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" I should say that very little was made in Yorkshire.
Staffordshire and the North of England seem to have
been the largest makers, but as stated, the absence of
factory marks makes it very puzzling."

CASTLEFORD POTTERY NEAR LEEDS

A pottery was established here by David Dunderdale
about 1 790 and it is known that lustrous specimens
were produced. Unfortunately no marked specimen
is available.

DON POTTERY

This pottery was founded in 1790 at SWINTON,
Yorks, by John Green, a potter from Leeds, and

93



COLLECTING OLD LUSTRE WARE

doubtless a considerable quantity of ware is in exist-
ence, with the characteristics of Leeds wares.

NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE

Various firms have produced wares at Newcastle
from about 1780, and a very large quantity of lustrous
effect combined with printing has survived. The
lustre varied very greatly in character, and out of the
enormous quantities produced a few nice specimens
may be found. Mottled and pink effects combined
with rough colours are one of the chief characteristics.

SUNDERLAND

Several potteries are recorded in this district, and a
considerable quantity of Sunderland lustre, artistic or
otherwise, may be found. Sunderland firms frequently
marked their specimens such as :

J. Phillips. Hylton Pottery
Phillips and Co.
Dixon and Co.

One specimen is marked " Dixon and Co.," im-
pressed, but the work is not of a high merit.

Frog mugs are often mentioned in connexion with
this group of potteries, and some reference must there-
fore be made to them. The mugs frequently decorated
with copper lustre were made with the model of a frog
attached inside, and a person unaware of the occupant
would be startled, when the discovery was made.



94



IX. MARKS

Names or initials on marked lustred wares :
Decorators' marfe : Other firms who used lustrous
effects.

IN the early days of English pottery it was not the
custom to mark the ordinary wares, and this
omission applied to the cheaper products much
more than it did to the expensive pieces.

In connexion with the metallic glazes the absence
of marked examples is well known.

Lustrous specimens carry an impressed name or
letter, if the mark is not in relief, when marked at all.
Sometimes the name is printed in colour, or written
on a lighter ground. In a few instances initials are
scratched in the lustrous glaze.

In the oldest examples the name was impressed
into the paste before the piece was glazed, i.e. before
the body glaze was applied, and before the full lustre
glaze was added ; consequently the name was ob-
literated by the firing.

An alphabetical list has been prepared for use by the
reader, who may, it is hoped, be able to add a few more
names from information in his possession.



95



COLLECTI

Name or Initial
"A"
Allertons
Aynsley

" B " (impressed)
" B " (cursive)

Bailey and Batkin

Bailey and Harvey
Bott and Co.
Bratt

Cambrian

Copeland and Garrett

"D"

Dawson

Dillwyn



Dixon and Co
E. Mayer



Fell

" G " (Masonic)

Harley

Lakin and Poole
Leeds

Lockett and Sons
Mayer and Newbold
Meigh "

C. Meigh and Sons )



NG OLD LUSTRE WARE

Remarks

Probably Aynsley (see Aynsley) or Allerton
Staffordshire. Circa 1831 and onwards.

0. Aynsley), Lane End, Staffordshire. Circa

1800.

Barlow, Staffordshire. Circa 1800.
Scratched on silver lustre. Probably Stafford-
shire, 1820.

Longton, Staffordshire. One of the earliest
known firms who made silver lustre.

Cup marked. Dr. Thorpe's collection.

Staffordshire.

" George Bratt " name appears on silver
piece.

Piece in British Museum. Factory 1769 to
1790. See also Dillwyn.

1833 to 1847.

Probably Davenport of Longport. Circa 1 800 .

Sunderland group. Circa 1810.

(Swansea.) Previous to 1 790 known as Cam-
brian Potteries. Purchased by Dillwyn
1802; closed 1870.

Sunderland group. Circa 1820.

Staffordshire firm of great antiquity. Made
lustres of fine finish contemporaneously
with Wedgwood. Circa 1790.

Newcastle group. Circa 1813.

Uncertain.

T. Harley, Lane End, Staffordshire. Circa 1 800.
Pineapple jug, lustred decoration.

Hanley, Staffordshire, 1770 to 1793.

Group of Potteries. Fine resist silver
specimens. Circa 1790.

Lane End, Staffordshire, 1829.

Lane End, Staffordshire. Circa 1800.

Old Hall, Hanley, Staffordshire. Circa 1 790.



MARKS

None or Initial Remarks

Minton Circa 1790 and onwards.

P. and U. Poole and Unwin. Longton, 1870 (modern).

Scott Scott and Co., Sunder land group (South wick),

1789. Copper lustre pattern on cup
and saucer at South Kensington.

Spode 1 770 and onwards .

Swansea See Dillwyn.

Warburton Cobridge factory. Circa 1802.

Wedgwood Circa 1760 and onwards.

Wileman J. F. Wileman. Circa 1850. Lustred

cream ware.

Wilson Hanley, Staffordshire. Circa 1786 to 1802, &c

W. Probably Wilson, but uncertain.

E. Wood Burslem. 1 783 and onwards.

Wood and Caldwell Burslem. 1790 to 1818.



DECORATORS' MARKS

In connexion with the more important of the English
porcelain factories, especially Worcester, the marks
made by workmen are always carefully considered,
and several writers have tabulated such marks for the
information of collectors.

The persons who decorated lustres in the old days,
probably had not the faintest idea that a hundred years
later the marks on their roughly finished wares would
form the subject of speculation and inquiry.

Occasionally they added some mark or initial to the
base of the piece with the pigments they had been
using, as was done on fine porcelain work.

The mark might be meant to indicate the size of the
jug, or some special detail, or a special customer.
Sometimes only a " tick " occurs.

G 97



COLLECTING OLD LUSTRE WARE
The cross a very early mark in ceramics was used
at Leeds and Bristol, and examples of Spode's ware are
sometimes marked with a cross.

One copper lustre jug has the Coalport mark of a
rose in green and yellow pigments roughly painted over
the copper glaze on the base.

Nearly all the marks such as Dixon and Co., Bott
and Co., and many others mostly ending " and Co."
not infrequently found on lustred pottery (usually on
the base where the ground is white cream, or buff in
colour) can be accepted as comparatively late specimens
when compared with the old lustres probably made
about 1800.

OTHER FIRMS WHO USED LUSTROUS EFFECTS

In addition to the firms we have given, the under-
mentioned as well as several other firms not included
are on record as having used lustre decoration :

Ed wards 1

Cork j Dalehall, Staffordshire.
Edge J

Till of the Sytch. Burslem 1850 and on.
Beech and Hancock. Tunstall, circa 1845.
Ralph Salt. Hanley 1830-1840. Staffordshire.
Figures and groups.



98



X. BUSTS AND FIGURES WITH
LUSTROUS GLAZE

Staffordshire copies fashion from Chelsea, &c. :
Marked wares : Glazes used : Resist effects :
Allied decorations : Silvered examples not rare :
Skene collection. Bust of Minerva : Lions :
Rare model of cat. Busts with copper effects :
Figures with copper effects

IT is desirable briefly to refer to the origin of figure-
making in English pottery. It was doubtless first
suggested to the porcelain factories, Bow, Chelsea,
Derby, &c., by examples from continental sources.
In earlier days, however, there are a few examples of
original English work, notably the figures produced
by Dwight and others.

STAFFORDSHIRE COPIES FASHION FROM
CHELSEA, ETC.

Influenced by the beautiful porcelain specimens
produced at Chelsea and Derby, &c., the Staffordshire
makers, always ready to copy ideas, turned their attention
to the production of pottery figures. There is no doubt
whatever that they copied the Chelsea models, but they
also introduced many new ones, less classical but more
absolutely English in conception, and these latter pieces

99



COLLECTING OLD LUSTRE WARE

were probably much more popular with yeomen and
peasants, appealing as they did to the simple home-life
of rural England : there was less of the court gallantry
associated with the early Dresden productions, which
found ready echo in the Chelsea porcelains.

MARKED WARES

The earlier Staffordshire products are often classical
and Scriptural. Those decorated with ordinary pig-
ments are sometimes marked with the name of the
potter, and afford an approximate date. There are also
examples on which silver lustre appears as a minor
decoration ; therefore when unmarked examples are
discovered from similar moulds totally covered with
the silver glaze (which so often destroys the name
impressed in the paste) the historian is in a great measure
justified in attributing such wares to the potter who
made the marked but non-lustrous specimens.

GLAZES USED

So far as can be determined the " silver " lustre
appears to have been first of all used extensively in
connexion with figures. Probably the earliest are
those slightly decorated with silver lustre in addition
to other coloured pigments, and those wholly dipped
in the silver glaze may be slightly later. We have
seen how at Swansea when the works were called the
" Cambrian Potteries " a piece of ware marked
" Cambrian " was merely banded with silver lustre,
and many collectors regard this method as typical of
the earliest practice. There are, however, busts totally
100



BUSTS AND FIGURES
covered with copper lustre which are undoubtedly old ;
in addition to which, many figures with traces of lilac
or purple lustre on white or cream grounds allied with
other coloured pigments are known. The majority
of these can with little reservation be attributed to
Staffordshire or Sunderland.

RESIST EFFECTS
ALLIED DECORATION

We know Wedgwood produced resist lustres, yet
there appears to be no evidence of resist decora-
tion on his figures. This may be due to the fact
that the modelling being in relief it did not present
a suitable surface for resist work : certainly not
because the potters were content to merely imitate
a metal figure in its simplicity, as they issued resist
silver cups and saucers, a variety which has never been
associated with the art of the silversmith. In connexion
with the whole history of lustred wares there is a pro-
fusion of allied decorative treatment, yet, beyond the
earlier examples of white or cream wares touched with
silver or weak copper, the silvered ones in their own
class occur without allied decorative treatment, with
very few exceptions such as those which were in the
Skene collection to which brief reference will be found
on page 103.

Can it be that most of the figures were issued before
resist silver wares had become popular ?

SILVERED EXAMPLES NOT RARE

Figures covered with a silver glaze are, if not plentiful,
not rare. The first traces of silver effects occur on

101



COLLECTING OLD LUSTRE WARE

examples usually attributed to Enoch Wood and the
firm associated with his name. He set up in business
at Burslem in 1 783, and in 1 790 entered into partnership
with James Caldwell, in the well-known firm of Wood
and Caldwell. There exists a very fine bust of a
child, modelled by E. Wood, on a pedestal of silver
lustre.

A choice pair of silver lustre figures representing
" Females seated reading," by Wood and Caldwell, are
illustrated at page 431 of Mr. Arthur Hayden's " Chats
on English Earthenware," from Mr. W. G. Honey's
collection, Cork.

In the Norman collection, dispersed in London
February 1912, there were the following silver lustre
figures :

Female figure of " Peace " by Wedgwood

and Bentley 14 in. high.

Well modelled bust of Shakespeare 13 in. high.

Well modelled bust of Shakespeare 16 in. high.

In the British Museum we have a figure of a mounted
Hussar with uplifted sword under a lustrous glaze,
which has been attributed to Wilson.

Examples of the Wood and Caldwell figure of
" Britannia," decorated with silver lustre on the helmet
and shield, are well known, and at least one example
was marked by the firm.

Ralph Salt, of Hanley, whose name is often found
on ordinary Staffordshire wares, is known to have
made figures covered with silver lustre, circa 1830-
1840.
102



BUSTS AND FIGURES



SKENE COLLECTION

In Messrs. Lawrence and Lawlor's article in the
Connoisseur for May and July 1904, an account will
be found of a variety of silver lustre figures which
had been obtained from the descendants of the actual
manufacturers, by the Rev. G. Skene. The articles
referred to are excellent, condensed in detail, and
splendidly illustrated, and
should be procured. It was
stated some time ago that
the Skene collection had
been dispersed.

BUST OF MINERVA

For our own illustrations,
we have preferred to show
(Fig- 45) an exceptionally fine
bust of Minerva from the col-
lection of Dr. Harper.

LIONS
CAT

In addition to the human
figure as the subject, we
meet occasionally representations of lions. The king
of animals was often copied in Staffordshire, but lustred
varieties with a silver glaze are attributed to David
Wilson. Wedgwood probably also made examples.
These are usually heavy sideboard pieces. There must
also have been representations of domestic animals

103




FIG. 45



COLLECTING OLD LUSTRE WARE

treated with lustre glaze, as we have the print of a
cat from Dr. Harper's collection. It reminds us
of the early solid agate and salt-glazed models of the
same animal, but so far as lustre is concerned it is a
most unusual example. These pieces are seldom
marked and there is the greatest difficulty in assigning
them to any particular pottery.

BUSTS IN COPPER LUSTRE

The number of " copper " figures or busts of lustred
pottery is exceptionally limited, and it has to be con-
fessed that unless the copper figures have all been
collected, the only conclusion to be arrived at is that they
were not numerously made.

It may be that the silver glaze was more popular at
the time that " figures " and allied modelling generally
were in demand, or that the firms who issued the figures
to the greatest extent had not started to use copper
glazes. There was considerable expense in connexion
with figures, and assuming that the silvered wares are
earlier, then when coppered wares came into fashion at
the beginning of the nineteenth century the potters
may have learnt discretion, and did not attempt to
produce figures treated with deep copper glaze. Other
novelties may have sprung into favour then. In
the Hanley Museum there is a very fine bust of
George Whitfield, beautifully modelled and lustred to
give a " bronze " appearance. The bust of a female
in copper lustre was in the collection of Mr. W. G.
Honey of Cork, and it is illustrated on page 223 of
Mr. A. Hayden's " Chats on English China."
104



BUSTS AND FIGURES
Another bust in copper lustre was exposed for sale
some five or six years ago. It was about sixteen inches
high, and remind the writer of a much earlier stoneware
bust of James II, which is attributed to Dwight. This
example did not carry a very brilliant glaze.

FIGURES IN COPPER

One or two smaller figures treated with full copper
glaze have been heard of, but reliable details are difficult
to procure. We think it must be accepted that the
manufacture of old copper lustre figures, on the lines
of the silvered examples, was not extensive, and collectors
who possess them with a dark ground fully dipped in
a brilliant copper glaze must regard themselves as ex-
ceptionally fortunate.

The beginner should be on his guard against the
modern model of a Staffordshire Toby in lustre : we
have never met a genuine old example.



105



XI. ENGLISH PORCELAINS

DECORATED WITH LUSTROUS
EFFECTS

Staffordshire and Swansea : Gold or pink
lustre : Strawberry pattern : Resist style :
Sprig designs : Stone china and lustre : Land-
scape in gold lustre : Worcester and Derby :
Victorian.

A the beginning of the nineteenth century the
formula for making porcelain was common,
and Staffordshire took up its production very
extensively.

STAFFORDSHIRE AND SWANSEA

It is from Staffordshire and Swansea that we get
many quaint tea-sets decorated with lustre patterns,
the designs produced being quite beyond the scope
of the present volume intended chiefly to deal with
lustred wares, and not with china decorations.

The patterns were generally set ones, in the case of
the saucer of a tea-set a blank space was left where the
cup stands, the lustre being arranged in pattern on
the border.
106



ENGLISH PORCELAINS

GOLD OR PINK LUSTRE

Sometimes the pieces were merely edged with copper
or silver lustre, the additional work being transfer
prints or rough floral designs. Many fine porcelain sets
were produced, and probably a lot of marked specimens
are in existence. The brilliant finish of some examples
treated with a pure solution of copper doubtless gave
rise to the terms " gold " or " pink " lustre.

STRAWBERRY PATTERN

The strawberry pattern is a well-known rendering
of lustre decoration on china, it was appreciated,
and therefore extensively produced. The design is
often attributed to Dillwyn who had charge of the
Swansea factory ; marked examples touched with lustre
are in existence. One hint can be given, viz. : the
more extensively the article is treated with lustre (with
a fair degree of accuracy in outline) the more desirable
it is. The ground associated with the strawberry
pattern in some cases nearly covers the side of the cup
and most of the saucer, though some designs present
only a narrow band.

RESIST STYLE

In the most elaborate porcelains clean geometrical
outlines are reserved in white on a wide pink border,
absolutely identical with much resist silver work, and our
very satisfactory print of a stoneware plate, Fig. 46, excels
the majority of the porcelain examples.

These resist borders are often a little crude in finish.

107



COLLECTING OLD LUSTRE WARE

There should be no difficulty in finding porcelain
examples.

SPRIG DESIGNS

Other early specimens carry sprig designs in silver
lustre, relieved by red floral markings or sprays. These
are less common than the pink lustre.

The merely banded porcelains, both with silver and
copper, were issued extensively, and are, we think, the

least desirable, unless
associated with his-
torical prints, &c.

STONE CHINA AND
LUSTRE

Porcellaneous stone-
wares are found
treated with lustrous
effects and a semi-
translucent toy jug,
* IG> cream ware, high glaze

with figures in relief can be mentioned which is
banded with rich copper lustre edged with red. It
was probably made by Spode. It is only two inches
high.

LANDSCAPES IN GOLD LUSTRE

A very large number of sets of china were issued,
chiefly from Staffordshire, decorated with crude land-
scapes in pink or gold lustre, painted on a white
ground with the " Lowestoft " landscape. These
108




ENGLISH PORCELAINS

decorations are usually mere daubs. The lustre pig-
ment used was excellent, however, and it must be often
a source of regret that the glaze has to be excluded
from the collector's shelf because of the slovenly decora-
tion.

Jugs of pottery body with white ground are often
met, decorated in the same manner. Lakin and Poole
produced such wares. We have seen Staffordshire or
Swansea porcelains carefully finished, described as
" Brislington gold lustre." This appears to be quite
erroneous.

WORCESTER AND DERBY

The use of lustre was not unknown at the leading
English porcelain factories, and both the silver and copper
glazes appear to have been experimented with and issued
to some extent. Silver lustre has been found on Old
Derby porcelain, and bronze decorations were used
in connexion with important pieces at Worcester,
during the Flight and Barr period.

VICTORIAN

In conclusion the reader will hardly need to be
reminded of the Victorian cottage sets of china with
purple prints, edged and to an extent patterned with
lustre. One set represents the late Queen Victoria
and the Prince Consort : another shows the late King
Edward as a youth flying kites at Windsor.



109



INDEX

ALSOP, near Buxton, 36
American subjects, 36
Apricot ground, 39, 65

BANDS, coloured, 38

resist, 70
Basalts, 11, 12
Beading, 53

Binns (Old Worcester), 45
Bird decoration, 50, 69

handles, 27, 58
Birds in ceramics, 27, 51
Blackberry lustre, 45
Black prints, 69
Blacker, J. F., 67
Blue grounds, 39, 65
Blue printed wares, 39
Boat shapes, 42, 58
Brislington, 81-85, 109
Bristol, 81-87
Britannia, 102
Bronze-gold lustre, 43
Brush-work, 49
Buff grounds, 39, 64
Busts, 99, 103, 104

CAMBRIAN Potteries, 87, 88

Canary grounds, 39, 64

Castleford wares, 93

Cat model, 103

Chinese influence, 35, 62, 66, 67

Classic reliefs, 16,28,29

Coalport mark, 98

Coloured grounds, 39

Composition, 1

Connoisseur, 67, 70, 91,92

110



Copper, glazed figures, 104, 105
Cornwalhs jug, 36
Cottage Swansea, 34, 90
Cream relief, 56
Crossed arrows, 76

DATES of introduction, 41

Decorators' marks, 97, 98

Deer, 31,68

Derby, 89, 109

Diamond pattern, 57

Dillwyn, 88, 89, 107

Dinah, 75 m

Discovery in Staffordshire, 3

Dogs, 31

Don Pottery, 93

Duke of Clarence china, 45

Duncan, Cardiff, 88

EAGLE handle, 27
Eliza figures, 86
English gilding, 60
Etruria, Wedgwood, 4
Excavations, Bristol, 84

FAITH, Hope, and Charity, 45
Farm subjects, 68
Females reading, 102
Figures, 101

decoration, 62
Forgeries, 69
Frog model, 94

GENERAL PIKE, 36
Gold lustre, 15, 19
resist, 60, 70



INDEX



Gold stencilled. 71,72
Granite ground, 39
Green grounds, 39

John (Leeds), 93
Ground shades with resist, 64, 65
Gubbio School, 2, 1 1

HANCOCK, frontispiece, 3, 80

Hand finished, 19

Harper, Dr., collection, 17, 46,

50,56.65,68,69,71, 74, 78.

103

Hayden, 87. 102, 104
Herculaneum pottery, 91
Hill, E. and T., Top Longdon,

78

Hispano Mauro wares, 2, 88
Horizontal ribbing, 33, 55
Horses, 31
Hunting subjects, 29, 68

ITALIAN lustre, 2

JACKFIELD glaze, 83
Jasper blues, 41
Johnston, Bristol, 87

KIDSON, Leeds, 66. 93

LAKIN and Poole, 109
Lancastrian lustre, 42
Lawrence and Lawlor, 103
Leeds ring, 28
Lilac lustre, 44, 45

resist, 73
Linings, ruby, 53

gold, 54, 55

silver, 55
Lions, 76, 103
Liverpool lustre, 91
London Opinion, 67
Lowestoft decoration, 38, 86, 108

MAIZE ground, 51
Manganese, 54
Marbled style, 48
Mariners' Arms, 48



Marks, 95-98. 100
Masked jugs. 17,69
Masonic emblems, 79
Mayer, 16
Minerva (bust), 103
Modern work, 42, 59
Morland prints, 62, 67, 68, 78
Mottled effects, 46

NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE, 94
Norman collection, 92

OLD Leeds, 66. 75, 76, 92

lustre, 9
Orange and silver, 77

Association jug, 35
Origin of lustre, 2
Other work with resist, 68
Overglaze decoration, 12, 13 34

PAINTED lustre, 49
Panels, 18, 68

birds in colours, 79
Pelured lustre, 53
Pencilled outlines, 35
Persian lustre, 2
Pink grounds, 39, 65

lustre, 43, 47
Planed surfaces, 1 1
Porcelains, 106-9

marked, 89
Pountney, Bristol, 82
Purple lustre, 43-^4, 46

QUEEN ANNE style, 79, 80
Queen's ware, 1 1 , 26

RAISED floral work, 22
Reddish body, 21
Relief patterns, 63
Resist bird, 62

dated pieces, 65, 78, 79

lustre, 7, 60-80

two shades, 73
Ring, Bristol, 82
Robinson, Eliz. Beeston, 75

111



INDEX



Ruby lining, 53
lustre, 9



SALT, Hanley, 102
Sanded ground, 39
Seasons, figures of, 28
Self grounds, 8
Shakespeare bust, 1 02
Shaw, historian, 3
Sidebottom, Mary, 78
Silver lustre, 55
Silversmiths' moulds, 55
Silver resist, 61,73-80
Skene collection, 1 03
Spain, Hispano Mauro, 2
Spode decoration, 23, 90, 108
Spotted dogs, 30
Spray on body glaze, 31
Sprig designs, 1 08
Staffordshire roses, 32
Steel lustre, 55
Stencilling, 7, 63

with silver, 64
Stone china, 1 08
Strawberry pattern, 22-3, 106-7
Striped lustre, 38
Sub-oxide, 11,27
" Success to Commerce," 48
Sunderland wares, 47-49, 94
Swansea, 15,21,87-91

Cottage, 90, 91

TEAPOTS, 37, 58
Thick wares, 25
Thin wares, 25
Three-part work, 32
Tinted scenes, 69
Time, verse, 49
Toby model, 105
Tortoise-shell, 39
Transfer patterns, 66-67



Trial pot, Hancock, frontispiece

Turner, 66

Turquoise ornament, 33

UNDERCUTTING, 18
Underglaze blue, 67, 70
with resist, 77

VARIETIES of lustre, 4-5
Vertical, facets, 18

fluting, 54

ribbing, 32

Victorian pottery, 45, 109
Vine pattern, 62, 88

WARD collection, 67, 76
Watteau prints, 80
Wedgwood group, 15

andBentley, 102

Josiah, 3, 4, 9, 10, 46
101-3

mask, 17

Thomas, 87
Welsh costumes, 90-1
White, Bristol, 83

grounds, 64

in ings, 17-18
William 1 1 1, 35
Willow pattern, 67
Wilson, gold, 44, 61

school, 19,20,44, 102, 103

silver, 56, 58


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