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SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT NO. 303




NEW YORK, OCTOBER 22, 1881

Scientific American Supplement. Vol. XII, No. 303.

Scientific American established 1845

Scientific American Supplement, $5 a year.

Scientific American and Supplement, $7 a year.


* * * * *

TABLE OF CONTENTS

I. ENGINEERING AND MECHANICS. - New Eighty-ton Steam Hammer at the Saint
Chamond Works, France. - 7 figures. - Elevation of hammer. - Profile -
Transverse section. - Profile view of foundation, etc. - Plan of
plant. - General plan of the forging mill. - Details of truss and
support for the cranes.

Great Steamers. - Comparative details of the Servia, the City of Rome,
the Alaska, and the Great Eastern.

Improved Road Locomotive. - 2 figures. - Side and end views

American Milling Methods. By ALBERT HOPPIN. - Ten years' progress. - Low
milling. - Half high milling. - High milling. - Important paper read
before the Pennsylvania State Millers' Association.

Machine for Dotting Tulles and other Light Fabrics. - 3 figures.

II. TECHNOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY. - The Reproduction and Multiplication of
Negatives. By ERNEST EDWARDS.

A New Method of Making Gelatine Emulsion. By W. K. BURTON.

The Pottery and Porcelain Industries of Japan.

Crystallization Table.

The Principles of Hop Analysis. By Dr. G. O. CECH.

Water Gas. - A description of apparatus for producing cheap gas, and
some notes on the economical effects of using such gas with gas
motors, etc. - By J. EMERSON DOWSON.

On the Fluid Density of Certain Metals. By Professors CHANDLER ROBERTS
and T. WRIGLESON.

III. PHYSICS, ELECTRICITY, ETC. - Electric Power. - The nature and uses of
electricity. - Electricity vs. steam.

On the Method of Obtaining and Measuring Very High Vacua with a
Modified Form of Sprengel Pump. By Prof OGDEN N. ROOD. - 4 figures. -
Apparatus for obtaining vacua of one four hundred-millionth of an
atmosphere - Construction. - Manipulation. - Calculations. - Results

IV. ART, ARCHITECTURE, ETC. - Old Wrought Iron Gates, Guildhall.
Worcester, England. 1 figure.

The French Crystal Palace, Park of St. Cloud, Paris. 1 full page
illustration.

Suggestions in Architecture. A Castellated Chateau. Perspective and
plan. Chateau in the Ægean Sea.

V. HYGIENE AND MEDICINE. - Hydrophobia Prevented by Vaccination.

On Diptera as Spreaders of Disease. By J. W. SLATER.

On the Relations of Minute Organisms to Certain Specific Diseases.

VI. ASTRONOMY - The Centenary of the Discovery of Uranus. By F. W. DENNING.
2 figures. Approximate place of Uranus among the stars at its
discovery, March l3, 1871. - Orbits of the Uranian Satellites.

VII. BIOLOGY, ETC. - The Varying Susceptibility of Plants and Animals to
Poisons and Disease.

Kind Treatment of Horses.

* * * * *




NEW EIGHTY TON STEAM HAMMER AT THE SAINT CHAMOND WORKS


Ever since the improvements that have been introduced into the
manufacture of steel, and especially into the erection of works for its
production, have made it possible to obtain this metal in very large
masses, it has necessarily been preferred to iron for all pieces of
large dimensions, inasmuch as it possesses in the highest degree that
homogeneousness and resistance which are so difficult to obtain in the
latter metal. It has consequently been found necessary to construct
engines sufficiently powerful to effect the forging of enormous
ingots, as well as special furnaces for heating them and apparatus for
manipulating and transporting them.

The greatest efforts in this direction have been made with a view to
supplying the wants of heavy artillery and of naval constructions;
and to these efforts is metallurgy indebted for the creation of
establishments on a scale that no one would have dared a few years ago
to think of. The forging mill which we are about to describe is one of
those creations which is destined to remain for a long time yet very
rare; and one which is fully able to respond, not only to all present
exigencies, but also, as far as can be foreseen, to all those that may
arise for a long period to come. The mill is constructed as a portion of
the vast works that the Compagnie des Forges et Aciéries de la Marine
own at Saint Chamond, and which embrace likewise a powerful steel works
that furnishes, especially, large ingots exceeding 100 tons in weight.

The mill consists, altogether, of three hammers, located in the same
room, and being of unequal powers in order to respond to different
requirements. The largest of these hammers is of 80 tons weight, and
the other two weigh respectively 35 and 28 tons. Each of them has
a corresponding furnace for heating by gas, as well as cranes for
maneuvering the ingots and the different engines. The general plan view
in Fig. 4 shows the arrangement of the hammers, cranes, and furnaces in
the millhouse.

[Illustration: FIG. A. - ELEVATION OF A HAMMER. FIG. B. - PROFILE VIEW]

The gas generators which supply the gas-furnaces are located out of
doors, as are the steam-generators. The ingots are brought from the
steel factory, and the forged pieces are taken away, by special trucks
running on a system of rails. We shall now give the most important
details in regard to the different parts of the works.

_The Mill-House_ - This consists of a central room, 262 feet long, 98
feet wide, and 68 feet in height, with two lean-to annexes of 16 feet
each, making the total width 100 feet. The structure is wholly of metal,
and is so arranged as to permit of advantage being taken of every foot
of space under cover. For this purpose the system of construction
without tie-beams, known as the "De Dion type," has been adopted. Fig.
1 gives a general view of one of the trusses, and Fig. 5 shows some
further details. The binding-rafters consist of four angle-irons
connected by cross-bars of flat iron. The covering of corrugated
galvanized iron rests directly upon the binding-rafters, the upper parts
of which are covered with wood for the attachment of the corrugated
metal. The spacing of these rafters is calculated according to the
length of the sheets of corrugated iron, thus dispensing with the use of
ordinary rafters, and making a roof which is at once very light and very
durable, and consequently very economical. Rain falling on the roof
flows into leaden gutters, from whence it is carried by leaders into a
subterranean drain. The vertical walls of the structure are likewise of
corrugated iron, and the general aspect of the building is very original
and very satisfactory.

_The 80 Ton Hammer_ - The three hammers, notwithstanding their difference
in power, present similar arrangements, and scarcely vary except in
dimensions. We shall confine ourselves here to a description of the 80
ton apparatus. This consists, in addition to the hammer, properly so
called, of three cranes of 120 tons each, serving to maneuver the pieces
to be forged, and of a fourth of 75 tons for maneuvering the working
implements. These four cranes are arranged symmetrically around the
hammer, and are supported at their upper extremity by metallic stays.
Besides the foregoing there are three gas furnaces for heating the
ingots. Figs. 1, 2, and 3 show the general arrangement of the apparatus.

_Foundations of the Hammer and Composition of the Anvil-Bed_ - To obtain
a foundation for the hammer an excavation was made to a depth of 26 feet
until a bed of solid rock was reached, and upon this there was then
spread a thick layer of beton, and upon this again there was placed a
bed of dressed stones in the part that was to receive the anvil-stock
and hammer.

On this base of dressed stones there was placed a bed formed of logs
of heartwood of oak squaring 16 inches by 3 feet in height, standing
upright, joined together very perfectly, and kept in close juxtaposition
by a double band of iron straps joined by bolts. The object of this
wooden bed was to deaden, in a great measure, the effect of the shock
transmitted by the anvil-stock.

NEW EIGHTY-TON STEAM HAMMER AT THE ST CHAMOND WORKS.

[Illustration: FIG. 1. - TRANSVERSE SECTION.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2. - PLAN.]

[Illustration: FIG. 3. - PROFILE VIEW.]

[Illustration: FIG. 4. - GENERAL PLAN OF THE FORGING MILL.]

[Illustration: FIG. 5. - DETAILS OF THE TRUSSAND SUPPORT FOR THE CRANE.]

_The Anvil-Stock_. - The anvil-stock, which is pyramidal in shape, and
the total weight of which amounts to 500 tons, is composed of superposed
courses, each formed of one or two blocks of cast iron. Each course
and every contact was very carefully planed in order to make sure of
a perfect fitting of the parts; and all the different blocks were
connected by means of mortises, by hot bandaging, and by joints with
key-pieces, in such a way as to effect a perfect solidity of the parts
and to make the whole compact and impossible to get out of shape.

The anvil-stock was afterwards surrounded by a filling-in of masonry
composed of rag-stones and a mortar made of cement and hydraulic lime.
This masonry also forms the foundation for the standards of the hammer,
and is capped with dressed stone to receive the bed-plates.

_The Power-Hammer_ (Figs. A and B). - The power-hammer, properly
so-called, consists, in addition to the hammer-head, of two standards to
whose inner sides are bolted guides upon which slides the moving mass.
The bed-plates of cast iron are 28 inches thick, and are independent of
the anvil-stock. They are set into the bed of dressed stone capping the
foundation, and are connected together by bars of iron and affixed to
the masonry by foundation bolts. To these bedplates are affixed the
standards by means of bolts and keys. The two standards are connected
together by iron plates four inches in thickness, which are set into the
metal and bolted to it so as to secure the utmost strength and solidity.
The platform which connects the upper extremities of the standards
supports the steam cylinder and the apparatus for distributing the
steam. The latter consists of a throttle valve, twelve inches in
diameter, and an eduction valve eighteen inches in diameter, the
maneuvering of which is done by means of rods extending down to a
platform upon which the engineman stands. This platform is so situated
that all orders can be distinctly heard by the engineman, and so that
he shall be protected from the heat radiated by the steel that is
being forged. All the maneuvers of the hammers are effected with most
wonderful facility and with the greatest precision.

The piston is of cast-steel, and the rod is of iron, 12 inches in
diameter. The waste steam is carried out of the mill by a pipe, and,
before being allowed to escape into the atmosphere, is directed into an
expansion pipe which it penetrates from bottom to top. Here a portion of
the water condenses and flows off, and the steam then escapes into
the open air with a greatly diminished pressure. The object of this
arrangement is to diminish to a considerable extent the shocks and
disagreeable noise that would be produced by the direct escape of the
steam at quite a high pressure and also to avoid the fall of condensed
water.

The following are a few details regarding the construction of the
hammer:

Total height of foundations........... 26 ft.
From the ground to the platform ...... 28 "

Platform .............................. 3.25 "
Height of cylinder.................... 21 "
________

Total height...................... 78.25 ft.

Weight of anvil-stock................ 500 tons.
Weight of bed-plates................. 122 "
Weight of standards.................. 270 "
Weight of platform and cylinder...... 148 "
Piston, valves, engineman's platform,
hammer, etc........................ 160 "
__________

Total weight................... 1,200 tons.

Weight of the hammer.................. 80 tons.
Maximum fall.......................... 25.75 ft.
Distance apart of the standards....... 21.6 "
Width of hammer....................... 6 "
Pressure of steam..................... 16 lb.
Effective pressure to lift 80 tons.... 7 "
_Description of Figures_. - A, the 80-ton hammer; B, B1, B2, cranes; C,
C1, C2, supports of cranes; D, D1, D2, gas furnaces; A1, the 35-ton
hammer; A2, the 28-ton hammer; EE, railways; F, engineman's platform; G,
lever for maneuvering the throttle valve; H, an ingot being forged.

* * * * *




GREAT STEAMERS.


The _Brooklyn Eagle_ gives a very interesting description of the three
new steamships now almost completed and shortly to be placed in the New
York and Liverpool trade by the Cunard, Inman, and Williams and Guion
lines. The writer has prepared a table comparing the three vessels
with each other and with the Great Eastern, the only ship of greater
dimensions ever built. We give as much of the article as our space will
allow, and regret that we have not the room to give it entire:

Line. Cunard. Inman. Guion. Admiralty.
Vessel. Servia City of Rome. Alaska. Great[1]

Length 530 feet. 546 feet. 520 feet. 679 feet.
Breadth 52 feet. 52 ft. 3 in. 50 ft. 6 in. 82 feet.
Depth 44 ft. 9 in. 37 feet. 38 feet. 60 feet.
Gross ton'ge 8,500 8,300 8,000 13,344[2]
Horse pow'r 10,500 10,000 11,000 2,600
Speed 17½ knots. 18 knots. 18 knots. 14 knots.
Sal'n pas- 320 and 52
sengers. 450 300 2d class
Steerage 600 1,500 1,000
Where Clydeb'nk Barrow in Clyde,
built. Thomson Furness Elder
Date of
sailing. October 22 October 13 November 5

[Footnote 1: To be sold at auction soon.]

[Footnote 2: Net register.]

In 1870 the total tonnage of British steam shipping was 1,111,375; the
returns for the year 1876 showed an increase to 2,150,302 tons, and from
that time to the present it has been increasing still more rapidly. But,
as can be seen from the above table, not only has the total tonnage
increased to this enormous extent, but an immense advance has been made
in increasing the size of vessels. The reason for this is, that it has
been found that where speed is required, along with large cargo and
passenger accommodation, a vessel of large dimensions is necessary, and
will give what is required with the least proportionate first cost as
well as working cost. Up to the present time the Inman line possessed,
in the City of Berlin, of 5,491 tons, the vessel of largest tonnage in
existence. Now, however, the Berlin is surpassed by the City of Rome by
nearly 3,000 tons, and the latter is less, by 200 tons, than the Servia,
of the Cunard line. It will be observed, too, that while there is not
much difference between the three vessels in point of length, the depth
of the Alaska and the City of Rome, respectively, is only 38 feet and 37
feet, that of the Servia is nearly 45 feet as compared with that of the
Great Eastern of 60 feet. This makes the Servia, proportionately, the
deepest ship of all. All three vessels are built of steel. This metal
was chosen not only because of its greater strength as against iron,
but also because it is more ductile and the advantage of less weight is
gained, as will be seen when it is mentioned that the Servia, if built
of iron, would have weighed 620 tons more than she does of steel, and
would have entailed the drawback of a corresponding increase in draught
of water. As regards rig, the three vessels have each a different style.
The Cunard Company have adhered to their special rig - three masts, bark
rigged - believing it to be more ship shape than the practice of fitting
up masts according to the length of the ship. On these masts there is a
good spread of canvas to assist in propelling the ship. The City of Rome
is rigged with four masts; and here the handsome full-ship rig of the
Inman line has been adhered to, with the addition of the fore and aft
rigged jigger mast, rendered necessary by the enormous length of the
vessel. It will be seen that the distinctive type of the Inman line
has not been departed from in respect to the old fashioned but still
handsome profile, with clipper bow, figurehead, and bowsprit - which
latter makes the Rome's length over all 600 feet. For the figurehead
has been chosen a full length figure of one of the Roman Cæsars, in the
imperial purple. Altogether, the City of Rome is the most imposing and
beautiful sight that can be seen on the water. The Alaska has also four
masts, but only two crossed.

The length of the City of Rome, as compared with breadth, insures long
and easy lines for the high speed required; and the depth of hold being
only 37 feet, as compared with the beam of 52 feet, insures great
stability and the consequent comfort of the passengers. A point calling
for special notice is the large number of separate compartments formed
by water tight bulkheads, each extending to the main deck. The largest
of these compartments is only about 60 feet long; and, supposing that
from collision or some other cause, one of these was filled with water,
the trim of the vessel would not be materially affected. With a view to
giving still further safety in the event of collision or stranding, the
boilers are arranged in two boiler rooms, entirely separated from each
other by means of a water tight iron bulkhead. This reduces what, in
nearly all full-powered steamships, is a vast single compartment, into
two of moderate size, 60 feet in length; and in the event of either
boiler room being flooded, it still leaves the vessel with half her
boiler power available, giving a speed of from thirteen to fourteen
knots per hour. The vessel's decks are of iron, covered with teak
planking; while the whole of the deck houses, with turtle decks and
other erections on the upper deck, are of iron, to stand the strains
of an Atlantic winter. Steam is supplied by eight cylindrical tubular
boilers, fired from both ends, each of the boilers being 19 feet long
and having 14 feet mean diameter. There are in all forty eight furnaces.
The internal arrangements are of the finest description. There are two
smoking rooms, and in the after deckhouse is a deck saloon for ladies,
which is fitted up in the most elegant manner, and will prevent the
necessity of going below in showery weather. At the sides of the
hurricane deck are carried twelve life boats, one of which is fitted as
a steam launch. The upper saloon or drawing-room is 100 feet long, the
height between decks being 9 feet. The grand dining-saloon is 52 feet
long, 52 feet wide, and 9 feet high, or 17 feet in the way of the large
opening to the drawing-room above. This opening is surmounted by a
skylight, and forms a very effective and elegant relief to the otherwise
flat and heavy ceiling. There are three large and fourteen small dining
tables, the large tables being arranged longitudinally in the central
part of the saloon, and the small tables at right angles on the sides.
Each diner has his own revolving arm chair, and accommodation is
provided for 250 persons at once. A large American organ is fixed at the
fore end of the room, and opening off through double spring doors at the
foot of the grand staircase is a handsome American luncheon bar, with
the usual fittings. On each side of the vessel, from the saloon to the
after end of the engine room, are placed staterooms providing for 300
passengers. The arrangements for steerage passengers are of a superior
description. The berths are arranged in single tiers or half rooms, not
double, as is usually the custom, each being separated by a passage,
and having a large side light, thus adding greatly to the light,
ventilation, and comfort of the steerage passengers, and necessitating
the advantage of a smaller number of persons in each room. The City
of Rome is the first of the two due here; she sails from Liverpool on
October 13.

In the Servia the machinery consists of three cylinder compound surface
condensing engines, one cylinder being 72 inches, and two 100 inches in
diameter, with a stroke of piston of 6 feet 6 inches. There are seven
boilers and thirty-nine furnaces. Practically the Servia is a five
decker, as she is built with four decks - of steel, covered with yellow
pine - and a promenade reserved for passengers. There is a music room on
the upper deck, which is 50 feet by 22 feet, and which is handsomely
fitted up with polished wood panelings. For the convenience of the
passengers there are no less than four different entrances from the
upper deck to the cabins. The saloon is 74 feet by 49 feet, with sitting
accommodations for 350 persons, while the clear height under the beams
is 8 feet 6 inches. The sides are all in fancy woods, with beautifully
polished inlaid panels, and all the upholstery of the saloon is of
morocco leather. For two-thirds of its entire length the lower deck is
fitted up with first class staterooms. The ship is divided into nine
water-tight bulkheads, and she is built according to the Admiralty
requirements for war purposes. There are in all twelve boats equipped
as life-boats. The Servia possesses a peculiarity which will add to her
safety, namely, a double bottom, or inner skin. Thus, were she to
ground on rocks, she would be perfectly safe, so long as the inner skin
remained intact. Steam is used for heating the cabins and saloons, and
by this means the temperature can be properly adjusted in all weathers.
In every part of the vessel the most advanced scientific improvements
have been adopted. The Servia leaves Liverpool on October 22.

The Alaska, whose owners, it is understood, are determined to make her
beat all afloat in speed, does not sail until November 5, and therefore
it is premature to say anything about her interior equipments. She is
the sister of the celebrated Arizona, and was built by the well-known
firm of Elder & Co., on the Clyde.

* * * * *




IMPROVED ROAD LOCOMOTIVE.


Several attempts have been made to connect the leading wheels of a
traction engine with the driving wheels, so as to make drivers of all of
them, and thus increase the tractive power of the engine, and to afford
greater facilities for getting along soft ground or out of holes. The
wheels with continuous railway and India-rubber tires have been employed
to gain the required adhesion, but these wheels have been too costly,
and the attempts to couple driving and leading wheels have failed. The
arrangement for making the leading wheels into drivers, illustrated
on page 4825, has been recently brought out by the Durham and North
Yorkshire Steam Cultivation Company, Ripon, the design being by Messrs.
Johnson and Phillips. The invention consists in mounting the leading
axle in a ball and long socket, the socket being rotated in fixed
bearings. The ball having but limited range of motion in the socket, is
driven round with it, but is free to move in azimuth for steering.

This engine has now been in use more than twelve months in traction
and thrashing work, and, we are informed, with complete success. The
illustrations represent a 7-horse power, with a cylinder 8 in. diameter
by 12 in. stroke, and steam jacketed. The shafts and axles are of
Bowling iron. The boiler contains 140 ft. of heating surface, and is
made entirely of Bowling iron, with the longitudinal seams welded. The
gearing is fitted with two speeds arranged to travel at 1½ and 3 miles
per hour, and the front or hind road wheels can be put out of gear when
not required. The hind driving wheels are 5 ft. 6 in. diameter, and the
front wheels 5 ft.; weight of engine 8 tons. - _The Engineer._

[Illustration: IMPROVED ROAD LOCOMOTIVE]

[Illustration: IMPROVED ROAD LOCOMOTIVE]

* * * * *




AMERICAN MILLING METHODS.

[Footnote 1: A paper read before the meeting of the Pennsylvania State
Millers Association at Pittsburgh, Pa., by Albert Hoppin, Editor of the
_Northwestern Miller_.]

By ALBERT HOPPIN.


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