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THE

NEW ENGLAND MAGAZINE

(_AND BAY STATE MONTHLY_)

An Illustrated Monthly

OF THE

HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, LITERATURE, EDUCATIONAL AND GENERAL INTERESTS

OF THE

NEW ENGLAND STATES AND PEOPLE


VOLUME IV

BOSTON
BAY STATE MONTHLY COMPANY
NO. 43 MILK STREET
1886

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1886, by the BAY STATE
MONTHLY COMPANY, in the Office of the Librarian of Congress at
Washington. All rights reserved.


Typography by J. S. Cushing & Co., Boston. Presswork by Berwick & Smith,
Boston.

* * * * *

Transcriber's Note: Minor typos have been corrected and footnotes moved
to the end of the article. This issue has the Table of Contents for all
of Volume IV. It also seems to be a volume in transition. On the first
page of the issue, there is a note that states that it is VOL. IV.
NO. 1. of the Old Series, and VOL. I. NO. 1. of the New Series. The
full page portrait of M. R. Waite, Chief-Justice of the U. S. listed
in the table of contents as facing page 1 did not appear in the
scans.

* * * * *





CONTENTS OF VOLUME IV.


Abbot Academy. Six Illust. by Frank A. Bicknell and others
Annie Sawyer Downs 136

Along the Kennebec, (Illust.) Henry S. Bicknell 197

Andover, An Illustrious Town, (Illust.) Rev. F. B. Makepeace 301

Art in Book Illustration Charles E. Hurd 37

Illustrations: The Christ Child - Forest of
Ardennes - Stamboul - Ianthe - Tower of the
Mengia - The Lady of the Lake - "How they Carried
the Good News" - Evening by the Lakeside - Maternity - "The
Swanherds where the sedges are" - The Silent Christmas.

Attleboro, Mass. An historical and descriptive sketch
C. M. Barrows 27

Barnard, Henry, The American Educator
The late Hon. John D. Philbrick 445

Bennett, Hon. Edmund Hatch 225

Boston University School of Law Benjamin R. Curtis 218

Brown University, (Illust.) Reuben A. Guild, LL.D. 1

Cape Ann, A Trip Around Elizabeth Porter Gould 268

Child, Lydia Maria Olive E. Dana 533

Daughter of the Puritans, A Anna B. Bensel 452

Dorris's Hero. - A Romance of the Olden Time Marjorie Daw 463

Editor's Table 87, 177, 279, 378, 475, 557

Magazine Literature - Georgia _versus_ New England Prohibition -
German "Housekeeping Schools" - The Historic Spirit - The _old_
NEW ENGLAND MAGAZINE and its _successor_ - Notes - An Historical
Parallel - Archdeacon Farrar's Eulogy on the Founders of New
England - The Presidential Message - A Note of Peace in Turbulent
Times - Society sacrificing its Ornaments - Fall of the Salisbury
Government - Bostonian Society - Webster Historical
Society - Literary Labors of Miss Cleveland - Socialism in America
and Europe - The Chinese Problem - A Short History of Napoleon the
First - The _Century_ on International Copyright - Christian
Charity and Freedom - Comparative Marriage Statistics - Neither
Caste, Class, nor Sect in the late Civil War - Free Education
System - The Convict's Family - A Representative
American - Train-Wrecking - The Institute of Civics - New England
Summer Resorts - The Value of Recreation - The Sensational Press.

Education: Progress and Prospects of Education in America 280

Education 184, 381

Elizabeth: A Romance of Colonial Days. Chapters XXIX.-XXXIII.
Frances C. Sparhawk 77, 168, 250

Forty Years of Frontier Life in the Pocomtuck Valley
Hon. George Sheldon 236

Grand Array of the Republic in Massachusetts
Past Commander-in-Chief George S. Merrill 113

Hawthorne's Last Sketch P. R. Ammidon 516

Historical Record 91, 185, 281, 382, 477, 560

Irish Home Rule Agitation: Its History and Issues
Rev. H. Hewitt 157

Judicial Falsifications of History Hon. Chas. Cowley, LL.D. 457

King Philip's War, A Romance of Fanny Bullock Workman 330, 414

Literature and Art 91, 192, 294, 482, 565

Lucy Keyes. - A Story of Mt. Wachusett. I. 551

Index to Magazine Literature 193, 278, 389, 483, 567

Maple-Sugar Making in Vermont, (Illust.) J. M. French, M.D. 208

Myth in American Coinage Isaac Bassett Choate 537

Necrology 61, 190, 285, 380, 479, 562

New Bedford, (26 Illust.) Herbert L. Aldrich 423

New England Characteristics Lizzie M. Whittlesey 374

New England Library and its Founder, The Victoria Reed 347

New England Magazine, The Original Rev. Edgar Buckingham 153

New England Manners and Customs in Time of Bryant's Early Life
Mrs. H. G. Rowe 364

Notes and Queries. - Answers 95

Objections to Level-Premium Life Insurance G. A. Litchfield 68

Olden Time, In 291

On Detached Service. - An Episode of the Civil War
Charles A. Patch, Mass. Vols. 121

Otis, James, Junior Rev. H. Hewitt 319

Port Hudson, An Incident of William J. Burge, M.D. 548

Publishers' Department 96

Social Life in Early New England Rev. Anson Titus 63

Toppan, Colonel Christopher 60

Town Meeting-House and Town Politics in the Last Century, A
Atherton P. Mason, M.D. 127

Trinity College, Hartford, (Illust.) Prof. Samuel Hart, D.D. 393

Tufts College, (6 Illust. by F. A. Bicknell)
Rev. E. H. Capen, D.D. 99

Veritable Trader, A A. T. S. 529

Wayte, Richard and Gamaliel, and some of their descendants
Arthur Thomas Lovell 48

Webster, Daniel, and Col. T. H. Perkins John Rogers 12

Webster, Editorial Note on Daniel 217

Webster, The Life and Character of Daniel
Hon. Edward S. Tobey 228

Webster's Vindication Hon. Stephen M. Allen 509

Webster Historical Society Papers. - The Webster Family, (Illust.)
Hon. Stephen M. Allen 340, 409

Williams College Rev. N. H. Egleston 485


POETRY.

To a Friend Edgar Fawcett 12

The Mendicant Clinton Scollard 112

Trust J. B. M. Wright 249

The Oriole Clinton Scollard 267

The Singer Laura Garland Carr 339

Trust Arthur Elwell Jenks 373

To Oliver Wendell Holmes Edward P. Guild 413

The Picture Mary D. Brine 421

Hunting of the Stag of Oenoë Clinton Scollard 503

On Hoosac Mountain Edward P. Guild 527

Bonnie Harebells Anna B. Bensel 536


FULL PAGE PORTRAITS.

M. R. Waite, Chief-Justice of the U. S. Facing 1

Madame Sarah Abbot " 99

Edmund H. Bennett " 197

James Otis " 301

Thomas Prince " 344

Henry Barnard " 393

Mark Hopkins " 487




THE

NEW ENGLAND MAGAZINE

AND

BAY STATE MONTHLY.

Old Series January, 1886. New Series

VOL. IV. NO. 1. VOL. I. NO. 1.

Copyright, 1885, by Bay State Monthly Company. All rights reserved.




BROWN UNIVERSITY.[A]

BY REUBEN A. GUILD, LL.D.

[Illustration: Sayles Memorial]


Brown University owes its origin to a desire, on the part of members of
the Philadelphia Association, to secure for their churches an educated
ministry, without the restrictions of denominational influence and
sectarian tests. The distinguishing sentiments of the Baptists, it may
be observed, were at variance with the religious opinions that prevailed
throughout the American colonies a century ago. They advocated liberty
of conscience, the entire separation of church and state, believer's
baptism by immersion, and a converted church-membership; - principles for
which they have earnestly contended from the beginning. The student of
history will readily perceive how they thus came into collision with the
ruling powers. They were fined in Massachusetts and Connecticut for
resistance to oppressive ecclesiastical laws, they were imprisoned in
Virginia, and throughout the land were subjected to contumely and
reproach. This dislike to the Baptists as a sect, or rather to their
principles, was very naturally shared by the higher institutions of
learning then in existence.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: COLLEGE CHURCH.]

In the year 1756, the Rev. Isaac Eaton, under the auspices of the
Philadelphia and Charleston Associations, founded at Hopewell, New
Jersey, an academy "for the education of youth for the ministry." To
him, therefore, belongs the distinguished honor of being the first
American Baptist to establish a seminary for the literary and
theological training of young men. The Hopewell Academy, which was
committed to the general supervision of a board of trustees appointed by
the two associations, and supported mainly by funds which they
contributed, was continued eleven years. During this period many who
afterwards became eminent in the ministry received from Mr. Eaton the
rudiments of a good education. Among them may be mentioned the names of
James Manning, Hezekiah Smith, Samuel Stillman, Samuel Jones, John
Gano, Oliver Hart, Charles Thompson, William Williams, Isaac Skillman,
John Davis, David Jones, and John Sutton. Not a few of the academy
students distinguished themselves in the professions of medicine and of
law. Of this latter class was the Hon. Judge Howell, a name familiar to
the early students of Rhode Island College, as the University was at
first called, and to the statesmen and politicians of that day. Benjamin
Stelle, who was graduated at the College of New Jersey, and who
afterwards, in the year 1766, established a Latin school in Providence,
was also a pupil of Mr. Eaton at Hopewell. His daughter Mary, it may be
added, was the second wife of the late Hon. Nicholas Brown, the
distinguished benefactor of the University, and from whom it derives its
name.

[Illustration]

The success of the Hopewell Academy inspired the friends of learning
with renewed confidence, and incited them to establish a college. "Many
of the churches," says the Rev. Morgan Edwards, "being supplied with
able pastors from Mr. Eaton's academy, and being thus convinced from
experience of the great usefulness of human literature to more
thoroughly furnish the man of God for the most important work of the
gospel ministry, the hands of the Philadelphia Association were
strengthened, and their hearts were encouraged, to extend their designs
of promoting literature in the Society, by erecting, on some suitable
part of this continent, a college or university, which should be
principally under the direction and government of the Baptists."[B]

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

Mr. Edwards, to whom reference is made in the foregoing, was the pastor
of the First Baptist Church of Philadelphia, to which he had recently
been recommended by the Rev. Dr. Gill, and others, of London. He was a
native of Wales, and an ardent admirer of his fellow-countryman, Roger
Williams, the founder of Rhode Island. Possessing superior abilities,
united with uncommon perseverance and zeal, he became a leader in
various literary and benevolent undertakings, freely devoting to them
his talents and his time, and thereby rendering essential service to the
denomination to which he was attached. He was the prime mover in the
enterprise of establishing the college, and in 1767 he went back to
England and secured the first funds for its endowment. With him were
associated the Rev. Samuel Jones, to whom in 1791 was offered the
presidency; Oliver Hart and Francis Pelot, of South Carolina; John Hart,
of Hopewell, the signer of the Declaration of Independence; John Stites,
the mayor of Elizabethtown; Hezekiah Smith, Samuel Stillman, John Gano,
and others connected with the two associations named, of kindred zeal
and spirit. The final success of the movement, however, may justly be
ascribed to the life-long labors of him who was appointed the first
President, James Manning, D.D., of New Jersey. His "Life, Times, and
Correspondence," making a large duodecimo volume of five hundred and
twenty-three pages, was published by the late Gould & Lincoln, of
Boston, in 1864.

In the summer of 1763, Mr. Manning, to whom the enterprise had been
entrusted, visited Newport for the purpose of arranging for the
establishment of the college in Rhode Island. He was accompanied by his
friend and fellow townsman, the Rev. John Sutton. They at once called on
Col. John Gardner, a man venerable in years and prominent in society,
being Deputy Governor of the Colony, and Chief Justice of the Supreme
Court. To him, Manning unfolded his plans. He heard them with attention,
and appointed a meeting of the leading Baptists in town at his own house
the day following. At this meeting Hon. Josias Lyndon and Col. Job
Bennet were appointed a committee to petition the General Assembly for
an act of incorporation. After unexpected difficulties and delays, in
consequence of the determined opposition of those who were unfriendly to
the movement, a charter was finally granted, in February, 1764, for a
"College or University in the English Colony of Rhode Island and
Providence Plantations, in New England in America."

This charter, which has long been regarded as one of the best college
charters in New England, while it secures ample privileges by its
several clear and explicit provisions, recognizes throughout the grand
Rhode Island principle of civil and religious freedom. By it the
Corporation is made to consist of two branches, namely, that of the
Trustees, and that of the Fellows, "with distinct, separate and
respective powers." The Trustees are thirty-six in number, of whom
twenty-two must be Baptists or Antipædobaptists, five Quakers or
Friends, five Episcopalians, and four Congregationalists. Since 1874
vacancies in this Board, have been filled in accordance with nominations
made by the Alumni of the University. The number of the Fellows,
including the President, who, in the language of the charter, "must
always be a Fellow," is twelve. Of these, eight "are forever to be
elected of the denomination called Baptist or Antipædobaptists, and the
rest indifferently of any or all denominations." "The President must
forever be of the denomination called Baptists."

But though Rhode Island had been selected for its home by the original
projectors of the institution, and a liberal and ample charter had thus
been secured, the college itself was still in embryo. Without funds,
without students, and with no present prospect of support, a beginning
must be made where the president could be the pastor of a church, and
thus obtain an adequate compensation for his services. Warren, then as
now, a delightful and flourishing inland town, situated ten miles from
Providence, seemed to meet the requisite requirements; and thither,
accordingly, Manning removed with his family in the spring of 1764. He
at once commenced a Latin school, as the first step preparatory to the
work of college instruction. Before the close of the year a church was
organized, over which he was duly installed as pastor. The following
year, at the second annual meeting of the corporation, held in Newport,
Wednesday, September 3, he was formally elected, in the language of the
records, "President of the College, Professor of Languages and other
branches of learning, with full power to act in these capacities at
Warren or elsewhere." On that same day, as appears from an original
paper, now on file in the archives of the library, the president
matriculated his first student, William Rogers,[C] a lad of fourteen,
the son of Captain William Rogers of Newport. Not only was this lad the
first student, but he was also the first freshman class. Indeed, for a
period of nine months and seventeen days, as appears from the paper
already referred to, he constituted the entire body of students. From
such feeble beginnings has the university sprung.

The first commencement of the college was held in the meeting-house at
Warren on the seventh day of September, 1769, at which seven students
took their Bachelor's degree. They were all of them young men of
promise. Some of them afterwards filled conspicuous places in the
struggle for national independence, while others became leaders in the
church, and distinguished educators of youth. Probably no class that
has gone forth from the college or university in her palmiest days of
prosperity has exerted so widely extended and so beneficial an
influence, the times and circumstances taken into account, as this first
class that graduated at Warren. The occasion drew together a large
concourse of people from all parts of the Colony, inaugurating, says
Arnold, the earliest State holiday in the history of Rhode Island. A
contemporary account preserves the interesting facts that both the
President and the candidates for degrees were dressed in clothing of
American manufacture, and that the audience, composed of many of the
first ladies and gentlemen of the Colony, "behaved with great decorum."

Up to this date, "the Seminary," says Morgan Edwards, "was, for the most
part, friendless and moneyless, and therefore forlorn, insomuch that a
college edifice was hardly thought of." But the interest manifested in
the exercises of Commencement, and the frequent remittances from
England, "led some to hope, and many to fear, that the Institution would
come to something and stand. Then a building and the place of it were
talked of, which well-nigh ruined all. Warren was at first agreed on as
a proper situation, where a small wing was to be erected, in the spring
of 1770, and about eight hundred pounds, lawful money, was raised
towards erecting it. But soon afterwards, some who were unwilling it
should be there, and some who were unwilling it should be anywhere, did
so far agree as to lay aside the said location, and propose that the
county which should raise the most money should have the college."
Subscriptions were immediately set on foot in four counties, but the
claimants for the honor were finally reduced to two, viz., Providence
and Newport. The question was finally settled, at a special meeting of
the Corporation held in Warren, February 7, 1770. "The people of Newport
had raised," says Manning, in his account of this meeting, "four
thousand pounds, lawful money, taking in their unconditional
subscription. But Providence presented four thousand, two hundred and
eighty pounds, lawful money, and advantages superior to Newport in other
respects." The dispute, he adds, lasted from ten o'clock Wednesday
morning until the same hour Thursday night, and was decided, in the
presence of a large congregation, in favor of Providence, by a vote of
twenty-one to fourteen.

Soon after this decision, the President and Professor Howell, with
their pupils, removed to Providence, occupying for a time the upper part
of the brick school-house on Meeting Street, for prayers and
recitations. On the fourteenth day of May, 1770, the foundations of the
first college building, now called University Hall, were laid; John
Brown, one of the "Four Brothers," and the famous leader in the
destruction of the _Gaspee_ two years later, placing the corner stone.
It was modelled after "Nassau Hall" in Princeton, where President
Manning and Professor Howell were graduated. The spot selected for it
was the crest of a hill, which then commanded a view of the bay, the
river, with the town on its banks, and a broad reach of country on all
sides. The land comprised about eight acres, and included a portion of
the original "home lot" of Chadd Brown, the associate and friend of
Roger Williams, and the "first Baptist Elder in Rhode Island." Now that
the buildings of the city have crept up the hill, and, gathering round
the college grounds, have stretched out far beyond them, thus shutting
out the nearer prospect, the eye can still take in from the top of the
building the same varied and beautiful landscape, which once constituted
one of the chief attractions of the site.

On Saturday, December 7, 1776, Sir Peter Parker, the British commander,
with seventy sail of men-of-war, anchored in Newport harbor, landed a
body of troops, and took possession of the place. Providence was at once
thrown into confusion and alarm. Forces, hastily collected, were massed
throughout the town, martial law was proclaimed, college studies were
interrupted, and the students were dismissed to their respective homes.
The seat of the Muses now became the habitation of Mars. From December
7, 1776, until May 27, 1782, the college edifice was occupied for
barracks, and afterwards for a hospital, by the American and French
forces.

In the spring of 1786, President Manning, whose graceful deportment,
thorough scholarship, and wise Christian character had commended him to
all his fellow-citizens, was unanimously appointed by the General
Assembly of Rhode Island to represent the state in the Congress of the
Confederation. This was during a crisis of depression and alarm, when
the whole political fabric was threatened with destruction. He, however,
returned to his college duties at the close of the year, being unwilling
to remain longer away from the scenes of his chosen labors. With the
momentous questions of the day he was thoroughly familiar, and he
afterwards, by his voice and by his pen, contributed very materially to
the adoption of the Federal Constitution by the State, in 1790. He died
very suddenly in the summer of 1791, in the fifty-fourth year of his
age. His death was regarded as a public calamity, and his funeral was
largely attended, not only by the friends of the college, of which he
may be regarded in one sense as the founder, but by a vast concourse of
people from all parts of the town and the State in which he lived.

Dr. Manning was succeeded in the presidency by the Rev. Dr. Jonathan
Maxcy, who during the previous year had held the temporary appointment
of Professor of Divinity. The career of this remarkable man indicates a
high order of genius. At the early age of fifteen he had entered the
Institution as a pupil, graduating in 1787 with the highest honors of
his class. Immediately upon graduating he was appointed tutor, which
position he held four years. During his brilliant career of ten years,
in which he was the executive head of the college, men were educated and
sent out into all the professions, who, for learning, skill, and success
in life, will not suffer in comparison with the graduates of any period
since.

Dr. Maxcy resigned the presidency in 1802, when he was succeeded by the
Rev. Dr. Asa Messer, a graduate under Manning, in the class of 1790. He
held the office until 1826, a period of twenty-four years. Under his
wise and skilful management the college prospered; its finances were


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Online LibraryVariousThe New England Magazine, Volume 1, No. 1, January 1886 → online text (page 1 of 9)