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{145}

The American Missionary

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Vol. XLII. June, 1888. No. 6.

* * * * *


CONTENTS

EDITORIAL
FINANCIAL
A NOBLE WORD FROM THE OHIO CONGREGATIONAL ASSOCIATION
FACTS AND FIGURES
THE COLOR-LINE QUESTION: WHAT IS IT?
PARAGRAPHS
FROM ADDRESS OF REV. E.T. FLEMING OF GEORGIA
A STRIKING STATEMENT
MISAPPLIED BENEFACTIONS
IN MEMORIAM
THE RADICAL FORCES OF CHRISTIANITY, AS EXHIBITED IN THE WORK
OF THE AMERICAN MISSIONARY ASSOCIATION. By Rev. J.W. Cooper,
D.D.
THE SOUTH.
NOTES IN THE SADDLE
THE ALABAMA ASSOCIATION
TEMPERANCE WORK IN OUR SCHOOLS
THE INDIANS.
LETTER FROM AN INDIAN CHIEF IN DAKOTA
THE CHINESE.
EVANGELISTIC WORK
CHINESE GRATITUDE
BUREAU OF WOMAN'S WORK.
WOMAN'S MISSIONARY ASSOCIATION OF ALABAMA
LESSON LEAVES
WOMAN'S WORK IN THE SOUTH
RECEIPTS

* * * * *


New York.
Price, 50 Cents a Year, in Advance. Published by the American
Missionary Association.
Entered at the Post-Office at New York, N.Y., as second-class matter.
Rooms, 56 Reade Street.

* * * * *


{146}

AMERICAN MISSIONARY ASSOCIATION.

* * * * *


PRESIDENT,

- - - - - -

_Vice-Presidents._

Rev. A.J.F. BEHRENDS, D.D., N.Y.

Rev. ALEX. MCKENZIE, D.D., Mass.

Rev. F.A. NOBLE, D.D., Ill.

Rev. D.O. MEARS, D.D., Mass.

Rev. HENRY HOPKINS, D.D., Mo.

_Corresponding Secretaries._

Rev. M.E. STRIEBY, D.D., 56 Reade Street, N.Y.

Rev. A.F. BEARD, D.D., 56 Reade Street, N.Y.

_Treasurer._

H.W. HUBBARD, Esq., 56 Reade Street, N.Y.

_Auditors._

PETER McCARTEE.

CHAS. P. PEIRCE.

_Executive Committee._

JOHN H. WASHBURN, Chairman.

ADDISON P. FOSTER, Secretary.

_For Three Years._

LYMAN ABBOTT,

A.S. BARNES,[1]

J.R. DANFORTH,

CLINTON B. FISK,

ADDISON P. FOSTER,

_For Two Years._

S.B. HALLIDAY,

SAMUEL HOLMES,

SAMUEL S. MARPLES,

CHARLES L. MEAD,

ELBERT B. MONROE,

_For One Year._

J.E. RANKIN,

WM. H. WARD,

J.W. COOPER,

JOHN H. WASHBURN,

EDMUND L. CHAMPLIN.

_District Secretaries._

Rev. C.J. RYDER, _21 Cong'l House, Boston._

Rev. J.E. ROY, D.D., 151 _Washington Street, Chicago_.

_Financial Secretary for Indian Missions._

Rev. CHAS. W. SHELTON,

_Secretary of Woman's Work._

Miss D.E. EMERSON, 56 _Reade Street, N.Y._

* * * * *


COMMUNICATIONS

Relating to the work of the Association may be addressed to the
Corresponding Secretaries; letters for "THE AMERICAN MISSIONARY," to
the Editor, at the New York Office.

DONATIONS AND SUBSCRIPTIONS

In drafts, checks, registered letters, or post office orders, may be
sent to H.W. Hubbard, Treasurer, 56 Reade Street, New York, or, when
more convenient, to either of the Branch Offices, 21 Congregational
House, Boston, Mass., or 151 Washington Street, Chicago, Ill. A
payment of thirty dollars at one time constitutes a Life Member.

FORM OF A BEQUEST.

"I bequeath to my executor (or executors) the sum of - - dollars, in
trust, to pay the same in - - days after my decease to the person
who, when the same is payable, shall act as Treasurer of the 'American
Missionary Association,' of New York City, to be applied, under the
direction of the Executive Committee of the Association, to its
charitable uses and purposes." The Will should be attested by three
witnesses.

* * * * *


{147}

THE AMERICAN MISSIONARY.

* * * * *


Vol. XLII. May, 1888. No. 5.

* * * * *


AMERICAN MISSIONARY ASSOCIATION.

* * * * *


This Number of the Missionary will reach our friends, the pastors and
the churches, about the first of June, one month before the usual
vacation time sends many of the pastors to their much-needed summer
rest, and when the churches enter upon the months of small
congregations. We wish to remind our friends that the expenditures of
a missionary society have no vacation, and to ask them that in this
remaining month, special efforts be made to prepare us for the months
when there is the usual outflow with only a small stream coming in.

The showing of our receipts is favorable. For the seven months to
April 30th, they aggregate $158,921.20, an increase of $5,082.75 over
last year. The increase in collections and donations is $9,241.84, but
there is a decrease in legacies of $4,159.09, leaving the net increase
as above stated. On the other hand, however, the expenditure that has
been absolutely demanded by our growing work has been $23,778.24 over
the receipts. Our committee has denied many appeals pressed upon it,
from the workers in the field, for needed growth and strengthening;
but some calls have come with such urgency to save the work already in
hand, that it felt constrained to grant the additional appropriations,
and we are very confident that if our constituents had been present,
they, too, would have concurred heartily and unanimously in the votes.

We might reasonably hope that this debtor balance would be wiped out
during the five months of our fiscal year yet before us, but there is
a special reason for anxiety that it should soon be materially
reduced. It is at this time that we are compelled to plan the work,
and make estimates, for the next fiscal year, beginning October 1st.
We are now endeavoring to cut down these estimates to the lowest
possible point, but if, before the close of June, there shall be no
marked reduction of this balance, we shall be obliged to cut still
further, even to the arresting or crippling of work already begun. We
ask our friends to rally to the rescue.

* * * * *


{148}

A NOBLE WORD FROM THE OHIO CONGREGATIONAL ASSOCIATION.

REPORT ON THE A.M.A. BY REV. WASHINGTON GLADDEN, D.D.

The work of the American Missionary Association appeals to the
churches of Ohio with cumulative urgency. "A.M.A.," as our stalwart
brother Pike used to say, are letters that stand for the darkened
races of this continent - the American, the Mongolian and the African.
To the Christian people of America, these tribes are entrusted; for
their enlightenment and Christianization, we are responsible. The
Government at Washington can do something toward protecting these
people in their political rights; but there is very little, after all,
that can be done for any people which does not know how to assert and
maintain its own rights. Liberty can never be a gratuity, it must
always be an achievement. Peoples, as well as individuals, must work
out their own salvation. The Negro at the South is cheated out of his
political rights, simply because he does not know how to claim them;
the Indian on the plains is defrauded of his property, because he does
not know how to protect himself. No matter how favorable the laws may
be to these hapless people, they will be oppressed and impoverished
and kept in a condition of semi-slavery, unless they know how to use
the laws in their own advantage. Education, therefore, is the only
effectual remedy for their wrongs. To awaken their minds, to arouse
the energies of hope, to show them that they are made in God's image
and that they have a right to all the liberties of the laws of God, is
the only way to complete and secure their emancipation from bondage
and from barbarism.

This is the work to which the American Missionary Association calls us
all. It is our just pride as Congregationalists that through this
Association more has been done for the true enfranchisement of the
freedmen than through any other agency, and it is our duty to see that
this great work, in which we have borne so large and honorable a part,
halt not nor slacken in its energy because of our failure to keep its
treasury replenished and its faithful laborers re-enforced and
supported by our gifts and our prayers.

* * * * *


FACTS AND FIGURES.

The sum total of all the contributions of all the benevolent agencies
for the evangelization and education of the Negro in the South, is
seventeen cents per year for each person.

This seventeen cents includes whatever is done in missionary colleges
and in all educational missions, as well as in the direct church work.

In twenty-one years from 1841 to 1861 there were twenty-one crops of
cotton raised by slave labor, which aggregated 58,441,906 bales.
{149}

In the twenty-one years from 1865 to 1885 there were twenty-one crops
of cotton which aggregated 93,389,031 bales.

That is, by free labor there was an excess over the productions of
slave labor of 34,947,125 bales, or nearly 35,000,000 bales. The value
of 35,000,000 bales of cotton produced by free labor in excess of the
product of slave labor cannot have been less than $2,000,000,000, or
about the full valuation of all the slaves who were made free by the
war, had they been sold at the ruling prices. The gain is due not only
to the emancipation of the blacks, but to the emancipation of the
whites from enforced idleness.

The cotton factories of the world annually require about 12,000,000
bales of cotton, American weight. Good land in Texas produces one bale
to the acre. The world's supply of cotton could be grown on less than
19,000 square miles, or upon an area equal to only seven per cent. of
the area of Texas.

* * * * *


THE COLOR-LINE QUESTION: WHAT IS IT?

1. It is not the question of _social_ equality. No one doubts the
right of individuals, or the family, or the social circle, to draw
their lines of association and fellowship at their own pleasure,
whether at wealth, rank, fashion, talent, or anything else. To
confound this with the real question, is not candid.

2. Still less is it the question of the inter-marriage of the races.
Here, individual preference is undeniable. To claim that this is the
question, and to ask tauntingly: "Do you want your daughter to marry a
_nigger_?" is ungentlemanly and unworthy of an answer.

3. The question is: Shall a line be drawn between the white and black
races, giving rights and privileges in Church and State to the one
race, which are denied to the other, solely because of race or color?
In other words: Shall a line be drawn which shall separate the
Negroes, and assign them as a race to the position of inferiors
irrespective of merit or character, and merely on the ground of race
or color?

To narrow the discussion, we leave out of view the civil or political
aspect of the question and confine ourselves to the religious, and we
propose to give a few illustrations. A Negro in every way qualified,
in character, piety, and intelligence, applies for membership in a
white church. Shall the color-line be drawn and he be refused
admission for no other reason than that he is a Negro? This does not
imply that the whites and blacks should be urged or persuaded to unite
in all churches or in any church. It may be conceded that the blacks
generally do not desire to unite with white churches, and that, in
their present state of culture, it may not always be for their
edification to do so. But where an individual Negro _does_ believe
that it would be for his edification and growth in grace to belong to
a white church, shall the color that God stamped on him, or the race
in which God gave him his birth, be a sufficient reason {150} for
refusing him? The question and the principle apply equally if the
Negro should be given to understand that while he would not actually
be refused admission, yet the preference of the church would be that
he should not apply; nay, we do not see why the principle is not the
same if the well-known attitude of the church on the race question
should be such that the Christian self-respect of the Negro would not
allow him to make the application.

Again, shall colored churches, conferences or presbyteries be formed
on the same territory _in order that_ the colored members may not
unite with the white churches, conferences or presbyteries? Shall a
line be run between the races on the simple ground of race or color,
and irrespective of character, convenience or choice, so that the
Negro as a church member shall not be allowed to choose the church he
shall join, or as a minister the option as to his conference or
presbytery? For one race to demand such a line of separation, is to
consign the other race to a position of inferiority as humiliating as
it is discouraging. Such is the demand of race prejudice, and such the
position of inferiority in which it insists on placing the Negro.
Slavery held the Negro there, and since emancipation, this
race-separation is intended to accomplish the same purpose. The
Southern white man makes no objection to the race or color of the
Negro, but only to his position as an equal. He was not merely
tolerated, he was more than tolerated, as a slave, and he is now as a
servant.

The present controversy in regard to the color-line is calling forth
some frank admissions from intelligent white men at the South. Thus
the Rev. Wm. H. Campbell, an Episcopal clergyman of South Carolina,
vindicates his refusal to sit in Convention with the Negroes by the
inferiority which the Almighty has stamped upon them. Mr. Campbell
says:

"The Bishop does not understand or appreciate the reasons why some
of us cannot, under any circumstances, sit in Convention with
Negroes. The objections commonly made need not here be referred to.
The difficulty with some of us is not 'on account of color,' as it
is usually, but not with strict accuracy, put; for some Negroes are
as white as some white men, but because they are of an inferior
race, so made by the Almighty and never intended by him to be put
on an equality with the white race, in either Church or State."

The question at issue is not one of expediency, but of principle; and,
among Christians, whether in the individual church or the
ecclesiastical body, it is a question of Christian duty to be settled
by the Divine authority of the Master himself. We propose no argument
on the subject, but content ourselves by quoting a few well-known
passages of Scripture, which, though familiar, have lost neither their
significancy nor their authority. In the end, the voice of God must be
decisive.

"And hath made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on all
the face of the earth."

"God hath showed me that I should call no man common or unclean."

{151}

"Of a truth I perceive that God is no respecter of persons, but in
every nation, he that feareth Him and worketh righteousness is
accepted with Him."

"There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither bond nor free,
there is neither male nor female, for ye are all one in Christ."

"Inasmuch as ye have not done it unto one of the least of these, my
brethren, ye have not done it unto me."

* * * * *


Secretary Roy, in the _Advance_, controverts the statement of the
_Herald and Presbyter_, that the Congregationalists have come to
consent to separate ecclesiastical bodies on the ground of color. Dr.
Roy supposes that this conclusion may have been jumped at because of
the formation of a new Congregational Association in Georgia, which is
an outcome from the Congregational Methodist churches there. The
_Interior_, evidently with gladness, makes the same assertion. The
_Christian Union_ replies to this, saying, "We do not think this is
true; _but, if it is, so much the worse for the Congregationalists!_"
We may say with Dr. Roy, that nothing is more certain than that in the
New Empire that is growing before our eyes, the Congregational
churches of this century will not turn towards the dark ages, and will
not put themselves to shame by refusing to fellowship with the
disciples of Christ on the ground of caste. Such a proposition would
have the scorn of our National Council.

The Christianity of our churches will not fall behind the humanity of
Victor Hugo, who said, "I have had in my hand the gloved and white
palm of the upper class and the heavy black hand of the lower class,
and have recognized that both are the hands of man."

The Congregational churches may not be quoted as countenancing this
great wickedness against God and man.

* * * * *


FROM ADDRESS OF REV. E.T. FLEMING OF GEORGIA, IN THE BROADWAY TABERNACLE
OF NEW YORK.

"I suppose it will be necessary to tell you that I am a Negro, that I
was born a slave. We are struggling against difficulties. We meet with
a great deal of opposition. A case comes to mind which shows something
of this opposition. I went out into what we call the Bottom District.
The church there was dirty. I went to work and got a sufficient amount
of money to buy a barrel of lime. It took me a week to get enough
money to buy a barrel of lime. Another brother and myself got the
barrel of lime there on a wheel-barrow. We whitewashed the church
inside and out, and finished the job about half-past eleven o'clock.
It was too late to return to the city, and we agreed to sleep in the
church. The next morning, I was surprised to hear a great noise on the
outside, and opening the door, looked out and saw a lean, lank, white
woman. She was calling to her daughter, "Louisa, Louisa, come here."
Her daughter {152} came to her mother and said, "My - - - - , they
have painted the nigger church white. We must put a stop to that."
They said we would have to move the church, on the ground that they
were not going to stand anything of that kind. These are the things
that meet us in opposition there. I was myself refused admittance to a
Gospel Tent where a distinguished evangelist from the North was
preaching."

* * * * *


A STRIKING STATEMENT.

In one of the hotels in Columbia, South Carolina, among the
collections of an excellent library, is a book which bears the seal of
the State of South Carolina, giving much statistical information as to
the geological character of the State, its agricultural resources, its
mineral products and the peculiarities of its population. From its
pages, the following extract is taken, which is reproduced here for
its suggestiveness. It seems incredible, and yet the authority is
wholly Southern and has the imprint of the State. It is as follows:

"No effort adequate to even an approximate determination
statistically of the intermixture of the White and Negro races has
as yet been undertaken. Mr. Patterson, quoted in an authoritative
work upon '_The Resources and Population of South Carolina_,' and
published by the _State Board of Agriculture_ in 1883, as one who
has given much attention to the subject, says, even now there are
no longer Negroes. One-third has a large infusion of white blood,
another third has less, but still some, and of the other third it
would be difficult to find an assured specimen of pure African
blood. This, continues the report, is a startling statement; but in
the absence of statistics, whoever puts it to the test among his
Negro acquaintance will be surprised at the degree in which it
conforms to the facts. If the lineage of those Negroes whose color
and features seem most unmistakably to mark them as of purely
African descent, be traced, indubitable evidence may often be
obtained of white parentage more or less remote."

* * * * *


MISAPPLIED BENEFACTIONS.

The judicious placing of benefaction is a large part of the good of
it. Is it wisely located? Will it be permanent? Will it be
reproductive? Will it be in the hands of persons suitably responsible
for the administration of it? Will it be under a fitting supervision?
The cause appeals to sympathy; does it also carry the mark of good
judgment? For lack of this double endorsement, not a little of
generous giving is thrown away. It is a fine piece of romance; does it
proffer a sufficient security upon the proffered investment of the
Lord's money?

A worthy Christian woman brings the scheme. It is laid upon the
mountains of East Tennessee, thrust up into notoriety by the writing
of Charles Egbert Craddock. A lady of faith and hope and energy, {153}
proposes to build up an industrial farm-school of high quality for the
neglected girls of that mountain district. She has already been
teaching a common-school among them. She comes up to a city of New
England. She lays her plan before some of the noble women there. They
take it up without further inquiry as to the feasibility of the
undertaking. With their first contributions an old worn-out farm is
bought in the lady's name, and in the cheap farm-house a small school
is opened. The location is in an out-of-the-way neighborhood, three or
four miles from the little, old, tumble-down county seat. Now a fine
building is to be secured. The lady patrons raise their offerings up
to six thousand dollars. Fine architectural plans are devised at the
North. Meantime, speculators on the ground, who for a few cents an
acre have bought up a great quantity of land adjoining and would be
glad to sell it at a dollar an acre, have donated a hundred acres,
more or less, to the school. On this tract the building is located and
goes forward. The frame is put up and pretty much enclosed. For want
of money the enterprise comes to a stand, and now for these four years
the stranded structure has been taking damage from the storms.

The place has been visited repeatedly by the superintendents of the
A.M.A., to find the state of the case and to see if anything could be
done to utilize the partial plant. The pastor of the lady donors
became interested to save the investment through the A.M.A., or to
stop the pouring of more funds into the venture, but after all his
correspondence and personal conference, he found that, if the whole
property were to be offered to the Association, it could not afford to
accept it and undertake to carry forward the school. It already has a
prosperous academy in that county and another in an adjoining county,
and these, wisely located in congenial communities, are all that is
needed for those and for contiguous counties. There is no way to
utilize it, Alas, "Wherefore this waste?"

An Orphanage for colored children is a tempting charity. The A.M.A
early undertook such work. At Wilmington, N.C., and at Atlanta, Ga.,
it bought lands and erected ample buildings, but the experiment
satisfied the authorities that the Association was not called to that
department of work. The children's god-fathers and god-mothers, in
devotion to their covenant, or grand-parents from personal interest,
would soon be taking them out, and others having care of them would
call them out as soon as, by some growth and training, the scholars
were made profitable for work, and so those properties were sold and
the avails put into the ordinary educational process. Then the
conclusion was reached that this was the obligation of the local
communities, and _not of foreign charity_. According to this idea, an
Orphanage in a Southern city, undertaken not by the patronage or
approval of the A.M.A., though made to appear so because the
originator had been under its commission there as a missionary, has
been transferred to a local board and to the support of the city {154}
and county. That is as it should be. Those local authorities ought to
take care of their own orphans, and not appeal to the charity of the
North to relieve them of their proper burdens of humanity.

Another so-called Orphanage at still another Southern city, started as
an individual venture. It was allowed for a short time to have a
conditional endorsement from the A.M.A., which was soon withdrawn and
the enterprise disowned. This has swallowed up thousands of dollars of
the money of benevolence, and yet it has all the time been a sham and
a falsehood. There was nothing of it. When a lady newspaper
correspondent called to visit the institution, ten or a dozen children
from a neighboring private school were borrowed and paraded as
orphans, when at the time there were only two little children in the
concern, and they had grandparents living near and abundantly able to
take care of them. "Wherefore this waste?"

In yet another Southern city, a couple of young ladies start a school.


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