The American Missionary — Volume 41, No. 1, January, 1887 online

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[Illustration: JANUARY, 1887.


NO. 1.

The American Missionary]

* * * * *

[Illustration: CONTENTS]


WHAT SOME WOMEN ARE DOING. Rev. A. H. Bradford, D.D., 4
THE INDIAN PROBLEM. Pres. J. H. Seelye, D.D., 7
WELL SAID. REV. A. G. Haygood, D.D., 11


NOTES IN THE SADDLE. Supt. C. J. Ryder, 12


WORK AMONG THE FREEDMEN. Miss Bertha Robertson, 19


* * * * *



Rooms, 56 Reade Street.

* * * * *

Price, 50 Cents a Year, in Advance.

Entered at the Post-Office at New York, N.Y., as second-class

American Missionary Association.

* * * * *



Rev. A. J. F. BEHRENDS, D.D., N.Y.
Rev. F. A. NOBLE, D.D., Ill.
Rev. ALEX. MCKENZIE, D.D., Mass.
Rev. D. O. MEARS, D.D., Mass.

_Corresponding Secretary._

REV. M. E. STRIEBY, D.D., _56 Reade Street, N.Y._

_Associate Corresponding Secretaries._

Rev. JAMES POWELL, D.D., _56 Reade Street, N.Y._
Rev. A. F. BEARD, D.D., _56 Reade Street, N.Y._


H. W. HUBBARD, Esq., _56 Reade Street, N.Y._



_Executive Committee._

A. P. FOSTER, Secretary.

_For Three Years._

_For Two Years._

_For One Year._

_District Secretaries._

Rev. C. L. WOODWORTH, D.D., _21 Cong’l House, Boston_.
Rev. J. E. ROY, D.D., _151 Washington Street, Chicago_.

_Financial Secretary for Indian Missions._


_Field Superintendent._

Rev. C. J. RYDER, _56 Reade Street, N.Y._

_Bureau of Woman’s Work._

_Secretary_, Miss D. E. EMERSON, _56 Reade Street, N.Y._

* * * * *


Relating to the work of the Association may be addressed to the
Corresponding Secretaries; those relating to the collecting fields,
to Rev. James Powell, D.D., or to the District Secretaries; letters
for “THE AMERICAN MISSIONARY,” to the Editor, at the New
York Office.


In drafts, checks, registered letters or post office orders may
be sent to H. W. Hubbard, Treasurer, 56 Reade Street, New York,
or, when more convenient, to either of the Branch Offices, 21
Congregational House, Boston, Mass., or 151 Washington Street,
Chicago, Ill. A payment of thirty dollars at one time constitutes a
Life Member.


“I BEQUEATH to my executor (or executors) the sum of —— dollars,
in trust, to pay the same in —— days after my decease to the
person who, when the same is payable, shall act as Treasurer of the
‘American Missionary Association,’ of New York City, to be applied,
under the direction of the Executive Committee of the Association,
to its charitable uses and purposes.” The Will should be attested
by three witnesses.



* * * * *

VOL. XLI. JANUARY, 1887. NO. 1.

* * * * *

American Missionary Association.

* * * * *


THE AMERICAN MISSIONARY wishes all its readers and
friends a “Happy New Year.” The memory of the old year makes this
salutation a hearty one. God has blessed our work in a signal
manner both at the North and at the South. Our appeals have been
heard and have met with generous responses. The religious press
has rendered us most valuable aid. Friends have interested friends
in our behalf. The debt has been almost wiped out. The year of
1886 stands conspicuous in its attestation of the favor God has
given the Association in the eyes of the churches. Our greeting,
therefore, is not merely formal. We have occasion to be grateful.
Will our friends then please be assured of our gratitude, as
entering upon the work of 1887 we wish for them, one and all, a
“Happy New Year.”

This is the time to make resolutions. Good resolutions now formed
and faithfully carried out will be certain to make the new year
a happy one. We would suggest that the resolutions passed at the
National Council at Chicago and adopted as its own by our annual
meeting at New Haven, asking for $350,000 from the churches
this year for our work, be approved by every reader of THE
MISSIONARY, with this one added, “_Resolved_, that I will do
my part as an individual to make these resolutions effectual.”
If this resolution is heartily adopted and lived up to, then
certain results will follow: (1) The sixty per cent. increase
upon the contributions of last year, that the amount called for
necessitates, will be secured. (2) A larger number of churches will
be found among those contributing to the A. M. A. than has ever yet
been recorded. (3) Special appeals will not be heard. (4) Demanded
enlargement of work at a number of points will be made, and new
fields entered. (5) Our missionaries will be made happy in the
knowledge that their work is to be sustained.

We feel that we can ask God’s blessing upon all who thus resolve
with an assurance of faith that the blessing will be bestowed where
the resolution is kept.

One of the crying evils of the times is the severe tax put upon the
eyes by reading small print. THE AMERICAN MISSIONARY has
been an offender in this respect, but it has seen the error of its
ways and promises to try to do better. It has selected the first
month of the new year in which to inaugurate the reform. Small
print has been banished from its pages of reading matter. We trust
that this effort of The Missionary to make its pages more readable
will be responded to by a great increase in the number of its
readers. The annual subscription is only fifty cents.

* * * * *

NOTES IN THE SADDLE, by Field-Superintendent Ryder, is
a heading under which will be found, on another page, some good
reading. We hope to continue these _notes_ during the year. We
caution our readers against falling into the phonetic craze when
they read this announcement. We are not responsible for the way in
which our Superintendent spells his name, but we presume he follows
the analogy of “ancient t_y_me.” At any rate, he who in the saddle,
with reins over the neck and speed unchecked, can make notes, must
be an expert _rider_, no matter how we spell or pronounce his name.

* * * * *

We ask the special attention of our lady readers to the present
number of _The Missionary_. They will find Miss Emerson’s report
and the papers presented by Miss Robertson and Miss Ilsley at the
New Haven meeting, which we print elsewhere, to be most interesting
reading. We are very sorry that space does not permit us to also
print the most excellent address of Mrs. St. Clair. Any lady
who has the January Missionary in her possession and allows the
next Woman’s Missionary Meeting to be a dull one, ought to be
disciplined for not living up to her privileges. Just read this
number through and see if you don’t think so too.

* * * * *

Immediately following the annual meeting, under the charge of
Secretary Shelton, Rev. A. L. Riggs, with Pastor Ehnamani and the
Santee School Indian students, started through New England upon a
speaking and singing campaign in behalf of our Indian Missions. At
the same time, Secretary Roy, accompanied by Rev. Geo. V. Clark, of
Athens, Ga., an ex-slave and a child of the A. M. A., started in
upon a similar campaign through Ohio. For six weeks, meetings were
held almost every night in the week, with occasional meetings in
the afternoon. On Sundays three meetings were usually held. Large
audiences, sometimes crowded, even on week nights, have greeted and
with interest listened to them. At Cleveland both forces joined,
devoting a Sabbath to the Congregational churches in that city.
The Monday evening following, a final meeting of the Ohio campaign
was held in Oberlin, where the magnificent audience and spirit
of the meeting were a worthy close to the series and in perfect
keeping with the historic record of Oberlin on the subject of
missions. Here the bands separated to meet at the end of one week
in Oak Park, where Secretary Roy with his family resides, and where
Secretary Shelton formerly resided. The Congregational church of
Oak Park was crowded to its utmost capacity with those who came to
attend the final meetings of the two campaigns and to listen to the
singing and the speaking of both forces. A beautiful incident in
this meeting was the solo singing of a slave song by Mr. Clark, the
chorus to which was taken up by the Indian students; and another
incident in the same direction was the rendering of a slave song,
in the chorus to which both the audience and the students responded.

* * * * *

To repair the damage done our mission home and school buildings
by the earthquake at Charleston a careful estimate calls for not
less than $2,500. One of our teachers, Mr. E. A. Lawrence, has
been meeting the emergency by holding school in a barn. The time
has come when the necessary repairs must be made, both upon the
home and school. Hundreds of scholars are waiting and parents are
begging that Avery Institute be again opened. In response to our
former appeals for Charleston some special donations have been
received, but they are entirely inadequate to meet the emergency.
We beg leave to remind our friends that the money needed to make
these repairs must be furnished either by special contributions
or else taken out of money already appropriated to other work. We
trust they will not leave us to be compelled to do the latter. It
may also be added that to delay these repairs much longer will
result in the ruin of the buildings.

* * * * *


The Second Annual Report of Commissioner Atkins is a candid and
comprehensive document, dealing briefly but frankly with the
several problems growing out of the relations of the Government to
the Indians. We have not space for a review of the Report, but we
wish to call special attention to the facts which it incidentally
presents as to the neglect of Congress, and especially of the
House of Representatives, to act upon a number of important
bills touching Indian affairs. No less than eight such bills are
mentioned—six of them passed the Senate, but failed to receive
final action in the House—and some of these are by far the most
essential to the welfare of the Indians. Three of these bills we
wish particularly to name: The Dawes’ Bill for the Allotment of
Lands in Severalty; the Sioux Bill for the Division of the great
Sioux Reservation into six reservations; and the Bill for the
Relief of the Mission Indians in California. The first of these is
fundamental to the settlement of the Indians in separate homes,
and consequently to their becoming American citizens; the second
has the same end in view; and the third is a simple act of justice,
long and shamefully deferred, to the suffering and deserving
Indians, whose sad case has been so pathetically depicted by Mrs.
Helen Hunt Jackson in her touching story of Romona.

We ask attention to these bills for a practical purpose. Congress
should be urged to act upon them at once. The present session is
the short one, ending March 4th. If this session closes without
passing these bills, the whole subject will be deferred almost
indefinitely. The next Congress will be a new one; the Members to
some extent will be new; the committees maybe wholly so, and they
may need years of petitioning, educating and inspiring to move them
to proper action on these essential topics. No time can be lost.
No influence is so great upon the average Congressman as letters
directly from his constituents. We therefore urge every reader of
these pages to write at once to the Member of Congress from his
district, or to others whom he may know, asking for prompt and
energetic efforts for the passage of these bills.

On another page of THE MISSIONARY will be found the
admirable address of President Seelye, presenting the paramount
importance of religious effort on the part of the churches in
behalf of the Indians. We are in full accord with this view. But
the Government has also its responsibilities, and all that it does
in the lines we have suggested will only facilitate the work of
preparing the Indians for what we wish them all ultimately to be,
intelligent, self-supporting Christian citizens.

* * * * *



This is woman’s era. Her influence and presence are in all spheres.
Within a quarter of a century there were few in stores, and none in
public offices. To-day they are clerks, operators in the factories,
teachers in schools; they are in telegraph, and telephone, and
post-offices; they are artists and traders; a few are captains
of steamboats; a few are lawyers; now and then one ventures to
preach; and even the mysteries of Wall Street are not terrifying to
them, for they have commenced competition with the brokers. Women
have already won recognition in the practice of medicine, and are
among the most successful practitioners in all great cities. They
are among the most popular lecturers. At least one of the most
successful publishing houses in New York is owned and managed by
a woman. In business and on the platform she has ceased to be a

The power of woman in politics is not appreciated, but it is one
of the most vital forces of this century. No Anarchist in Paris
could influence the Faubourgs quicker than Louise Michel. In
the history of Nihilism in Russia no names have been regarded
with more devotion by those struggling for wider liberty, and
none more dreaded by the existing order, than Sophie Perovskaia,
Jessy Helfman and Vera Zassulic. Charles Dickens never exhibited
a truer insight into human nature than when he made a woman the
impersonation of remorseless vengeance.

But notwithstanding all that women are doing in trades, industries,
politics, it still remains that in works of reform, charity and
missions, she is especially distinguishing herself.

Two of the largest and most efficient charitable institutions
in the world, viz: “The Deaconesses’ Institution of Rhenish
Westphalia, at Kaiserwent,” and “The Mildmay Conference Hall and
Deaconesses’ Home, in London,” are almost exclusively in the hands
of women. The influence of these two noble charities reaches around
the world, not only in works of beneficence, but also in active
evangelistic ministry.

The first person to call attention to the horrible condition
of English prisons was Elizabeth Fry. The horrors of war were
immeasurably mitigated by Florence Nightingale. She gave an impetus
to the work of training nurses, which has grown into enthusiasm in
all civilized lands. Agnes Jones changed the work-house hospitals
of Great Britain, from places of torture into places of blessing.
Sister Dora glorified the “Black Country” by her heroism and
self-sacrifice. The first person to make practical a good plan for
improved tenement houses was Octavia Hill. Her efforts reach the
people which such houses as those built by the Peabody estate only

In this country the most conspicuous effort to improve the
low-class of tenement houses has also been made by a woman. The
success Miss Collins has won in Gotham Court is one of the most
noticeable in the history of such efforts. The Bureau of Charities
in New York is very largely managed by Mrs. Lowell and her devoted
co-workers. The President of the American Branch of the Red Cross
Society, that non-sectarian, but most Christian Association, which
extends its arms of blessing wherever human suffering is found, is
that American Florence Nightingale, whose heroism and sacrifice on
Southern battle-fields can never be too highly appreciated—Clara
Barton. And these are only hints, here and there, of woman’s work
in charity.

If now we turn to her service in Reform we are met, at once, by
the fact that not even the fiery eloquence of Phillips, nor the
unconquerable agitations of Garrison did so much to hasten the
abolition of slavery as the persuasion and persuasive eloquence of
Mrs. Stowe, in Uncle Tom’s Cabin. People were beguiled into reading
that, who would not have listened to a word from the equally
sincere, but more rampant agitators.

After the abolition of slavery there remained that other relic
of barbarism, entrenched in a far more impregnable position, the
rum-power. Intemperance has had to meet many who have attacked it
in past days, but never yet an organization so tireless in effort,
so fertile in expedients, and so exhaustless in resources as the
Women’s Christian Temperance Union. That association has made many
mistakes, and is in danger of making many more, but one of the
elements of its power is its willingness to learn. If it cannot
fight with one weapon it adopts another. The brewers and distillers
have millions of money at their command, but millions of money are
not so formidable as millions of motherly hearts.

If now we turn to that other evil, more subtly and surely ruinous
even than intemperance, impurity and the social evil, we find a new
organization rising with great promise of power, viz.: The White
Cross Society. The aim of that Association is to promote purity. It
reaches out its hands to young men and women alike, and that work,
in its organized form, owes its existence to the fertile brain
and motherly heart of Josephine Butler, the wife of a canon of an
English cathedral.

If woman works for the salvation of the physical life of her
brothers and sisters, of course she must be equally anxious for
the salvation of their souls. Woman has an instinct for religion.
Living a life of greater seclusion than man, her heart in the
silence, like a flower in the darkness, has grown toward the light.
And this spiritual faculty has found the natural field for its
operations in missionary work. The first American missionary martyr
was Harriet Newell. Grand as was the life, and courageous as was
the heart of Adoniram Judson, in all that called for heroism and
consecration he was surpassed by his first wife, the beautiful, the
almost preternaturally heroic Ann Hasseltine.

Women preponderate in all the departments of missionary activity.
They are in distant lands as teachers, Bible-readers, nurses,
physicians, missionaries’ wives. They go enthusiastically to homes
in dug-out houses, and teach school and rear and train children,
and keep the house, and do the drudgery, and then go to heaven,
without complaining of earthly obscurity. They are among the
Indians on their reservations, and in the Chinese quarters of the
Pacific cities. But it has sometimes seemed to me that the most
difficult and unattractive work for Christ that woman has ever
undertaken, has been among the millions of blacks in the South. The
work itself in many instances, if not all, has been disagreeable,
if not repulsive. It has been at home, and has not inspired the
enthusiastic admiration which has been given to those who have been
in the foreign field. It has been attended with misconception,
social ostracism, and sometimes with personal danger not found in
any other branch of missionary service. But in all parts of the
South are women at work with no motive but the love of Christ and
humanity, winning souls by their Christ-like examples, and refining
the uncultivated and vicious by the sweetness and purity of their
unconsciously beautiful lives.

Woman’s work for woman among the blacks of the United States is
the most important of all work for that people. Pure women have
lessons to teach their own sex who have been degraded by a century
of bondage, or who are the inheritors of the legacies of slavery,
that none others can teach, and which must be well learned before
there can be much progress in the moral amelioration of the race.

Her enthusiasm, her swift hostility to the more degrading sins,
her sympathy which bears all the sorrows of those around her, her
intuition of the Divine Fatherhood, and her patience, qualify woman
for kinds of work which most men can never do so well. But there
is one thing that men can do—they can remember the Apostle’s
injunction, “Help those women.”

* * * * *



The whole number of Indians in the United States, including Alaska,
probably is not far from 300,000, of whom about one-half now wear
citizen’s dress, and about one-fourth speak the English language
sufficiently to be understood. Some of these people are citizens,
and some are wards of the nation. They differ from each other as
they differ from us, in their languages and thoughts and ways. They
represent nearly every grade of civilized and savage life. Their
original rights to a large portion of our national domain we have
recognized by purchase and by treaties, which have plighted the
faith of the nation for their protection and support. We certainly
desire to live in peace with them, but with many of them we are in
constant danger of war. What shall we do with them and for them?
How shall we wisely maintain our rights respecting them, and at the
same time righteously fulfill our obligations? How shall the Indian
cease to disturb us, and become a blessing to the nation?

There is really but one solution to the Indian problem, though many
have been prominently attempted. We have tried to force the Indian.
We have fought him. We have shut him in upon reservations. We have
made a pretence of feeding and clothing him. We have tried our hand
at civilization, have built school-houses, provided teachers, and
gathered Indian children together, and taught them the rudiments
of learning. We have furnished them with implements and helps to
agriculture, and some of the mechanic arts. But the results, it
must be admitted, are not re-assuring. When we fight Indians,
they fight too, and their fighting is apt to be, in proportion to
their numbers, much more successful than ours. In the Report of
the Commissioner of Indian Affairs for 1868, there is an estimate
of the expenditure of some late Indian wars, from which we learn
that it has cost the United States Government on an average one
million of dollars, and the lives of twenty-five white men to kill
an Indian. “There is no good Indian but a dead Indian,” said Gen.
Sheridan, Lieutenant-general of our army, but the process of making
the Indians good in this way is at least a costly one, and the
prospect of success can hardly be considered hopeful.

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Online LibraryVariousThe American Missionary — Volume 41, No. 1, January, 1887 → online text (page 1 of 6)