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The American Missionary

* * * * *

October, 1888.

Volume XLII No. 10.

* * * * *


Financial. Annual Meeting
Voting Members - Paragraphs
Qualifications Of Candidates For Mission Work
Immigrants And Negroes
Book Review
Gift Of Books From Mr. Willey
The Unconscious Influence Of Our Missionaries
Expulsion Of Negroes From Marion, Ark
School Echoes
Rome And The Freedmen

Vacation Echoes
Extract From A Graduating Essay

The Blue-Jacket Teacher

Mr. Moody's Missionary Meetings

Confucius And Christ

Sketch Of Mission Life On The Frontier


* * * * *



Rooms, 56 Reade Street.

* * * * *

Price, 50 Cents a Year, in Advance.

Entered at the Post Office at New York, N.Y., as second class matter.

* * * * *

The American Missionary

American Missionary Association.

* * * * *

President, Rev. WM. M. Taylor, D.D., LL.D., N.Y.


Rev. A.J.F. Behrends, D.D., N.Y.
Rev. Alex. Mckenzie, D.D., Mass.
Rev. F.A. Noble, D.D., Ill.
Rev. D.O. Mears, D.D., Mass.
Rev. Henry Hopkins, D.D., Mo.

Corresponding Secretaries.

Rev. M.E. Strieby, D.D., 56 Reade Street, N.Y.
Rev. A.F. Beard, D.D., 56 Reade Street, N.Y.


H.W. Hubbard, Esq., 56 Reade Street, N.Y.


Peter McCartee.
Chas. P. Peirce.

Executive Committee.

John H. Washburn, Chairman.
Addison P. Foster, Secretary.

For Three Years.

Lyman Abbott,
Charles A. Hull,
J.R. Danforth,
Clinton B. Fisk,
Addison P. Foster,

For Two Years.

S.B. Halliday,
Samuel Holmes,
Samuel S. Marples,
Charles L. Mead,
Elbert B. Monroe,

For One Year.

J.E. Rankin,
Wm. H. Ward,
J.W. Cooper,
John H. Washburn,
Edmund L. Champlin.

District Secretaries.

Rev. C.J. Ryder, 21 Cong'l House, Boston.
Rev. J.E. Roy, D.D., 151 Washington Street, Chicago.

Financial Secretary for Indian Missions.

Rev. Chas. W. Shelton.

Secretary of Woman's Bureau.

Miss D.E. Emerson, 56 Reade St., N.Y.

* * * * *


Relating to the work of the Association may be addressed to the
Corresponding Secretaries; letters for "THE AMERICAN MISSIONARY," to
the Editor, at the New York Office.


In drafts, checks, registered letters, or post-office orders, may be
sent to H.W. Hubbard, Treasurer, 56 Reade Street, New York, or, when
more convenient, to either of the Branch Offices, 21 Congregational
House, Boston, Mass., or 151 Washington Street, Chicago, Ill. A
payment of thirty dollars at one time constitutes a Life Member.


"I BEQUEATH to my executor (or executors) the sum of - - dollars,
in trust, to pay the same in - - days after my decease to the
person who, when the same is payable, shall act as Treasurer of the
'American Missionary Association,' of New York City, to be applied,
under the direction of the Executive Committee of the Association, to
its charitable uses and purposes." The Will should be attested by
three witnesses.

* * * * *

The American Missionary.

VOL. XLII. OCTOBER, 1888. No. 10.

American Missionary Association.

* * * * *


Our receipts for the eleven months ending August 31st show an increase
from collections of $14,452.76; a decrease in legacies of $5,195.52;
with a net increase of $9,257.24 over the corresponding months of last
year. On the other hand, the expenditures for these eleven months have
been $31,835.70 more than those of last year, and hence a debt of over
$22,000 is impending. The explanation is to be found in the fact that
an unusually large per cent. of our collections this year is in
specified gifts for special objects, and could not, therefore, be used
to meet appropriations for current work; and the added expenditures
have been absolutely required by the natural and healthful growth in
our varied industrial, school and church work in all parts of our
extended field.

As our friends have had occasion to know, we are making an earnest
appeal for special help to avert this threatened debt. The responses
thus far are encouraging, but not such as to leave the question beyond
doubt. This magazine will reach most of our readers before the last
Sunday of the month. We urgently appeal to our friends to make a grand
rally on that day for our relief.

* * * * *


The forty-second Annual Meeting of the American Missionary Association
will be held at Providence, R.I., Oct. 23-25. The meeting will open
promptly at 3 o'clock, Tuesday P.M., Oct. 23. On Tuesday evening, the
annual sermon will be preached by Rev. Arthur Little, D.D., of
Chicago. Those purposing to be present and wishing entertainment are
requested to write to Mr. G.E. Luther, Secretary of Committee of
Entertainment, Providence, R.I. (See the last page of the cover.)

* * * * *


By our Constitution it will be observed that the following persons are
entitled to vote at the annual meetings of this Association: Members
of evangelical churches who have been constituted life members by the
payment of $30 into its treasury, with the written declaration at the
time or times of payment that the sum is to be applied to constitute a
designated person a life member, such membership beginning sixty days
after the payment; delegates chosen to attend the annual meeting by
evangelical churches which have within a year contributed to the funds
of the Association, such churches being entitled to send two delegates
each. Each State Conference or Association is also entitled to send
two delegates. Such delegates are members of the Association for the
year for which they were appointed.

We sincerely urge our patrons to avail themselves of the opportunity
thus afforded to participate in the management of the trusts of this
Association, hoping that by so doing they will share more fully in the
responsibility of its work and become more helpful in furthering its
development in years to come.

* * * * *

We are happy to announce the return of Rev. Dr. Beard. He attended the
London Missionary Conference, as the delegate of the American
Missionary Association, and presented a paper on "History of Missions
among the North American Indians." He was called by a telegram to
Florence to the sick bed of two of his children, one of them very
severely ill. Both recovered and he now returns to America, himself
and family in excellent health. During his absence, he preached in his
former pulpit in the American Church in Paris, and met many of his
former parishioners. He had become greatly attached to that church and
much interested in the very successful McAll Mission, to which he was
greatly helpful. We welcome him once more to his chosen field in the
work of the A.M.A., where he will find ample room for the exertion of
his best energies.

* * * * *

The executive committee of the American Missionary Association has
unanimously appointed the Rev. Frank E. Jenkins a Field
Superintendent, to examine and report upon the work of our schools and
churches in our Southern field. Mr. Jenkins is a graduate of Williams
College, Massachusetts, and has had some years' experience as a
principal of advanced schools. He is a graduate of Hartford
Theological Seminary, and has been engaged successfully in our work in
the South. Some parts of the field are already well known to him, and
with others he will make immediate acquaintance. We commend him to our
missionary teachers and preachers in the field, as a beloved Christian
brother whose heart is in full sympathy with our work. We
trust that the relationships which will be established, will be
fruitful in helpfulness. His residence will be in Chattanooga, Tenn.

* * * * *

The prevalence of yellow fever at Jacksonville, Fla., and the danger
of its spreading into the towns and cities of the southeast, will make
it wise for us to delay for a time the opening of a few of our schools
in that region. In former years some of our teachers, while at their
posts, were caught by this malignant scourge and they faced the danger
bravely - some of them laying down their lives and others permanently
impairing their healths, by taking care of the smitten ones. Such
heroism is demanded when the danger comes, but it does not seem best
to seek the danger. A little delay in some places, we hope, will be
all that is necessary.

* * * * *

By the time these pages reach our readers, most of our workers will
have resumed their labors in the South. Many of the ministers and a
few of the teachers have remained at their posts all summer, but the
schools have been closed. Work in the cotton fields has called for the
younger pupils, the summer schools have given employment to the older
ones, while rest and a change of climate have been required by the
white teachers from the North. But now activities will be resumed, and
we contemplate the work with joy and hope.

These workers, and others like them, are the hope of the South. They
go not arrayed and armed for bloody battle-fields; they go not as
commercial travelers to sell the wares of the North; they go not as
capitalists to start the whirling spindles or to kindle the fires in
the smelting furnaces; they go not as politicians to speak for or
against tariffs, nor to build up or break down parties. Their work is
quieter and deeper than all this. They reach the mind and heart. As
Christ aimed not so much at once to tear down or build up the outer,
but to reach the inner springs of the soul, so these workers aim to
make character, intelligent, pure, active, and thus to impel to all
that is noble and honest in life, that stimulates to industry,
economy, thrift - to making the home pure and all outer things
prosperous and right. But, as Christ was misunderstood and rejected,
so are these laborers ostracized. We rejoice to find a growing
recognition of their worth and work, and trust that the day is coming
when they will be fully appreciated and welcomed. In the meantime they
toil on uncomplainingly, and for their sakes and for the work's sake
we invoke, not perfunctorily but earnestly, the prayers of God's
ministers and people in their behalf.

* * * * *

On another page will be found a review of two books by the well-known
author, Edmund Kirke (J.R. Gilmore), who has made a special study of
the white people of the Mountain regions of the South. Mr. Kirke has
at our invitation prepared a paper to be read at our Annual
Meeting, in connection with the Report on our Mountain Work. We have
been permitted to read it. It is replete with racy incidents and
delineations of quaint yet noble characters. If the tears and smiles
which the reading of the paper drew from us are any test, then we can
promise a treat to those who may hear it at the meeting in Providence.

* * * * *


Many of our missionaries who are engaged in their devoted and
self-denying labors in the South, have been compelled by the nature of
our work to take their summer vacations. The educational work of the
American Missionary Association is through and through a missionary
work. It is begun with a missionary purpose and is carried on in the
name of Christ to disciple the people, that they may know Him who is
the Way, the Truth and the Life. All of our teachers are sent to be
missionaries. Many are returning now to their fields of service with
which they are well acquainted, and some are going for the first time.
Among these, questions are raised as to the requirements needed in
those who are to go. We have thought that a few suggestions given to
the candidates for the China Inland Mission by Hudson Taylor, might be
properly repeated here for those who are to take upon themselves these
responsible Christian duties. He says:

First of all, it is absolutely essential that those desiring to be
missionaries should have a deep love for Christ, a full grasp of His
plan of salvation, and be wholly consecrated, in their inward lives,
to Him. Mission work is not preaching grand sermons, or witnessing
marvellous baptisms; it is a patient Christ-like life, day by day,
far from external help, far from those we love; a quiet sowing of
tiny seeds, which may take long years to show above the ground,
combined with a steady bearing of loneliness, discomfort and petty
persecution. The work demands of every worker very real and manifest
self-sacrifice and acts of faith. It aims at, and ought to be
satisfied with, nothing less than the conversion of the people to
God. Not witness-bearing merely, but fruit-bearing is the end in
view. Anything short of the salvation of souls is failure.

It is generally found that when people are of no use at home, they
are of no use in the mission field. The bright, brave, earnest
spirit, ready to face difficulties at home, is the right spirit for
the work abroad. A patient, persevering, plodding spirit, attempting
great things for God, and expecting great things from God, is
absolutely essential to success in missionary efforts. Those will
not make the best missionaries who are easily daunted by the first
difficulty or opposition, but those whose strength is equal to
waiting upon God, and who fight through all obstacles by prayer and
faith. The spasmodic worker, frantic in zeal one month, and at
freezing-point another, will be weary long before the station has
been reached: while in the strength of Christ the weakest of us need
not draw back, nor say, "I am not fit," yet nothing less than
burning love to Christ, and in Him to perishing souls, will survive
and overleap the difficulties and disappointments of the work.

These are royal words, and we believe that our teachers and
missionaries engaged in this most glorious work of saving needy souls
will take with them this spirit, and be blessed in the communication
of their blessing to others.

* * * * *


The Immigrant question challenges attention. Shall immigrants be
welcomed, restricted or prohibited? In the early days of the Republic,
when the revolutionary war had welded the people together and our
boundless territory begged for occupancy, we welcomed the oppressed of
all nations. Later, the welcome has been responded to by such a
rushing, heterogeneous and even dangerous mass that we are compelled
to pause. Restriction is talked of, but the line of discrimination is
hard to be fixed. No committee at Castle Garden can detect anarchists,
criminals, or even the poor, if that line should be chosen.
Prohibition - exclusion is talked of - nay, is enacted stringently
against the Chinese. If need be, it may extend to all. So there is a
way of averting this evil.

But the Negro question cannot be put away. The Negroes are here. They
outnumber the immigrants that have come to our shores in the last
thirty years, and have a foothold upon the soil as valid as the Aryan
race, whether we consider the date of their coming or the labor they
have put upon the land.

There is a strange disposition to shrink from the Negro question. Some
avoid it by flippantly denying the danger; others turn from it because
they are appalled by it. Thus an able writer on Immigration in a
recent number of the Century passes the topic with this awe-stricken
remark: "This problem (of the Negro) cannot be touched practically;
ancient wrongs bind the nation hand and foot, and its outcome must be
awaited as we await the gathering of the tempest - powerless to avert,
and trembling over the steady approach" (The italics are ours.) This
is not wise; it is not manly. Why try to avert the evils of
immigration, or any other, if we are meanwhile only to await
tremblingly the doom that is to come on us from the conflict with the

There is a strong disposition to gather hope from the newly-developed
manufacturing interests in the South. But this is delusive. The South
is essentially a rural population; the new industries will necessarily
be confined to a few localities, and will reach but slightly the wide
agricultural region, and will scarcely touch the Negroes. And more
than all this, these industries will only be importing into the South
the struggle between labor and capital, which so vexes us at the
North. Instead, therefore, of solving the old difficulties at the
South, they will add a new one.

The danger of a war of races is scouted at the North; it is not at the
South. This is natural. The North is not in immediate contact with the
danger; the South is. When the war of the rebellion was impending, the
North refused to believe in its coming; and when it came, one of the
wisest statesmen of the North, Mr. Seward, predicted that it would
"not last sixty days." No such delusion prevailed in the South. Many
of the best men there, nay, nearly all the border States, dreaded its
coming and held back as long as possible, but they were swept
into the flood they foresaw and could not avert.

Thoughtful men at the South now have no rose-colored views about the
Negro problem. They fear the impending conflict. With them the
supremacy of the white race is the settled point, but they see in the
growing numbers, intelligence and restlessness of the Negroes an
increasing danger that will only be aggravated by delay. Why should
not the North and South alike manfully face the question of a war of
races? What will it mean? What will be its end? If the whites and the
blacks of the South alone engage in it, the blacks will be
exterminated. Nothing less will meet the case. If the North mingle in
the struggle, it must be to help the whites or the blacks. If to help
the whites, that will mean the more rapid defeat and slaughter of the
blacks; if the North help the blacks and save them from destruction,
then we shall be worse off than we are now, the two races will be
together with enmities aroused a thousand fold!

But why not face the more hopeful question: Is there a remedy? There
is! The teacher and the preacher, the spelling-book and the Bible, the
saviours of men, the reformers of society, the uplifters of races, are
spreading over the South. They go to the manufacturing towns - the
Birminghams and the Annistons - they go to the large cities with their
common and normal schools, their medical, law and theological
seminaries. When the pupils become teachers, they go into the smaller
towns, they go into the rural districts, on the small farms,
everywhere instructing, encouraging and stimulating the people,
leading them to more intelligent industries, to economy, to the
purchase of land, the erection of better houses, to a higher aim in
life, and to the formation of a right character. Of such stuff men are
made, citizens, Christians; men who can use the ballot, who own
property that must be protected by the ballot; men who have homes that
must be refined and pure, churches where God is worshipped
intelligently and where a practical morality is taught and attained.
Such a people will be safe, for they will be bone and muscle of the
South, they will be needed in its wide expanse of fertile soil, needed
in its practical trades, needed for the accumulated wealth,
intelligence and cultivated piety they will bring into all the walks
and avocations of life.

But it will be some time before these educational and religious means
reach all the blacks, and in the meantime much patience and toil will
be needed. To the blacks we would say: You won the admiration of men
and the blessing of God by your patience under the yoke of slavery
when there seemed to be no hope; now win both again by bearing in like
spirit your lesser present ills, while hope dawns and help is near.

To thoughtful men North and South we urge: Take hold of this work like
men. If a thousandth part of the self-sacrifice and money spent in the
war were devoted to this work, the evil might be averted. Why stand
over-awed at a threatened flood that if met in time may not only be
averted but be turned into fertilizing waters over the broad lands?

* * * * *


Kirke). D. Appleton & Co.: New York. 1.50.

Kirke). D. Appleton & Co.: New York. 1.50.

Just one hundred years before the rebellion of the Southern States,
Daniel Boone cut on a beech tree near Jonesboro, Tenn., the following
words, which are still legible:

D. Boon
Cilled A BAR on
THE Tree
in YEAR 1760

The same year that Daniel Boone "cilled" (killed) this "bar," William
Bean, a former companion of Boone's, settled in the valley of the
Watauga River, in what is now Eastern Tennessee. The two volumes whose
titles are given above trace the history of this mountain settlement
from the time that this pioneer crossed the Alleghenies down to the
death of John Sevier, Sept. 24, 1815. These books are of much more
than ordinary interest to the readers of the AMERICAN MISSIONARY.
James R. Gilmore (Edmund Kirke) has put the same power of graphic
description, the simple yet thrilling narrative, which held us
spell-bound to the last chapters of Among the Pines.

Our limited space does not permit an extended review of these volumes.
We only call attention to them here because they touch upon great
missionary problems, and throw a flood of light upon these interesting
Mountain people among whom the A.M.A. has so extensive and important a
work. The first of these volumes in chronological order is the Rear
Guard of the Revolution. The colony of the Mountain people in the
Watauga Valley, led by John Sevier and James Robertson and Isaac
Shelby, constituted this "rear guard." No better blood ever mingled in
the veins of a people than that which flows in this Mountain people.
French Huguenot, Scotch-Irish Presbyterian and Welsh Presbyterian were
their ancestors. With such leadership as these three men furnished,
the early Mountain colonists ought to have been heroes, and they were.

In the author's own words, "These three men, John Sevier, James
Robertson and Isaac Shelby, * * * were like Washington and Lincoln,
'providential men.' They marched neither to the sound of drum nor
bugle, and no flaming bulletins proclaimed their exploits in the ears
of a listening continent; their slender forces trod silently the
western solitudes, and their greatest battles were insignificant
skirmishes never reported beyond the mountains; but their deeds were
pregnant with consequences that will be felt along the coming

They were, and they held themselves to be, "providential men." Whether
reading the Bible by the light of the great pine fires, or burning the
cabins of the Cherokees, or driving the marauding
Chickamaugas into their lair at "Nick-a-Jack" cave, or beating the
British at King's Mountain, these men felt themselves called of God to
maintain for the people a free government.

There was the same reckless administration of punishment that still
characterizes these Mountain people. A tory appeared in the road one
day near the home of Colonel William Campbell, of the "Backwater
settlement." The Colonel at once gives him chase; after a brief
absence he returns to his home, and his wife eagerly asks "What did
you do with him?"

"Oh, we hung him, Betty, that's all."

These early settlers did not immediately plant churches and
school-houses, as the settlers of New England did. Still they were not
altogether illiterate. A public document still in existence has the
signature of 112 out of 114 of their number who signed the paper, two
only making their X.

In 1779, the first Court House was built at Jonesboro. At about the
same date, the author informs us, "The school mistress was to be found
at nearly every cross-road in the older settlements. She occupied a
small log-house, generally about sixteen feet square, and often

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