, par L. Dutens,
12mo.: London, Paris, and Florence. [Reprinted, with additions, in "Les
Oeuvres Mélés de Dutens:" Génève, 8vo., 1784.]

A Treatise on Diamonds and Precious Stones, by John Mawe, 2nd edit.:
London, 8vo., 1823.

A Memoir of the Diamond, by John Murray, F.S.A., &c., 12mo.: London,

Besides these may be consulted, the treatise of Gemma, _Delle Gemme
pretiose_, 2 vols. 4to., a ponderous map of obsolete puerilities; the
_Minéralogie_ of M. de Bomare; the _Crystallographie_ of M. Romé Delisle;
the essay of Wallerius, _De Lapidum Origine_; the learned researches of
Bergman, _Sur les Pierres précieuses_, &c.

I may add, that a practical work on the nature and value of precious
stones, comprehending the opinions and superstitions of the ancients
respecting them, together with an essay upon engraved gems, an account of
celebrated collections and specimens, &c., is much wanted, and would
probably be well received.



"_A Pinch of Snuff_" (Vol. vi., p. 431.; Vol. vii., p. 268.). - This work is
correctly attributed to Benson E. Hill, Esq. The companion volume, _A Paper
of Tobacco_, of which F. R. A. speaks in just terms of commendation, was
the production of Mr. W. A. Chatto, the ingenious author of a _History of
Playing Cards_, &c. His son, Mr. Thomas Chatto, from whom I received this
information, is a bookseller, at No. 25. Museum Street, Bloomsbury: where I
hope his civility, and anxiety to serve his visitors, will ensure the
success he merits.



_Darwin on Steam_ (Vol. ix., p. 271.). - The lines in question are not cited
quite correctly by UNEDA. They run as follows:

"Soon shall thy arm, unconquer'd Steam, afar
Drag the slow barge, or drive the rapid car;
Or on wide-waving wings expanded bear,
The flying-chariot through the fields of air."

They occur in the First Part of the _Botanic Garden_, p. 29., 2nd edit.,
4to., London, 1791.

L. (1)

[We are also indebted to J. K. R. W. and other correspondents for
similar replies.]

_Gale of Rent_ (Vol. viii., pp. 563. 655.). - The word _gale_ is used in the
west of Philadelphia in the sense of an instalment. Thus, if land is {409}
bought to be paid for in annual sums, one of these is called a yearly gale.
I have supposed, I cannot now say why, that this was an Irish expression.


_Cobb Family_ (Vol. ix., p. 272). - I have much reason to believe that MR.
ARTHUR PAGET will find a clue to his inquiries in the following particulars
extracted from documents in my possession. The estate of St. Katharine's
Hall, or St. Kattern's, near Bath, belonged to the family of Blanchard; and
in 1748 the property passed to the family of Parry of St. Kattern's by
marriage with the heiress of the Blanchards, who is thus described:

"Thomas Parry, and Querinah his wife, niece and heiress-at-law of
William Blanchard, who was only son and heir of Henry Blanchard, and
Querinah his wife," [only child of John Curle, Esq.].

In 1795 Thomas Parry devised the estate to his son John Parry, who was the
rector of Sturmer, co. Essex; and by his will [May, 1797] his property went
to his sisters, Elizabeth Knight, Querinah Cobb, and Hannah Parry.
Elizabeth married, Aug. 1781, Henry Knight of Lansdown, near Bath. Querinah
married, Nov. 1781, William Milles Cobb, of Ringwood, gentleman, third son
of Christopher Cobb, merchant, and Sarah his wife.

I have in my possession some portraits of the Blanchard, Curle, and Parry
families; two by Sir Peter Lely, which may afford MR. PAGET farther
evidence of the consanguinity of Richard Cobb, Esq., and the Cobbs of



On the principle that every little helps, and out of gratitude for
CRANMORE'S assistance in the Milton-Minshull controversy, I would offer the
following suggestions, which may haply serve as finger-posts to direct him
on his way. William Cobb, Esq., of Adderbury, Oxon, immediate ancestor of
the baronets of that name and place, derived from the Cobbs of Sandringham,
in the hundred of Freebridge, Norfolk. Blomefield's _History_ of the latter
county might be consulted with advantage. The Cobbs of Adderbury bore
"Sable, a chevron argent between three dolphins naiant embowed or, a chief
of the last." Randle Holme, in his _Academy of Armory_, 1688, gives the
following as the arms of Cobb, - "Per chevron sable and gules, two swans
respecting each other and a herring cobb argent." Thomas Cobb, of
Otterington, Yorkshire, a loyal subject of King Charles I., compounded for
his estates in the sum of 472l. There is a brass in Sharnbrook Church,
Bedfordshire, commemorating William Cobbe, who died in 1522, Alice his
wife, a son Thomas, and other children.



"_Aches_" (Vol. ix., p. 351.). - I am not aware of any rhyme which fixes the
pronunciation of _aches_ in the time of Shakspeare, but I think the
following quite as decisive:

"_Of the Fallacie in the Accent or Pronunciation._ - The fallacie of the
accent is, when a false thing is affirmed under colour of pronouncing
it as another thing that is true. For example:

'Where no _ache_ is, there needs no salve;
In the gout there is no H,
Therefore, in the gout, there needs no salve.'"

_The Elements of Logicke_, by Peter Dumoulin. Translated out of the
French copie by Nathanael De-Lawne, with the Author's approbation:
London, 1624, 24mo.

"_Anthony._ Thou bleedest apace.
_Scarus._ I had a wound here that was like a T;
But now 'tis made an H."
_Ant. and Cleop._, Act IV. Sc. 7.

See also on the "aitch" question, _Letters of an Irish Student_, vol. i. p.
256., London, 1812; and _The Parlour Window_, by the Rev. Edward Mangin, p.
146., London, 1841.

H. B. C.

U. U. Club.

"_Meols_" (Vol. vii., pp. 208. 298.). - There is an extensive parish called
North _Meols_ (the favourite watering-place of Southport being within it)
in the sandy district to the south of the estuary of the Ribble, in


_Polygamy_ (Vol. ix., p. 246.). - The practice of monogamy had been
established among the Jews before the Christian era, as is shown by various
expressions in the New Testament; but their law (like that of other
oriental nations) still permitted polygamy, and they were expressly
prohibited by an enactment of the Emperor Theodosius, of the year 393, from
marrying several wives at the same time (Cod. 1. 9. 7.); so that the
practice was not then extinct among them. Monogamy was the law and practice
of all the Greek and Italian communities, so far back as our accounts
reach. There is no trace of polygamy in Homer. Even in the incestuous
marriages supposed by him in the mythical family of Æolus, the monogamic
rule is observed, _Odyssey_, x. 7. The Roman law recognised monogamy alone,
and hence polygamy was prohibited in the entire Roman empire. It thus
became practically the rule of Christians, and was engrafted into the canon
law of the Eastern and Western Churches.


_Wafers_ (Vol. ix., p. 376.). - I have in my possession a volume of original
Italian letters, addressed to a Venetian physician (who appears to have
been eminent in his profession), Michael Angelo Rota, written during the
early part of the seventeenth century. Many of these letters have been
sealed with red wafers, still adhering to the {410} paper, and precisely
similar to those now in use. The earliest of the letters which I have found
sealed is dated April, 1607, which is seventeen years earlier than the
earliest known instance, mentioned by Beckmann (_History of Inventions_,
Bohn's edit., vol. i. p. 146.), of a letter sealed with a wafer.



I have before me a reprieve from the Council, dated in 1599, sealed with a
wafer, and am certain that I have earlier instances, had I time at this
moment to look them up.

L. B. L.

* * * * *



The Northern Antiquaries set their brethren in this country a noble
example. Every year sees one or more of them engaged in the production of
carefully-edited volumes of early Scandinavian history. We have now to
record the publication, by Professor Munch, of the old Norse text of _Kong
Olaf Tryggvesön's Saga_ from a MS. in the Library at Stockholm which has
not hitherto been made use of; and also, by the same gentleman, in
conjunction with his friend Professor Unger, of an edition of the _Saga
Olafs Konungs ens Helga_, from the earliest MS. in the library at
Stockholm. Each work is introduced by a preface of great learning, and
illustrated by a large body of valuable notes.

Those who have shared our regret, that the brilliant notices of books which
occasionally appear in the columns of _The Times_ should be presented in a
form which scarcely admits of their being preserved, and also our
satisfaction when Mr. Murray put forth his selection from them under the
title of _Essays from the Times_, will be glad that the same publisher has
issued in his _Railway Reading_ a Second Series of them, comprising
fourteen articles.

We may remind all lovers of beautiful illustrations of Mediæval Art, that
Messrs. Sotheby and Wilkinson will sell by auction on Monday next the
entire stock of the magnificent publications of Mr. Henry Shaw, F.S.A.,
whose _Dresses and Decorations of the Middle Ages_ are a type of the whole.
Such an opportunity of securing copies at a reasonable rate will never
occur again. While on the subject of sales, we may mention that Messrs.
Puttick and Simpson announce a sale of _Photographs_. This is the first
instance; but we may be sure, with the growing taste for these accurate
and, in many cases, also artistic transcripts of nature, every season will
see many similar sales.

At the anniversary of the Society of Antiquaries on Monday last, Admiral
Smyth moved a vote of thanks to MR. BRUCE, on his retirement from the
Treasurership, for his zeal and indefatigable exertions in that office. The
manner in which the gallant Admiral's remarks were received showed, first,
that the reforms advocated by Mr. Bruce now meet the general approval of
the Society; and secondly, that the warmth of feeling which they had called
forth on both sides has entirely disappeared.

BOOKS RECEIVED. - _Condé's History of the Arabs in Spain, translated from
the Spanish_, by Mrs. Jonathan Foster, in three volumes, Vol. I. Mr. Bohn
deserves the best thanks of all lovers of history for this English
translation - the first which has ever been made - of the admirable work of
Condé. It is one of the most important volumes which he has published in
his _Standard Library. - The Diary and Letters of Madame D'Arblay_, Vol. II.
The second volume of this amusing, gossiping, and egotistical work,
comprises the period 1781-1786. - _Pantomime Budgets, &c._, a clever
pamphlet in favour of prepaid taxation. - _John Penry, the Pilgrim Martyr_,
1559-1593, by John Waddington. A violent anti-church biography of Penry,
whose share in the Marprelate Controversy Mr. Waddington disbelieves on
very insufficient grounds.

* * * * *


LINGARD'S ENGLAND. Foolscap 8vo. 1844. Vols. I. to V., and X. and XI.

THE WORKS OF DR. JONATHAN SWIFT. London, printed for C. Bathurst, in Fleet
Street, 1768. Vol. VII. (Vol. VI. ending with "Verses on the Death of Dr.
Swift," written in Nov. 1731.)

BYRON'S WORKS. Vol. VI. of Murray's Edition. 1829.

The Volume of the LONDON POLYGLOTT which contains the Prophets.
Imperfection in other parts of no consequence.


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Online LibraryVariousNotes and Queries, Number 235, April 29, 1854 → online text (page 5 of 6)