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The American Missionary

(QUARTERLY)

OCT.}
NOV.} 1900
DEC.}

VOL. LIV.
No. 4.

* * * * *

[Illustration: AIBONITO, PORTO RICO.]

* * * * *

NEW YORK:

PUBLISHED QUARTERLY BY THE AMERICAN MISSIONARY ASSOCIATION,

THE CONGREGATIONAL ROOMS,

FOURTH AVENUE AND TWENTY-SECOND STREET, NEW YORK.

* * * * *

Price 50 Cents a Year in advance.

Entered at the Post Office at New York, N. Y., as Second-Class mail matter.

* * * * *

CONTENTS.

* * * * *

PAGE

FINANCIAL 145

ANNUAL MEETING 145

EDITORIAL NOTES 147

LE MOYNE NORMAL INSTITUTE 149

REINFORCEMENTS FROM AVERY INSTITUTE 155

WHAT OUR GRADUATES DO 156

SCHOOL LIFE IN PORTO RICO 157

AMONG THE INDIANS 164

THE PRESENT CRISIS IN CHINA, FROM THE STANDPOINT OF A
CHRISTIAN CHINESE 169

CHRISTIAN ENDEAVORERS IN THE A. M. A. CHURCHES AND SCHOOLS 175

OBITUARY - PRES. E. M. CRAVATH, D.D. 177

MEMORIAL SERVICE AT FISK UNIVERSITY 178

RECEIPTS 179

WOMAN'S STATE ORGANIZATIONS 190

SECRETARIES OF YOUNG PEOPLE'S AND CHILDREN'S WORK 192

* * * * *

THE 54th ANNUAL MEETING

OF THE

American Missionary Association

WILL BE HELD IN

SPRINGFIELD, MASS.

October 23-25, 1900.

Rev. Newell Dwight Hillis, D.D., preaches Annual Sermon.

* * * * *

The AMERICAN MISSIONARY presents new form, fresh material and
generous illustrations for 1900. This magazine is published by the
American Missionary Association quarterly. Subscription rate fifty
cents per year.

Many wonderful missionary developments in our own country during this
stirring period of national enlargement are recorded in the columns
of this magazine.

* * * * *

THE AMERICAN MISSIONARY.

VOL. LIV. OCTOBER, 1900. NO. 4.

* * * * *

[Sidenote: Financial.]

The Association closed the year without debt and has a balance in the
treasury of $1,601.90 for current work, not including the balance in
Reserve Legacy Account for the periods when the receipts from
legacies fall below the average on which the Committee makes its
estimate of available receipts from this source for current work of
the year.

We go to our Annual Meeting in Springfield, October 23d, with faith
in the ability and devotion of those who sustain the work and with
full courage and hopefulness for still greater results in the new
year.

* * * * *

ANNUAL MEETING.


[Sidenote: Place.]

Springfield, Mass., is not only one of the most beautiful cities in
New England, but is especially adapted for a great convention like
the Fifty-fourth Annual gathering of the American Missionary
Association. With cordial hospitality the members of the churches and
citizens of Springfield have opened their homes and hearts to welcome
the delegates, life members, officers and missionaries who gather for
this meeting October 23-25th. State associations, local conferences
and contributing churches are all entitled to delegate representation
at this meeting. Each church should early select its delegates and
send their names to the Chairman of the Entertainment Committee. The
committee cannot promise to furnish entertainment for those whose
applications are received after October 20th.

It seemed probable to the friends in Springfield that no church was
large enough to hold the audiences which would gather for this
meeting. The Court Square Theatre, which has the largest auditorium
of any public building in the city, was therefore secured.
Springfield is the centre of a large population gathered in other
towns and villages as well as within its own municipal borders and
easy connection is made through trolley lines or railroads.

[Sidenote: Committees.]

Rev. Philip S. Moxom, D.D., is Chairman of the General Committee. Mr.
Charles D. Reid, 255 Main Street, is Chairman of the Committee on
Transportation. Mr. Clarence E. Blake, 11 Dartmouth Street, is
Chairman of the Entertainment Committee. Rev. Newton M. Hall is
Chairman of the Press and Printing Committee. Mr. Charles A. Royce is
Chairman of the Committee of Arrangements.

Those desiring information will receive it by writing to a chairman
of the proper committee given above.

[Sidenote: Transportation.]

Reduced fares amounting to one and one-third of the full fare have
been arranged on the certificate plan. When purchasing a ticket a
certificate must be received from the selling ticket agent and when
presented at the Annual Meeting will secure the reduced rate in the
return fare.

[Sidenote: Program.]

Rev. Newell Dwight Hillis, D.D., of New York, will preach the Annual
Sermon Tuesday evening, October 23d. The program has been prepared to
cover not only the reports of the work of the American Missionary
Association but also to provide for the discussion of large and
fundamental problems. Prominent clergymen and laymen of our own
denomination will be present. There will also be represented on the
platform societies and institutions working along the same line in
cordial and hearty Christian sympathy. This will add greatly to the
interest of the meeting and to the scope of discussions. Thus the
Fifty-fourth Annual Meeting will present a platform and not an organ.

[Sidenote: Jubilee Singers.]

A band of Jubilee Singers from Fisk University, Tenn., will be
present and add greatly to the sessions by their quaint and pathetic
music. This is always an interesting feature of the American
Missionary Association convention appreciated by all.

[Sidenote: Industrial Exhibit.]

An industrial exhibit containing samples of the work in
representative Association schools will present an object lesson of
this work. This exhibit will be in the chapel of the First
Congregational Church near by the place of meetings.

[Sidenote: Missionaries.]

The most interesting feature of the meeting, however, will doubtless
be the messages that come from the missionaries, a large number of
whom will be present. These men and women are on the advanced line in
this great movement for many races, including millions of peoples who
especially need the influence and power of an intelligent Gospel.
Among these missionaries will be representatives of different races.
Porto Rico, the new field entered a year ago, will be represented by
a missionary whose work has been especially valuable.

[Sidenote: Special.]

A special number of the _Springfield Union_ will be issued containing
a full verbatim report of the various sessions. This will be sent to
ministers so as to reach them, if possible, Saturday morning, October
27th. Pastors desiring to present the work of this Association to
their people will find this extra of great value.

In the scope of the discussions, the ability and variety of speakers,
the interesting and accessible places of note in and around the city
of meeting, and the great interest now taken in the problems which
the American Missionary Association is seeking to solve, the
Fifty-fourth Annual Meeting promises to be a large and even
epoch-marking convention.

* * * * *

[Sidenote: President Cravath.]

The death of President Erastus M. Cravath removes from the counsel
and service of the American Missionary Association one of its most
prominent and successful missionaries. Few men have so largely
affected the life of the nation through educational lines as has
President Cravath. After some years of service in the office of the
Association he became President of Fisk University, and has brought
that institution to the foremost rank in the intellectual and moral
development of the Negroes of this country. An extended obituary
notice is given on other pages of this magazine. Here, the writer,
having had close personal association with President Cravath for many
years, desires to bear his testimony with earnest and loving emphasis
to the large and strong character of the man, and his single and
unwavering purpose to accomplish the largest and best service
possible for those to whom he gave his ministry in unstinted measure.
No one can fill his place, for it was not only large but unique. He
was a leader who came to the front in the most trying period in the
history of the Negroes, and he led them with soundest judgment as
well as heroic fortitude. These people have lost not only a friend,
but a steady and strong guide.

* * * * *

[Sidenote: Chinese Gifts.]

The work of the American Missionary Association among the Chinese in
America is illustrated in the financial statement of the American
Board. Rev. Jee Gam, who has charge of the work among his fellow
Chinamen in San Francisco, has just sent a check of one hundred
dollars to the American Board for the North China Christian Relief
Fund. This money was all contributed by members of the Chinese
churches on the Pacific Slope. Other contributions are promised. No
one can doubt that a large element in the evangelization of China
must be the Chinese of America.

* * * * *

[Sidenote: Congregational Associations Among the Highlands.]

The Cumberland Valley Association of Congregational Churches met in
Jellico, Tenn., September 14th. The churches of the association were
generally represented. Churches of other denominations at Jellico
welcomed the meeting of the association and cordially entertained the
delegates. The increase in the population of Jellico and the
surrounding districts has greatly emphasized the importance of our
work in that region.

The Cumberland Plateau Association of Congregational Churches and
Sunday schools met with the church at Grand View, Tenn., September
26-27th. The meeting was one of unusual interest. The work on the
Plateau, as represented in the reports from the churches, was on the
whole encouraging.

* * * * *

[Sidenote: Interesting Convention.]

An interesting convention of colored men was held in Boston, August
23d-24th. This convention, known as the Negro Business Men's
Conference, was a meeting of great importance and interest. Principal
Booker T. Washington and other prominent colored men were present,
and large attention was given to the consideration of the Negroes in
the business world, their place and opportunities. The topics covered
a large field bearing upon the self-support and business
opportunities and responsibilities of the Negroes. The gathering was
largely representative from different parts of the country, and the
discussions were able and comprehensive. A permanent organization was
formed to be known as a business league, the purpose of which is to
promote and develop business methods and to create larger confidence
on the part of the Negroes themselves in their own ability. As a
whole the convention was very encouraging and hopeful.

* * * * *

[Sidenote: Texas.]

Several friends have sent contributions to this office to help those
who have suffered from the terrible storm in Galveston and the
interior of Texas. These gifts have been forwarded to a missionary
pastor near Galveston and will be wisely administered.

* * * * *

LE MOYNE NORMAL INSTITUTE.

PROF. A. J. STEELE, MEMPHIS, TENN.


The school bears the honored name of one who, in the long years of
the anti-slavery agitation, was known as an uncompromising friend of
human freedom. It stands, with its nearly thirty years of successful
work, a most fitting memorial of his life and labors for humanity. A
personal friend and an associate of Dr. Strieby of sacred memory, in
the anti-slavery crusade, Dr. F. Julius Le Moyne, of Washington, Pa.,
seeing the great need of education and practical training for the
freed people of the South and anticipating a bequest made in his
will, advanced to the American Missionary Association some twenty
thousand dollars for the establishment of the school at Memphis.

[Illustration: PRINCIPAL A. J. STEELE.]

The school building and a "Home" for the workers, made necessary by
the needs of the work and the adverse feeling toward teachers of
colored schools, were erected and the school was opened in October,
1871. From that time till now the American Missionary Association has
had charge of this school.

It was the wish of Dr. Le Moyne that the work of the school should be
prosecuted along the most practical lines, to meet the more pressing
demands of an untrained race, and to this end he stipulated that the
so-called "dead languages" should form no part of its course of
study, and that it should be adapted to the relief of the most
pressing wrongs and needs of the colored people in the struggle for
life to which emancipation had brought them. His wishes have been
respected and the school has remained distinctively an English
school, with as great attention to industrial training as time and
means would allow.

The growth of the school, in all that counts to strengthen and
confirm its influence and usefulness, has been steady and
uninterrupted from the beginning, with its attendance of 250 pupils
of low grades, to the present year, with an enrollment of over 700,
distributed through its twelve years of study and training, over 200
of whom are in the Normal Department fitting for the work of
teaching.

[Illustration: LE MOYNE INSTITUTE AND MISSION HOME.]

The first class of two was graduated in 1876; since that over two
hundred young people have received the diploma of the school, most of
whom are living useful, self-respecting lives in the many communities
where they have found homes.

To meet the needs of this constant growth the buildings have been
enlarged repeatedly and a separate building for manual training,
woodworking, printing, etc., has been erected.

Probably the most apparent work accomplished by the school has been
the training of teachers for the public schools, hundreds of whom
have gone out from our training and are now doing good work in
Tennessee and the adjoining States of Arkansas and Mississippi.

Under the direction of the same principal for all but the first two
years of its existence, the school has become the centre of many
lines of influence extending in many directions and affecting many
interests among the people. A library of some three thousand volumes
has been gathered and has proved of great value to the students and
to the community. Nothing else so directly and surely acts to train
to thoughtful and self-respecting lives as an acquaintance with the
literature of the English language and with the personalities of the
great minds who have produced it.

One of the cherished purposes of the school is to fit up a number of
"traveling libraries," each of a score or so of volumes, carefully
selected to place at the disposal, in routine order, of graduates of
the school teaching in country communities.

The public school teachers (colored) of the county have for years
held monthly meetings at Le Moyne Institute, and for the past year
have received regular instruction in the teaching of vocal music from
the director of music of the school.

[Illustration: GRADUATE TEACHERS, LE MOYNE INSTITUTE.]

The Alumni Association is an active and influential organization
which acts with the institution in many ways, carrying on a course of
lectures each term by prominent men of the community and assisting
materially by the contribution of money for its Industrial work. At
the present time this association has in hand a fund of over $200, to
be used in this way, while, at the same time, it is purchasing a new
piano for use in the Music Department. Few of our schools have more
loyal supporters among their graduates than Le Moyne. Coherence and
co-operation in racial interests are quite lacking and much needed
among the colored people, such co-operation as is best illustrated by
the Texas movement, described by the Hon. R. L. Smith, of Oakland,
Texas, in a recent issue of _The Independent_. Such work as has been
done at Oakland is, in many places, quietly being set on foot, with
varying degrees of success, by students and associations of students,
who had their training in schools of the American Missionary
Association. The immediate aim and end of all our work is the social
betterment of the people, and in the end its efficiency will be
measured according as it succeeds or fails in this respect.

The history of education in America, written largely during the past
thirty years, has few features of wider interest or deeper meaning
than the establishment and remarkable development of the "mission
schools" among the colored people of the South since their
emancipation. The spelling-book followed hard by the teachings of the
Bible, constituted the course of instruction at the beginning; this
simple beginning has developed into a great system of training and
instruction that exemplifies the latest and best methods of education
and of school administration known anywhere, from the kindergarten
through the common school branches, with manual or industrial
training, to the normal school and college. These ideas and methods
have very generally been extended and adopted into the common public
schools and the higher state institutions, mostly taught and managed
by graduates of the mission schools.

[Illustration: CHILDREN'S CHILDREN, LE MOYNE INSTITUTE.]

All this growth of educational institutions and facilities would have
been impossible except that along with it and acting as the
underlying cause of and reason for it, there has gone a corresponding
development of individuals of the race and of the race collectively,
for whose uplifting it has most providentially been brought into
existence.

The illustration entitled "Children's Children," accompanying this
article, shows a class of children whose _grandparents_, direct from
slavery, began with awkward, faltering steps to tread the "hidden
paths of knowledge," and whose parents in their turn were graduated
from the Normal department of Le Moyne School.

These grandchildren, one of whom in May, 1900, received from the
hands of the principal the same diploma that, more than twenty years
before, had been handed her mother, stand a proof positive, that may
be read by those who run, of individual and racial development, not
to be gainsaid or doubted. They possess a mental horizon far wider
and more luminous than that of their grandparents, direct from
bondage, and they are responsive to influences and emotions to which
both parents and grandparents were strangers.

These "children's children," and there are thousands of them
throughout the South, stand now as the hope and promise of the race.
They represent practically a new race, with new and higher ideals and
aims than their parents or grandparents could know. These ideals are
not only those of a wider intellectual life, they reach out to the
home, to industrial occupations and up to a purer, more practical
form of worship as expressive of the religious life.

If you would come at the fountain and source of this purer, broader,
safer life, in all these walks of life, come with me and look through
the various departments of Le Moyne Institute, or any one of a large
number of similar schools of the American Missionary Association,
founded and supported chiefly by the benevolent people of the North.
In the line of intellectual awakening a glimpse into classes in
history, in literature, science and mathematics, backed up by the
influence coming from personal association with trained, Christian
instructors, and you will not fail to recognize the means, entirely
adequate to produce the result in question before you.

Would you lay your hand on the springs that have transformed the
home, step with me to the sewing-room where, month after month and
year after year, the children are trained in needlework, in the
cutting, fitting and making of the wearing apparel that the home must
provide; into the experimental kitchen where every girl at the proper
stage of her training is taught the value of various foods and has
practice in preparing them, where in fact all that pertains to the
administration of the household is carefully studied and practiced
under the direction of a skillful instructor.

The well-equipped woodworking shop, with its orderly benches and its
system of drafting, of joining and of general construction, is giving
the boy the best use of his hands and placing within his reach the
power to build his own house and keep it in repair, or to go on to
the mastery of a useful trade and through it to the securing of a
means of livelihood. The printing office, too, gives yet another line
of hand training and at the same time of intellectual accuracy in
other directions and studies.

For the special Normal training of teachers the practice of teaching
in the lower grades and classes under the supervision of a regular
critic teacher, is carried through the greater part of the senior
year, after the study of psychology has been mastered and the
principles of school management have been taught.

And, finally, throughout the course the Bible, with its hopes and
promises, its warnings and denunciations of evil conduct, is
constantly taught and its sanctions utilized in the formation and
strengthening of character, and in most cases it is found powerful in
leading to the choice of the Christian life.

Thus is the work of Le Moyne Institute summarized, and such would it
be found any day in the year. Its teachers, in their life as a
family, in the teachers' home, comprise a "social settlement" that
was in successful operation years before the name came to have any
significance among the forces working for the social uplifting of the
poor and the outcast of society.

[Illustration: CLASS OF 1900, LE MOYNE INSTITUTE.]

One other feature is worthy of mention with the work at Memphis, that
is, the cordial and mutually helpful relations existing between the
church and the school. They supplement, each, the work of the other,
and pastor and teachers plan and work together for the same end, the
general betterment of all the people.

Finally, Le Moyne school has from the first been fortunate in gaining
and holding the respect and esteem of the best, most thoughtful white
people of Memphis, and of many other communities from which our
students have come and back into which they have again returned, to
act as regulating, renewing agencies among the people. Surely the
workers in the field should not be slow nor timid in asking for the
means to carry forward and to make more effective such a work as
this. It is not a losing battle we wage. Every heart and life that
has come into near and vital contact with the work has been itself
quickened and inspired by a service so effective and life-giving. It
is the old story ever repeated - "He that goeth forth and weepeth,
bearing precious seed, shall doubtless return again, bearing his
sheaves with him."

* * * * *

REINFORCEMENTS FROM AVERY INSTITUTE.


From Avery Normal Institute, Charleston, S. C., twenty-three young
men and women have entered upon the active responsibilities of life,
having been graduated from that institution. This constitutes a
valuable body of reinforcements to the work which the American
Missionary Association is doing in that State for the educational and
moral uplifting of the people. The heroism involved in securing their
education, both on the part of the pupils and their parents, is
emphasized in the record of the facts.


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