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SEEING EUROPE WITH FAMOUS AUTHORS

EDITED BY FRANCIS W. HALSEY



CONTENTS OF VOLUME VI

Germany, Austria-Hungary and Switzerland

Part Two


VI. HUNGARY - (_Continued_)

HUNGARIAN BATHS AND RESORTS - By H. Tornai de Kövër

THE GIPSIES - By H. Tornai de Kövër


VII. AUSTRIA'S ADRIATIC PORTS

TRIESTE AND POLA - By Edward A. Freeman

SPALATO - By Edward A. Freeman

RAGUSA - By Harry De Windt

CATTARO - By Edward A. Freeman


VIII. OTHER AUSTRIAN SCENES

CRACOW - By Mènie Muriel Dowie

ON THE ROAD TO PRAGUE - By Bayard Taylor

THE CAVE OF ADELSBERG - By George Stillman Hillard

THE MONASTERY OF MÖLK - By Thomas Frognall Dibdin

THROUGH THE TYROL - By William Cullen Bryant

IN THE DOLOMITES - By Archibald Campbell Knowles

CORTINA - By Amelia B. Edwards


IX. ALPINE RESORTS

THE CALL OF THE MOUNTAINS - By Frederick Harrison

INTERLAKEN AND THE JUNGFRAU - By Archibald Campbell Knowles

THE ALTDORF OF WILLIAM TELL - By W.D. M'Crackan

LUCERNE - By Victor Tissot

ZURICH - By W.D. M'Crackan

THE RIGI - By W.D. M'Crackan

CHAMOUNI - AN AVALANCHE - By Percy Bysshe Shelley

ZERMATT - By Archibald Campbell Knowles

PONTRESINA AND ST. MORITZ - By Victor Tissot

GENEVA - By Francis H. Gribble

THE CASTLE OF CHILLON - By Harriet Beecher Stowe

BY RAIL UP THE GORNER-GRAT - By Archibald Campbell Knowles

THROUGH THE ST. GOTHARD INTO ITALY - By Victor Tissot


X. ALPINE MOUNTAIN CLIMBING

FIRST ATTEMPTS HALF A CENTURY AGO - By Edward Whymper

FIRST TO THE TOP O THE MATTERHORN - By Edward Whymper

THE LORD FRANCIS DOUGLAS TRAGEDY - By Edward Whymper

AN ASCENT OF MONTE ROSA (1858) - By John Tyndall

MONT BLANC ASCENDED, HUXLEY GOING PART WAY - By John Tyndall

THE JUNGFRAU-JOCH - By Sir Leslie Stephen


XI. OTHER ALPINE TOPICS

THE GREAT ST. BERNARD HOSPICE - By Archibald Campbell Knowles

AVALANCHES - By Victor Tissot

HUNTING THE CHAMOIS - By Victor Tissot

THE CELEBRITIES OF GENEVA - By Francis H. Gribble


LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

VOLUME VI

Frontispiece
THE MATTERHORN

KURSAAL AT MARIENBAD

MARIENBAD, AUSTRIA

MONASTERY OF ST. ULRIC AND AFRA, AUGSBURG

MONASTERY OF MÖLK ON THE DANUBE ABOVE VIENNA

MEMORIAL TABLET AND ROAD IN THE IRON GATE OF THE DANUBE

QUAY AT FIUME

ROYAL PALACE IN BUDAPEST

HOUSES OF PARLIAMENT, BUDAPEST

SUSPENSION BRIDGE OVER THE DANUBE AT BUDAPEST

STREET IN BUDAPEST

CATHEDRAL OF SPALATO

REGUSA, DALMATIA

MIRAMAR

GENEVA

REGATTA DAY ON LAKE GENEVA

VITZNAU, THE LAKE TERMINUS OF THE RIGI RAILROAD

RHINE FALLS NEAR SCHAFFHAUSEN

PONTRESINA IN THE ENGADINE

ST. MORITZ IN THE ENGADINE

FRIBOURG

BERNE

VIVEY, LAKE GENEVA

THE TURNHALLE, ZURICH

INTERLAKEN

LUCERNE

VIADUCTS ON AN ALPINE RAILWAY

THE WOLFORT VIADUCT

BALMAT - SAUSSURE MONUMENT IN CHAMONIX

ROOFED WOODEN BRIDGE AT LUCERNE

THE CASTLE OF CHILLON

CLOUD EFFECT ABOVE INTERLAKEN

DAVOS IN WINTER


[Illustration: THE KURSAL AT MARIENBAD]

[Illustration: MARIENBAD, AUSTRIA]

[Illustration: THE MONASTERY OF ST. ULRIC AND AFRA, AT AUGSBURG
IN BAVARIA]

[Illustration: THE MONASTERY OF MÖLK ON THE DANUBE ABOVE VIENNA]

[Illustration: MEMORIAL TABLET AND ROAD IN THE IRON GATE
OF THE DANUBE]

[Illustration: THE QUAY OF THE FIUME AT THE HEAD OF THE ADRIATIC]

[Illustration: THE ROYAL PALACE AT BUDAPEST]

[Illustration: THE HOUSES OF PARLIAMENT AT BUDAPEST]

[Illustration: THE SUSPENSION BRIDGE OVER THE DANUBE AT BUDAPEST]

[Illustration: STREET IN BUDAPEST]

[Illustration: THE CATHEDRAL OF SPALATO
Burial-place of the Emperor Diocletian]

[Illustration: REGUSA, DALMATIA]

[Illustration: MIRAMAR
Long the home of the ex-Empress Carlotta of Mexico]

[Illustration: GENEVA]

[Illustration: REGATTA DAY ON LAKE GENEVA]

[Illustration: VITZNAU, THE LAKE TERMINUS OF THE RIGI RAILROAD]

[Illustration: THE RHINE FALLS NEAR SCHAFFHAUSEN]



VI



HUNGARY

(_Continued_)

HUNGARIAN BATHS AND RESORTS[1]

BY H. TORNAI DE KÖVËR

In Hungary there are great quantities of unearthed riches, and not only
in the form of gold. These riches are the mineral waters that abound in
the country and have been the natural medicine of the people for many
years. Water in itself was always worshiped by the Hungarians in the
earliest ages, and they have found out through experience for which
ailment the different waters may be used. There are numbers of small
watering-places in the most primitive state, which are visited by the
peasants from far and wide, more especially those that are good for
rheumatism.

Like all people that work much in the open, the Hungarian in old age
feels the aching of his limbs. The Carpathians are full of such baths,
some of them quite primitive; others are used more as summer resorts,
where the well-to-do town people build their villas; others, again,
like Tátra Füred, Tátra Lomnicz, Csorba, and many others, have every
accommodation and are visited by people from all over Europe. In former
times Germans and Poles were the chief visitors, but now people come
from all parts to look at the wonderful ice-caves (where one can skate
in the hottest summer), the waterfalls, and the great pine forests, and
make walking, driving, and riding tours right up to the snow-capped
mountains, preferring the comparative quiet of this Alpine district to
that of Switzerland. Almost every place has some special mineral water,
and among the greatest wonders of Hungary are the hot mud-baths of
Pöstyén.

This place is situated at the foot of the lesser Carpathians, and is
easily reached from the main line of the railway. The scenery is lovely
and the air healthy, but this is nothing compared to the wondrous waters
and hot mire which oozes out of the earth in the vicinity of the river
Vág. Hot sulfuric water, which contains radium, bubbles up in all parts
of Pöstyén, and even the bed of the cold river is full of steaming
hot mud. As far back as 1551 we know of the existence of Pöstyén as a
natural cure, and Sir Spencer Wells, the great English doctor, wrote
about these waters in 1888. They are chiefly good for rheumatism, gout,
neuralgia, the strengthening of broken bones, strains, and also for
scrofula.

On the premises there is a quaint museum with crutches and all sort of
sticks and invalid chairs left there by their former owners in grateful
acknowledgment of the wonderful waters and mire that had healed them. Of
late there has been much comfort added; great new baths have been built,
villas and new hotels added, so that there is accommodation for rich
and poor alike. The natural heat of the mire is 140 degrees Fahrenheit.
Plenty of amusements are supplied for those who are not great
sufferers - tennis, shooting, fishing, boating, and swimming being all
obtainable. The bathing-place and all the adjoining land belongs to
Count Erdödy.

Another place of the greatest importance is the little bath "Parád,"
hardly three hours from Budapest, situated in the heart of the mountains
of the "Mátra." It is the private property of Count Kárólyi. The place
is primitive and has not even electric light. Its waters are a wonderful
combination of iron and alkaline, but this is not the most important
feature. Besides the baths there is a strong spring of arsenic water
which, through a fortunate combination, is stronger and more digestible
than Roncegno and all the other first-rate waters of that kind in the
world.

Not only in northern Hungary does one find wondrous cures, it is the
same in Transylvania. There are healing and splendid mineral waters for
common use all over the country lying idle and awaiting the days when
its owners will be possest by the spirit of enterprise. Borszek,
Szováta, and many others are all wonders in their way, waters that would
bring in millions to their owners if only worked properly. Szováta,
boasts of a lake containing such an enormous proportion of salt that not
even the human body can sink into its depths.

In the south there is Herkulesfürdö, renowned as much for the beauty of
its scenery as for its waters. Besides those mentioned there are all
the summer pleasure resorts; the best of these are situated along Lake
Balaton. The tepid water, long sandbanks, and splendid air from the
forests make them specially healthy for delicate children. But not only
have the bathing-places beautiful scenery from north to south and from
east to west, in general the country abounds in Alpine districts,
waterfalls, caves, and other wonders of nature. The most beautiful
tour is along the river Vág, starting from the most northerly point in
Hungary near the beautiful old stronghold of Árva in the county of Árva.

All those that care to see a country as it really is, and do not mind
going out of the usual beaten track of the globe-trotter, should go down
the river Vág. It can not be done by steamer, or any other comfortable
contrivance, one must do it on a raft, as the rapids of the river are
not to be passed by any other means. The wood is transported in this
way from the mountain regions to the south, and for two days one passes
through the most beautiful scenery. Fantastic castles loom at the top of
mountain peaks, and to each castle is attached a page of the history of
the Middle Ages, when the great noblemen were also the greatest robbers
of the land, and the people were miserable serfs, who did all the work
and were taxed and robbed by their masters. Castles, wild mountain
districts, rugged passes, villages, and ruins are passed like a
beautiful panorama. The river rushes along, foaming and dashing over
sharp rocks. The people are reliable and very clever in handling the
raft, which requires great skill, especially when conducted over the
falls at low water. Sometimes there is only one little spot where the
raft can pass, and to conduct it over those rapids requires absolute
knowledge of every rock hidden under the shallow falls. If notice is
given in time, a rude hut will be built on the raft to give shelter
and make it possible to have meals cooked, altho in the simplest way
(consisting of baked potatoes and stew), by the Slavs who are in charge
of the raft. If anything better is wanted it must be ordered by stopping
at the larger towns; but to have it done in the simple way is entering
into the true spirit of the voyage.


THE GIPSIES[2]

BY H. TORNAI DE KÖVËR

Gipsies! Music! Dancing! These are words of magic to the rich and poor,
noblemen and peasant alike, if he be a true Hungarian. There are two
kinds of gipsies. The wandering thief, who can not be made to take up
any occupation. These are a terribly lawless and immoral people, and
there seems to be no way of altering their life and habits, altho much
has been written on the subject to improve matters; but the Government
has shown itself to be helpless as yet. These people live here and
there, in fact everywhere, leading a wandering life in carts, and camp
wherever night overtakes them. After some special evil-doing they will
wander into Rumania or Russia and come back after some years when the
deed of crime has been forgotten. Their movements are so quick and
silent that they outwit the best detectives of the police force. They
speak the gipsy language, but often a half-dozen other languages
besides, in their peculiar chanting voice. Their only occupation is
stealing, drinking, smoking, and being a nuisance to the country in
every way.

The other sort of gipsies consist of those that have squatted down in
the villages some hundreds of years ago. They live in a separate part of
the village, usually at the end, are dirty and untidy and even an unruly
people, but for the most part have taken up some honest occupation.
They make the rough, unbaked earth bricks that the peasant cottages are
mostly made of, are tinkers and blacksmiths, but they do the lowest kind
of work too. Besides these, however, there are the talented ones. The
musical gipsy begins to handle his fiddle as soon as he can toddle.
The Hungarians brought their love of music with them from Asia. Old
parchments have been found which denote that they had their songs and
war-chants at the time of the "home-making," and church and folk-songs
from their earliest Christian period. Peasant and nobleman are musical
alike - it runs in the race. The gipsies that have settled among them
caught up the love of music and are now the best interpreters of the
Hungarian songs. The people have got so used to their "blackies," as
they call them, that no lesser or greater fête day can pass without
the gipsy band having ample work to do in the form of playing for the
people. Their instruments are the fiddle, 'cello, viola, clarinet,
tárogato (a Hungarian specialty), and, above all, the cymbal. The
tárogato looks like a grand piano with the top off. It stands on four
legs like a table and has wires drawn across it; on these wires the
player performs with two little sticks, that are padded at the ends
with cotton-wool. The sound is wild and weird, but if well played very
beautiful indeed. The gipsies seldom compose music. The songs come into
life mostly on the spur of the moment. In the olden days war-songs and
long ballads were the most usual form of music. The seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries were specially rich in the production of songs that
live even now. At that time the greatest gipsy musician was a woman: her
name was "Czinka Panna," and she was called the Gipsy Queen. With the
change of times the songs are altered too, and now they are mostly
lyric. Csárdás is the quick form of music, and tho' of different
melodies it must always be kept to the same rhythm. This is not much
sung to, but is the music for the national dance. The peasants play on
a little wooden flute which is called the "Tilinko," or "Furulya," and
they know hundreds of sad folk-songs and lively Csárdás. While living
their isolated lives in the great plains they compose many a beautiful
song.

It is generally from the peasants and the musical country gentry that
the gipsy gets his music. He learns the songs after a single hearing,
and plays them exactly according to the singer's wish. The Hungarian
noble when singing with the gipsies is capable of giving the dark-faced
boys every penny he has. In this manner many a young nobleman has been
ruined, and the gipsies make nothing of it, because they are just like
their masters and "spend easily earned money easily," as the saying
goes. Where there is much music there is much dancing. Every Sunday
afternoon after church the villages are lively with the sound of the
gipsy band, and the young peasant boys and girls dance.

The Slovaks of the north play a kind of bagpipe, which reminds one of
the Scotch ones; but the songs of the Slovak have got very much mixed
with the Hungarian. The Rumanian music is of a distinct type, but the
dances all resemble the Csárdás, with the difference that the quick
figures in the Slav and Rumanian dances are much more grotesque and
verging on acrobatism.



VII

AUSTRIA'S ADRIATIC PORTS

TRIESTE AND POLA[3]

BY EDWARD A. FREEMAN

Trieste stands forth as a rival of Venice, which has, in a low practical
view of things, outstript her. Italian zeal naturally cries for the
recovery of a great city, once part of the old Italian kingdom, and
whose speech is largely, perhaps chiefly, Italian to this day. But, a
cry of "Italia Irredenta," however far it may go, must not go so far
as this. Trieste, a cosmopolitan city on a Slavonic shore, can not be
called Italian in the same sense as the lands and towns so near Verona
which yearn to be as Verona is. Let Trieste be the rival, even the
eyesore, of Venice, still Southern Germany must have a mouth.

We might, indeed, be better pleased to see Trieste a free city, the
southern fellow of Lübeck, Bremen and Hamburg; but it must not be
forgotten that the Archduke of Austria and Lord of Trieste reigns at
Trieste by a far better right than that by which he reigns at Cattaro
and Spizza. The present people of Trieste did not choose him, but the
people of Trieste five hundred years back did choose the forefather of
his great-grandmother. Compared with the grounds of which kingdoms,
duchies, counties, and lordships, are commonly held in that
neighborhood, such a claim as this must be allowed to be respectable
indeed.

The great haven of Trieste may almost at pleasure be quoted as either
confirming or contradicting the rule that it is not in the great
commercial cities of Europe that we are to look for the choicest or the
most plentiful remains of antiquity. Sometimes the cities themselves
are of modern foundation; in other cases the cities themselves, as
habitations of men and seats of commerce, are of the hoariest antiquity,
but the remains of their early days have perished through their very
prosperity. Massalia,[4] with her long history, with her double wreath
of freedom, the city which withstood Cæsar and which withstood Charles
of Anjou, is bare of monuments of her early days. She has been the
victim of her abiding good fortune. We can look down from the height on
the Phôkaian harbor; but for actual memorials of the men who fled from
the Persian, of the men who defied the Roman and the Angevin, we might
look as well at Liverpool or at Havre.

Genoa, Venice herself, are hardly real exceptions; they were indeed
commercial cities, but they were ruling cities also, and, as ruling
cities, they reared monuments which could hardly pass away. What are we
to say to the modern rival of Venice, the upstart rebel, one is tempted
to say, against the supremacy of the Hadriatic Queen? Trieste, at the
head of her gulf, with the hills looking down to her haven, with the
snowy mountains which seem to guard the approach from the other side of
her inland sea, with her harbor full of the ships of every nation, her
streets echoing with every tongue, is she to be reckoned as an example
of the rule or an exception to it?

No city at first sight seems more thoroughly modern; old town and
new, wide streets and narrow, we search them in vain for any of those
vestiges of past times which in some cities meet us at every step.
Compare Trieste with Ancona;[5] we miss the arch of Trajan on the haven;
we miss the cupola of Saint Cyriacus soaring in triumph above the
triumphal monument of the heathen. We pass through the stately streets
of the newer town, we thread the steep ascents which lead us to the
older town above, and we nowhere light on any of those little scraps of
ornamental architecture, a window, a doorway, a column, which meet us at
every step in so many of the cities of Italy.

Yet the monumental wealth of Trieste is all but equal to the monumental
wealth of Ancona. At Ancona we have the cathedral church and the
triumphal arch; so we have at Trieste; tho' at Trieste we have nothing
to set against the grand front of the lower and smaller church of
Ancona. But at Ancona arch and duomo both stand out before all eyes;
at Trieste both have to be looked for. The church of Saint Justus at
Trieste crowns the hill as well as the church of Saint Cyriacus at
Ancona; but it does not in the same way proclaim its presence. The
castle, with its ugly modern fortifications, rises again above the
church; and the duomo of Trieste, with its shapeless outline and its
low, heavy, unsightly campanile, does not catch the eyes like the Greek
cross and cupola of Ancona.

Again at Trieste the arch could never, in its best days, have been a
rival to the arch at Ancona; and now either we have to hunt it out by an
effort, or else it comes upon us suddenly, standing, as it does, at the
head of a mean street on the ascent to the upper town. Of a truth it can
not compete with Ancona or with Rimini, with Orange[6] or with Aosta.
But the duomo, utterly unsightly as it is in a general view, puts on
quite a new character when we first see the remains of pagan times
imprisoned in the lower stage of the heavy campanile, still more so when
we take our first glance of its wonderful interior. At the first glimpse
we see that here there is a mystery to be unraveled; and as we gradually
find the clue to the marvelous changes which it has undergone, we
feel that outside show is not everything, and that, in point both
of antiquity and of interest, tho' not of actual beauty, the double
basilica of Trieste may claim no mean place among buildings of its own
type. Even after the glories of Rome and Ravenna, the Tergestine church
may be studied with no small pleasure and profit, as an example of a
kind of transformation of which neither Rome nor Ravenna can supply
another example....

The other ancient relic at Trieste is the small triumphal arch. On one
side it keeps its Corinthian pilasters; on the other they are imbedded
in a house. The arch is in a certain sense double; but the two are close
together, and touch in the keystone. The Roman date of this arch can not
be doubted; but legends connect it both with Charles the Great and with
Richard of Poitou and of England, a prince about whom Tergestine fancy
has been very busy. The popular name of the arch is Arco Riccardo.

Such, beside some fragments in the museum, are all the remains that the
antiquary will find in Trieste; not much in point of number, but, in the
case of the duomo at least, of surpassing interest in their own way. But
the true merit of Trieste is not in anything that it has itself, its
church, its arch, its noble site. Placed there at the head of the gulf,
on the borders of two great portions of the Empire, it leads to the land
which produced that line of famous Illyrian Emperors who for a while
checked the advance of our own race in the world's history, and it leads
specially to the chosen home of the greatest among them.[7] The chief
glory of Trieste, after all, is that it is the way to Spalato....

At Pola the monuments of Pietas Julia claim the first place; the
basilica, tho' not without a certain special interest, comes long after
them. The character of the place is fixt by the first sight of it; we
see the present and we see the more distant past; the Austrian navy is
to be seen, and the amphitheater is to be seen. But intermediate times
have little to show; if the duomo strikes the eye at all, it strikes it
only by the extreme ugliness of its outside, nor is there anything very
taking, nothing like the picturesque castle of Pirano, in the works
which occupy the site of the colonial capitol. The duomo should not be
forgotten; even the church of Saint Francis is worth a glance; but it is
in the remains of the Roman colony, in the amphitheater, the arches,
the temples, the fragments preserved in that temple which serves, as
at Nîmes,[8] for a museum, that the real antiquarian wealth of Pola
lies....

The known history of Pola begins with the Roman conquest of Istria
in 178 B.C. The town became a Roman colony and a flourishing seat of
commerce. Its action on the republican side in the civil war brought
on it the vengeance of the second Cæsar. But the destroyer became
the restorer, and Pietas Julia, in the height of its greatness, far
surpassed the extent either of the elder or the younger Pola. Like all
cities of this region, Pola kept up its importance down to the days of
the Carlovingian Empire, the specially flourishing time of the whole
district being that of Gothic and Byzantine dominion at Ravenna. A
barbarian king, the Roxolan Rasparasanus, is said to have withdrawn to
Pola after the submission of his nation to Hadrian; and the panegyrists
of the Flavian house rank Pola along with Trier and Autun among the
cities which the princes of that house had adorned or strengthened. But
in the history of their dynasty the name of the city chiefly stands out
as the chosen place for the execution of princes whom it was convenient
to put out of the way.

Here Crispus died at the bidding of Constantine, and Gallus at the
bidding of Constantius. Under Theodoric, Pola doubtless shared that
general prosperity of the Istrian land on which Cassiodorus grows
eloquent when writing to its inhabitants. In the next generation Pola
appears in somewhat of the same character which has come back to it in
our own times; it was there that Belisarius gathered the Imperial fleet
for his second and less prosperous expedition against the Gothic lords
of Italy. But, after the break up of the Frankish Empire, the history of
medieval Pola is but a history of decline. It was, in the geography of


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