The American Missionary — Volume 35, No. 6, June, 1881 online

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“To the Poor the Gospel is Preached.”

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JUNE, 1881.



THE SECOND CALL: Rev. Jas. Powell 164
THE NEGRO FOR HIS PLACE: Prof. C. C. Painter 165
GENERAL NOTES—Freedmen, Africa, Indians, Chinese 169


ALABAMA, MOBILE—Conference—Woman’s Missionary Meeting 172
LOUISIANA—South-Western Cong’l Assoc. 174
KANSAS—Condition of the Blacks Contrasted 176













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Published by the American Missionary Association,


* * * * *

Price, 50 Cents a Year, in advance.

Entered at the Post Office at New York, N.Y., as second-class matter.




* * * * *

VOL. XXXV. JUNE, 1881. NO. 6.

* * * * *

American Missionary Association.

* * * * *



Tillotson Normal and Collegiate Institute? (See opposite page.)
Where is it? What is it? When opened? How welcomed? What is its
present outlook, and what are its needs?

Tillotson Institute is situated just outside the limits of the
city of Austin, Texas, upon a fine elevation, commanding on the
east and south a beautiful and far-reaching view of the valley and
of the shimmering waters of the Colorado. On the west is the city
of Austin, with its spires and busy streets, and from the upper
part of the building, looking northward, appear the far-extending
prairies, so familiar in Texas, while, almost encircling the
whole, rise hills and mountains, making this a most beautiful and
picturesque spot, and of all others fitted for an institution of
learning, where the student, while treasuring up knowledge, may
have before him that which shall awaken a sense of the beautiful
and the grand, leading him from nature to nature’s God. In these
points Tillotson has few rivals.

As to its material, it is a large brick building with stone
trimmings, 104 feet in length, 42 feet in depth, and five stories
high. It has a dining hall, a beautiful and airy school-room about
37×48; three large recitation rooms, with other smaller ones, which
are probably the most complete in their appointment of blackboards,
maps and desks of any in the State. No one who has visited the
Institution has been heard to question this. It may be added, also,
that the building, as it now stands, is the gift of friends living
in the East and West for the education of the colored youth of

Owing to delays in completing the building, the opening of the
school was deferred from October, 1880, till January 17th, 1881.

Our numbers at the beginning were small, but have been steadily
increasing, till now, in the Institute proper, we have over sixty
students, with a good prospect that this number will be increased
to at least a hundred before the close of the year. We have a large
class in algebra, a still larger class in complete arithmetic,
comprehensive geography and United States history, as also some
ten or twelve in Latin and an equally large number in English
composition. All of these are doing finely in everything but
Latin—only fair in this.

The question as to the spirit of the people will excite interest in
the minds of many. The “Fool’s Errand” and “Bricks Without Straw”
have prepared some for a doleful statement on this point. I am glad
to disappoint them, and in contrast to the above, I rejoice to bear
witness to the kindly and even cordial manner with which we have
been received. Thus far not one rebuff from the Governor down. The
people are not only kindly disposed, but are pleased with the work
carried on; they do not all have equal faith, but nearly or quite
all acknowledge that it is a work that should be done, that the
colored people must be educated. The State is doing something in
this line now—not for us, we have not asked for anything—and is
bound to do more. I venture the statement that _in ten years, no
other State in the Union will, in proportion to the number of her
people and area, do so much for the instruction of the young as
Texas_. Many are coming to see eye to eye and stand foot to foot on
this question of universal education.

The completion of the building and fencing the grounds, which is an
absolute necessity, with the cost of furnishing, call for at least
$2,000 more. This should be provided at once; then land is needed;
thousands of colored youth in Texas greatly desire an education;
they are worthy, but poor. Yet their highest good requires that
they pay for their education. And, since this is not possible in
many cases, some means should be provided by which they can. The
most practical way is to have land which they can work.

The result would be advantageous in two ways: First, it would
enable them to maintain their self-respect; they would feel that
they were not receiving bounty, but were paying their way; this
would make them more manly. Second, it would be a practical school
where they would be taught the best methods of agriculture; this
would be a priceless benefit to them.

But the Institution owns no land save the spot upon which the
building stands. There are, however, some 450 acres of the first
quality joining the Institution grounds for sale. True, since
close to the city it is dear; but when once bought and paid for,
these acres become a bank that will never fail, and always pay
good dividends. It would be a wise and noble act for some one
to buy this land and present it to the Institution; with it the
possibilities of Tillotson Institute would be greatly magnified.

Who will purchase the farm, and giving it his own name, present it
to the youngest child of the A. M. A.?

Finally, we are all more than pleased with the field and its work.
It exceeds even our expectations; the climate is delightful, the
location unsurpassed, the present inspiring, and the future radiant
with hope.

* * * * *

It gives us pleasure to announce the safe arrival of Rev. Henry M.
Ladd and Rev. Kelly M. Kemp, with his wife, at Freetown, Sierra
Leone, March 23d, after a favorable and altogether agreeable
passage from Liverpool. They were cordially welcomed on their
arrival by the missionaries at that point on the coast.

* * * * *

The Memphis _Appeal_ declares that there can be no excuse for
allowing the work for the colored people at the LeMoyne Institute
of that city to be sustained entirely by the friends of the A. M.
A. North. It suggests also that the citizens of Memphis provide the
improved facilities needful for the best development of the work of
this eminently worthy Institution.

* * * * *

We heartily congratulate Berea College on its successful efforts
during the past winter in securing a partial endowment. A few
individuals in six different States recently joined in an effort to
secure for it a fund of $50,000.

The movement was started by a Western Massachusetts man who
subscribed $5,000, to which he afterwards added $1,666. Mrs.
Valeria G. Stone, of Malden, Mass., gave $10,000. One friend
in New York gave $7,500, and another $2,500. Three friends in
Pennsylvania, Ohio and Illinois, gave $5,000 each. The balance was
made up in smaller sums.

This college—the first founded by the A. M. A.—is doing a noble
work, educating about an equal number of blacks and whites. It
richly deserves all that has been done for it.

* * * * *

We are thankful to our friends and patrons for their hearty support
of our work as shown in the increase of our current receipts by
$20,087 over those of the corresponding seven months of last year.
Encouraging as this is, the increase is not sufficient to enable us
to accomplish what we had planned to do, and close our year free
from debt, September 30th.

At the beginning of our fiscal year we called for an increase of
25 per cent. over the receipts of last year for current work. Our
receipts have increased 19 per cent. to April 30th. At this rate
we shall fall $10,700 short of the amount required to meet all
payments. We make an earnest appeal now, for we wish our friends to
know our situation, and to prevent a threatened debt. We already
feel the pressure, for our workers are calling for the salaries due
them, and they will need their money to bring them North for rest
and change after the severe labors of the year.

* * * * *


In the spring of 1879 the Executive Committee of this Association,
after a careful consideration of Mr. Robert Arthington’s offer
of £3,000 for a new mission in the Upper Nile basin, voted to
undertake the establishment of the proposed mission on the receipt
of a fund of $50,000 for that purpose. During the autumn of the
same year the Committee pledged itself that on receipt of £3,000
from Mr. Arthington and a like amount from the British public, “to
devote thereto the sum of $20,000, and with the blessing of God
and the assistance of the friends of Africa in Great Britain and
America, to undertake permanently to sustain that mission.”

They felt free to make this pledge, as was stated in the AMERICAN
MISSIONARY at the time, “especially as final receipts from the
Avery estate have recently come to hand, which are devoted by the
donor to the evangelization of the African race in Africa.” The
receipts above mentioned amounted to $12,000. Mr. Arthington and
the friends in Great Britain have already paid over the £6,000, or
about $30,000, apportioned to them, and the Association has entered
upon preliminaries looking toward the early establishment of the
mission. We still lack about $8,000 for the completion of the
fund. In view of this deficiency we consider the unsolicited offer
from a distinguished anti-slavery man of $500 for this mission, on
condition that $500 more be given by another party for the same
object, as both opportune and providential, and we not only urge
that the above pledge be secured, but that the entire deficiency
be made up by the early autumn, as by that time our missionaries
purpose to be on their way to the Upper Nile in Central Africa.

* * * * *



When emancipation summoned the American slaves to freedom, nothing
appealed with stronger effect to the sympathies of their friends
than their wonderful eagerness for education. They thought that
if they only could obtain a knowledge of letters they would also
come into possession of the white man’s power and the white man’s
privileges. An illusion this, in so far as it held out promise of
speedy fulfilment, but a serious fact, nevertheless, in that it
points to the only open door through which the Freedmen or their
descendants must pass, if they ever do come into possession of that
power and those privileges.

But illusion as it was, it acted as an inspiration. Under its
power, old men and old women, young men and maidens, children
and youth, flocked into everything that was called a school for

This unprecedented manifestation of a hunger and thirst for
education was promptly met by a large supply of missionary teachers
and educational facilities. The promise, however, was larger than
the fulfilment. Old people could not learn, and young people must
improve by the diligent application of persistent effort extending
through years. Such is the teaching of all history and experience.
This the negroes did not know, and many of their friends had
apparently forgotten it. Reaction came, and with it disappointment
and discouragement. “It’s no use, chile, I’se too old to learn,”
said the old negroes; and young Sambo, with a characteristic
genuinely human, began to develop a passion for sport rather than
study. The fact is, the wonderful passion for study exhibited by
the Freedmen was abnormal. It is not natural for scholars to be
running ahead of their teachers and enthusiastically shouting back
for them to come on. As a rule, the teacher must lead. Ability to
inspire pupils with a love for study is one of the essentials for
success in teaching. The work of education, like everything else
good in this world, must be pushed.

A full recognition of these facts dictated the original policy
of the A. M. A. in its educational work among the Freedmen, and
has shaped its policy ever since. Institutions were planted and
fostered with a view to permanency. Interest in sustaining them
might rise or fall, but the work, in order to succeed, must be
patiently carried forward.

The flood-tide of enthusiasm on the part of the Freedmen, as a
matter of course, began to ebb when the difficulties of obtaining
an education fairly dawned upon them. Some of their friends at
the North, seeing this, began to lose faith in their educability,
and as a consequence began also to withhold their support from
the work. But the American Missionary Association said, “This is
just as we expected,” and instead of yielding, buckled down to
its work all the more earnestly, and argued for its continuance
all the more forcefully. The reaction would again react. The tide
of interest would return with healthier beat, and the second call
would be more effective than the first. It was a firm faith in such
an outcome that prompted the annual reports which, for several
years, held out this bow of promise, while that ugly debt was
hanging like a threatening cloud over all the work; and the faith
has been justified by the results. The reaction of the reaction
has come. The tide is setting back again with normal flow. The
cause is advocated from the leading pulpits; our foremost statesmen
endorse it; the most influential newspapers editorially commend
it; the debt has been wiped out; our schools are crowded to their
utmost capacity, and there is to-day sounding in the ears of the
public a louder call for the immediate enlargement of work for the
education of the Freedmen than has ever yet been heard. It is not
the old, with heads filled with all sorts of fantastic notions, who
now clamor for what they never can acquire. The young and ambitious
are pressing forward, and they are doing it with eyes wide open
to the difficulties that must be encountered, while at the same
time, to give them confidence and hope, they have before them the
living examples of scholarly achievement on the part of some of
the youth of their race. These young men and young women, who are
now turned away from the doors of our schools because “there is
no room,” appeal to us not merely because they want to obtain an
education for themselves, but because they represent the neglected
condition of a race. It is a remarkable fact, and most pathetic in
its meaning, that they plead in many instances to be taken into
school in order that they may qualify themselves to be the means of
the elevation of their people.

A critical time is this. These millions cannot be left much longer
in their ignorance without danger to the public peace. Vice does
not tend to produce virtue. Ignorance does not tend to produce
knowledge. Let the feeling settle down on the colored youth that
all avenues for intellectual culture are closed against them, and
ambition for improvement will soon disappear, and when the brood
of evils to which ignorance is the prolific parent has been once
fairly let loose upon the land, it may be too late to remedy the
mischief. “An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure,” says
the wisdom of the ages. The demand of the hour is, “Let the wisdom
of the ages be put to practical use.” Recorded in books, tossed
from lip to lip, it profits little; it must be put into action.
No question presses upon the Christian and patriotic thought of
our land with greater urgency, or bears within it farther reaching
consequences, than this same question of the education of our negro
population. The hour of opportunity is now. We ask the friends
of the Freedmen to heed this second call that comes to them, to
prosecute the work of Christian education among the negroes, with
a greater zeal and greater enthusiasm than ever before. If we are
faithful, a rich harvest will be ours to reap.

* * * * *



An intelligent Christian woman, fairly representative, we believe,
of the best friends of the negro, herself engaged in the work of
negro education as an amateur, in the literal meaning of the word,
during her annual sojourn in the South, said to us recently that
she did not believe in the attempt of Fisk, Howard, Atlanta and
like schools to give this people a higher education. They should
be taught the three R’s, and how to work, and so fitted for their
place in life. She esteemed it an unfortunate mistake and blunder
that they should be disqualified for it by a classical education.

An associate editor of one of our largest dailies, a widely
influential man, commended, not simply by its excellence, but by
way of contrast, the work done at Hampton, not because in the
pursuit of its own aims it left the work of higher education to
other schools, but because it taught its negro pupils to work, and
did not make fools of them by teaching them Latin and Greek, and
this, not because he is opposed to higher education for any one,
but because such an education unfitted the negro for his place.
These friends are not alone in the opinion that the place of the
negro is definitely known, and that is one which demands and allows
a very limited range of intellectual power, and requires the
exercise of his muscles chiefly.

We respectfully submit that the only possible apology for slavery
as it existed in this country was based upon the assumption that
the white man had the right to determine just the place in the
scale of being that the black man should occupy. He stood forth
as the authorized interpreter of nature, and maintained that both
nature and Noah had settled it that the sons of Ham were fitted
alone to be the servants of their brethren.

When we have assented to the proposition that nature has allotted
to a race a certain position, we have assented, logically, to the
further and co-ordinate proposition that it should be fitted for
the place and kept in it; thus the whole code of slave laws stands
approved and justified.

There has been much discussion, and there will probably be a great
deal more, as to the proper place and exact sphere of woman; and
with more show of reason, for she constitutes not a race, but a
class; and nature has indicated in the fact of sex some of the
possibilities of her nature and duties of her sphere; has decided
some things as possible, and some as impossible to her. She cannot
be the father of a family; but what she may be intellectually,
morally, spiritually, as a mother, as a woman, can be known only
when she has opened before her unlimited opportunity for her
untrammeled powers. She may not transcend nature’s limitations, but
she ought to insist that man’s ignorance and prejudice shall not
prove a more insuperable bar to what she may do.

That nature has placed any disqualifications upon the negro, and
has thus indicated or determined what is or what is not possible
for him to accomplish, we cannot know until we have so far removed
the obstacles we have put in his way, and stricken off the chains
with which we have bound him, and thrown open an opportunity which
we have barred against him, that he shall have a chance to show
what the purpose was with reference to him; and we may thus learn,
also, as we are beginning to do, what our injustice and wrong has

Our treatment of the negro, whether as slave or Freedman, has
been and will be shaped by our theories in regard to him, but it
is time we honestly sought to know what the facts are, and draw
our theories from them rather than attempt to limit him by our
prejudices, as if they were indisputable facts of nature.

The master said the negro’s place is that of a chattel slave, and
he wisely enacted that he should neither be educated out of it,
nor be allowed to escape from it. The fortunes of war (should we
not say the misfortunes, if the theory were correct?) broke the
chain and palsied the whip-arm of the master, and now his friends,
many of them, who rejoice that he has escaped from his old place,
would attempt to fit him for a new one, but determine for him what
it shall be, and express grave apprehensions of evil if we say he
should have the best possible opportunity to find for himself what
it is. The war destroyed the old chain by which he was held in his
appointed place, but has not eradicated the disposition of the
Anglo-Saxon to decide for him what his new one must be, and in the
minds of many it is that of a laborer of the lowest grade; and lest
he might escape from it by rising above it, they would see to it
that his education shall be of such character as to fit him for it

While the wise teacher sees to it that he shall not neglect
thorough training in the most elementary branches in order to
become a smatterer in Greek and Latin, it should be done on the
general principle applicable to all races and every individual,
that any other course would be consummate folly. The theory to
which our practice should conform is this: Give to every child of
God the best opportunity possible for him as such, and let him in
the untrammeled exercise of his powers find out what his Creator
designed him to be and assigned him to do.

The time is coming when it will appear incredible that a man’s
place in the intellectual and social world shall be assigned to
him because of the color of his skin, any more than because of the
color of his eyes, or of his clothes. Educate not the negro, but
the child, not for his place, but that he may find his place, and
do his work among his fellows.

* * * * *


FISK UNIVERSITY, NASHVILLE, TENN.—Baccalaureate Sermon, Sunday
A.M., May 22d. Anniversary of Missionary Society, Sunday evening.
Examinations, Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday. Commencement
Exercises, and the ceremony of laying the corner-stone of
Livingstone Missionary Hall, Thursday.

TALLADEGA COLLEGE, TALLADEGA, ALA.—Baccalaureate Sermon, by the
President, Sunday, June 12th. Examinations, Monday, Tuesday and
Wednesday. Commencement Exercises, Thursday.

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