W. J. (William Johnson) Sollas.

Ancient hunters : and their modern representatives online

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ANCIENT HUNTERS




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TORO.NTO



ANCIENT HUNTERS



j^nd their ^M^odern T^ epresentatives



BY



W. T. SOLLAS



D.Sc. Cambridge ; LL.D. Dublin; A/. A. Oxford; P/i.D. Christiania ; F.R.S.
Fellow of University College ; and Professor of Geology and
Palaeontology in the University of Oxford



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ST MARTIN'S STREET, LONDON

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PREFACE

The substance of this work, at least in its main out-
lines, was first set forth in a course of three lectures
delivered before the Royal Institution in 190G, and
subsequently published as a series of articles contributed,
at the request of the Editor, Dr. N. H, Alcock, to
Science Progress^

My original intention was simply to gather these
together and to re-publish them in book-form w^ith
adequate illustration. But in the meanwhile the rapid pro-
gress of discovery had rendered necessary so many changes
in the text that I took advantage of the opportunity to
introduce a 2;ood deal of additional matter, and to
enlarge the short summaries treating of recent hunting
races, especially the Australians and Bushmen.

The manuscript as delivered to the printers in 1910
contained an* account of our knowledge as it existed up
to the end of the previous year; since then, however, many
important discoveries have been made known; to render
an account of them all was impossible, but by the kind
indulgence of Messrs. ]Macmillan, I have been able to in-
corporate such as are of more than usual interest, partic-
ularly to myself. This must Ije my apology to those
Authors whose recent work finds no mention. I
•especially regret that - 1 been unable to refer to Mr.
Marett's account of his explorations in Jersey,^ and the
important conclusions to which they lead on the oscilla-
tions of land and sea.

^ R. R. Marett. "Pleistocene Man in Jersey," Archceoloyia, 1911,
<\'ol. Ixii., pp. 449-480.

228574



VI



PREFACE



My tlianks are due to a number of friends who have

assisted me in my studies. In France, our great teacher

in these matters, I am indebted first to M. Cartailhac,

the Nestor of pre-historic Archaeology, through whose

kindness I enjoyed, in company with my friend Mr.

Marett, an unrivalled opportunity of studying the

painted caves of Ariege and the Hautes Pyrenees, and

next to Prof Breuil and M. Peyrony, who made us

acquainted with those of Dordogne, to Prof. Boule, who

introduced me to the fossil man of La Chapelle-aux-

Saints, and to M. Commont, who initiated me into the

mysteries of the Mousterian industry. In Germany I

learnt much from Dr. R. R. Schmidt, who guided my

studies of the Palaeolithic deposits of Wiirtemberg ; in

Belgium from M. Rutot, whose kindness and information

are both inexhaustible, as well as from Professors

Fraipont and MaxLohest, the discoverers and expounders

of the skeletons from Spy. In England my old friend

the Rev. Magens Mello guided me through the caves of

Creswell Crag ; Dr. Sturge made me at liome among

the treasures of his great collection, probably one of the

finest collections of fiint implements in the world ; Prof.

Tylor, Prof. Haddon, Mr. H. Balfour and Mr.

Montgomery Bell, have assisted me in the most efiica-

cious manner, by frank discussion, and the late Mr.

Pengelly many years ago led me with humorous and

illuminating discourse through the recesses of the

famous Keut's Hole, near Torquay.

I am also uiider great oblio;ations to those oenerous
friends and colleagues who have given me permission to
borrow illustrations from their published works ; in
every case acknowledgement has been made of the
source, but I desire in addition to express my especial
thanks to Professor Boule and the publishers of



PREFACE vii

n Antliropologie, who have allowed me to ransack
tins til esa urns and to carry a^Yay from it some of my
richest spoils ; to IM. Commont, whose figures of
Monsterian implements are all from his own collection ;
to the Smithsonian Institution for the use of many
illustrations published by the Bureau of American
Ethnolooy, and to the " Commission for Ledelsen af de
geologiske og geographiske Undersogelser i Greenland,"
for the use of illustrations published in the Meddelelser
om (rr07iland.

I have also to thank my assistant ]\Ir. C. J. Bayzand
for the skilful manner in which he has prepared the
illustrations for publication ; many of them have been
re-drawn by him.

I believe this is the first time that a general survey
has been attempted — at least in the English tongue— of
the vast store of facts which have rewarded the labours
of investigators into the early history of Alan during the
past half-century. It is difficult to over-estimate their
importance ; they afford a new picture of the mode of life
and intellectual status of our primitive predecessors,
difl'ering in many of its details from that which
suD'o-ested itself to the imaoination of earlier
investigators.

In reviewino' the successive Palaeolithic industries as
they occur in Europe, I find little evidence of indigenous
evolution, but much that suggests the influence of
migrating races ; if this is a heresy it is at least
respectable and is now rapidly gaining adherents. In
a collateral branch of enquiry it has been powerfully
advocated by Graebner ^ and it received the support of

1 "Die melanesische Bogenkultur und ilue Verwaudten," ^?if/ifOj)os,
1909, vol. iv., pp. 72(> and 998.



viii PREFACE

Dr. Rivers iu liis recent important Address to the
British Association at Portsmouth.^

No allusion has been made to the belief so strongly
held by Piette that the Aurignacians had learnt to bridle
the horse, because the evidence seemed insufficient to
establish so startling a conclusion ; now, however, we
have reason to believe that the Mao-dalenians drove
behind a reindeer harnessed to a sledge, Piette's view
acc[uires a fresh interest, and deserves renewed
investigation.

In every branch of Xatural Science progress is now
so rapid that few accepted conclusions can be regarded
as more than provisional ; and this is especially true of
prehistoric Archaeology. General views, whatever other
interest they may have, are chiefly useful as suggesting
the way to fresh enc[uiry. If the brief summary
presented in the present work should have happily that
effect, it will have exceeded my anticipations in
accomplishing its aim.

W. J. SOLLAS.

University College, Oxford.
September, 1911.

^ Presidential Address, Section H, " Anthropology," Nature, vol,
Ixxxvii. p. 356, September 14th, 1911.



^^






CONTENTS



CHAPTER I

PAOE
THE GREAT ICE A<;E 1



CHAPTER II

■THE ANTIQUITY OF MAN 29

CHAPTER III
EOLITHSy 54

CHAPTER IV

EXTINCT HUNTERS. THE TASMANIANS 70

CHAPTER V

■THE MOST ANCIENT HUNTERS !>2

CHAPTER YI

MIDDLE PAL.EOLITHIC 130

CHAPTER VII

■THE AUSTRALIAN ABORIGINES 170

CHAPTER VIII

■THE AURIGNACIAN AGE 210



X - CONTENTS

CHAPTER IX

PAOB

THE BUSHMEN 271

CHAPTER X

THE SOLUTRIAN AGE 307

CHAPTER XI '"

MAGDALENIAX MA>- , . ' . .311

CHAPTER XII

THE ESKIMO 351

CHAPTER XIII

THE AZILIANS 384

CHAPTER XIV

CHROXOLOGY 391



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



FIG.

1. The features left at the end of a vanished glacier .

2. Roches moutonnees around Loch Doon

3. A glaciated boulder .

4. Diagram to show the ancient extension of the Rhone glacier

5. Maj) showing the terminal moraines of the Rhone glacier

formed during the Great Ice Age

■6. Map of Europe

7. Map of North America

8. The four terraces of the Iller and their corresponding moraines

9. Diagram to show the formation of river terraces in the Alps

10. View from the promenade along the Inn at Innsbruck

11. Diagrammatic section showing the Hotting breccia

12. Fossil leaf of WuKhirh'ndron pontlrum from the Hotting breccia

13. A flowering branch of the existing Eliododendron ponticum from

the Caucasus

14. Outline of Java

15. Section of Trinil, Java

16. Pithfcdnthropus erect >is, Dubois

17. Profile of the skull-cap of Pithecanthropus compared with that

of a chimpanzee, an Australian, and a European

18. Cranial capacity of Pithecanthropus compared with that of the

gorilla and man

19. Position in which the mandible was found ; Mauer, near

Heidelberg

20. Mandible, of Mauer. seen from the side and above

21. Lower jaw of an Australian man to show the projecting canine

22. Projections of the INIauer jaw, the jaw of an Australian aborigine,

and the jaw of a chimpanzee .

23. Sagittal section through the symphysis of the lower jaw of Mauer

an Australian aborigine, and a chimpanzee . . .

24. The INIauer jaw, the jaw of an orang, of an Australian aborigine

and of a young gorilla

25. An " eolith ■' from Puy Courny

26. Asserted implements from Cromer Forest Bed

27. " Eoliths " from the Oligocene of Boncelles ....

28. Associated fragments of flints from the Thanet sands of Belle

Assize (Oise) produced by flaking in situ ....

29. Naturally-formed flint-flakes simulating artefacts from the

Thanet sands of Belle-Assize

30. Wind Screeii of the Tasmanians

31. Some-Tasmanian stone implements .

32. Painted pebljles of Mas d'Azil .

33. Tasmanian " raf t "

34. Raft or "balsa" of Seri Indians

35. Tasmanian skull, seen from above .

36. Tasmanian skull " en face" and in profile



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49
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59

68

69
71
7.'^


79
81
8:i

84



xii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

FIO. PAGE

37. The Pleistocene Oeography of Europe 93

38. Elephants and Hippopotamuses at a Tropical Watering-place

(Africa) 95

39. The Sabre-toothed Tiger, Mach'drodus n(?(i(j(vu.'i .... 96

40. A section across the valley of the Somme, near St. Acheul . 101

41. Paleolithic deposits at St. Acheul 102

42. Section across the valley of the Thames 107

43. Section across the valley of the Lys, Belgium , . . . 108

44. Section at Heliu through the fourth terrace 108

45. Mode of fracture of flint 110

46. Strepyan inn)lements 113

47. A Chellean boucher found at Chelles 114

48. A Chellean boucher and a " limande " 115

49. A Chellean scraper 116

50. Flint dagger from Binche, Belgium 117

.51. Various flint implements from Kent's Hole 118

52. Map showing tlie distribution of the Lower Paheolithic industry

in Europe 119

53. Lower Acheulean implements from St. Acheul .... 123

54. Boucher of La Mico(iue 124

55. The Mammoth ( E/cphas primigenivs) 125

56. Molar tooth of the Mammoth (i?/t'/)/ia.sj^r/(iii^e)i,ut.s-) . . . 126

57. Molar tooth of Elephas antkpius, Falconer .... 126

58. Molar tooth of Elephas merkUonalis, Nesti 126

59. The Indian Elephant 127

60. The African Elephant 127

•61. Rhinoceros tichorhinu.s 128

62. The two-horned African Hhinoceros, for comparison with

R. tkhorhinits 129

63. Mousterian implements 132

64. A Levallois flake from Wolvercote, near Oxford .... 133
€5. Section across the valley of the Somme to show the horizons on

Avliich Mousterian imjdements are found 135

€6. Distribution of Mousterian stations in Europe .... 136

67. Przevalsky's Wild Horse 13*8

68. The Reindeer 139

69. A herd of musk-oxen in East Greenland 140

70. The Arctic Fox, Canis loqopn.s 141

71. The Glutton or Wolverine . . . .■ 141

72. Sketch map of the district of Les Eyzies (Dordogne), showing

the position of some of the more important caves and rock

shelters 143

73. The cave <jf La Chapelle aux Saints 147

74. Section of the Neandertal cave, near Diisseldorf .... 148

75. The Neandertal calotte and the skull of La Chapelle aux Saints . 149

76. Skulls from Spy and Gibraltar 151

77. Front view of Neandertal skulls 153

78. Neandertal skulls seen from above 156

79. Diagrams to illustrate the fallacious use of the nasi-inion line . 159

80. The Gibraltar skull and a low form of Australian skull compared . 1G2

81. Section of the Grotte de la Biche-aux-Roches, near Spy . . 163

82. Section of the rock shelter at Krapina 165

83. Rlan of Arunta trilje, Central Australia 171

.84. Man of Warramunga tribe, Central Australia .... 172



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xiii

FIG. PAGE

85. Man of the Worgaia tribe, Central Australia .... 173

86. Elderly Avoman of the Kaitish tribe, Central Australia . . 174

87. The woman of preceding figure seen full face .... 175

88. Young woman wearing arm-bands and showing cicatrisation of

the skin ; Anula tribe, Centi'al Australia 176

89. The same as Fig. 88, seen full face 177

90. Various forms of spear-head, Central Australia .... 178

91. Spear throwers 178

92. Boomerangs 179

93. The flight of a returning boomerang 180

94. Stone axe decorated witli line ornament (Central Australia) . 180

95. Stone knives 181

96. Manufacture of stone knives 181

97. Bone awl 182

98. Bone pins .182

99. The bark-boat 182

100. Native hut or Wurley 183

101. Woman's apron made of human hair (Arunta tribe, Central

.\ustralia) 184

102. Neckband with incisor teeth of kangartio (Central Australia) . 185

103. Message-sticks . 188

104. Earth figure, in relief, of the chief s})irit, known here under

the name of Daramulun (South-East Australia) . . . 196

105. Chuvinga of an Achilpa or wild-cat man 196

106. Bull-roarers 197

107. Initiation Ceremony . . 198

108. Initiation Ceremonj' 199

109. Initiation Ceremony 200

110. Sacred drawings of the Witchetty grub totem on the rocks at

Emily gap (Central Australia) 201

111. Group of men of the Emu totem, sitting round the totem

device painted on the ground (Central Australia) . . . 205

112. Map of the Amignacian Stations in Europe .... 213

113. Section of the Paviland Cave, Gower, South Wales . . . 214

114. The Chfitelperron Point 216

115. Aurignacian Scrapers and Gravers, from La Coumba-del-

Bouitou (Correze) 217

116. The La Gravette Point 218

117. The Aurijfnacian Bone Point 219

118. Aurignacian and Eskimo's Shaft Straighteners .... 220

119. Section through the Deposits of the Rock Shelter at Solutre . 222

120. Outlines of Paintings on the Roof of the Cavern of Altamira . 224

121. Plan of the Cavern of Altamira 227

122. Engraving of a bison, Altamira 228

123. Polychrome painting of a deer, from the group shown in

Fig. 120 229

124. Polychrome painting of a bison, from the group shown in

Fig. 120 229

125. Sketch -of- Fig. 124, engraved as a preliminary to j)ainting . 230

126. Polychrome painting of a bison, partly modelled liy the relief

of the wall 231

127. " Paint-tubes " from La Grotte des Cottes 2.32

128. Crayons of red ochre in M. Didion's collection from Castle-

meule, Dordogne 232



xlv LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



FIG.



129. Outline drawing of a jminting of two reindeer fronting each

other from Font-de-Gaume, Dordogne 233

130. Supposed pictographic inscription in red 234

131. Outlines of two trout, traced in the sand on the floor of Niaux 235

132. Recent tracing of a hsh (the niatrincliani) made in the sand by

the natives of Central Brazil - . 236

133. Engraving of a Mammoth, Les Combarelles .... 237

134. Engraving of a Horse, Les Combarelles . . . . . 237

135. Interlacing lines scratched in the clay of Hornos de la Pena in

the Cantabrian mountains 238

136. Silhouettes of hands in red and black 239

137. Mutilated hands of Bushmen 242

138. Enigmatical signs 243

139. Tectifoim signs from Font-de-Gaume 243

140. Tectiform signs on the side of a Mammoth, from Font-de-Gaume 243

141. Pectiniform signs painted on the side of a Bison . . . 244

142. IMammoth from the Grotte de la Mouthe, Dordogne . . . 245

143. Sketches of the human face, from the cave at IMarsoulas . . 247

144. Monstrous forms engraved 247

145. Three figures of women from the group at Cogul . . . 248

146. A hunting scene from Cogul 249

147. Paintings in red on a block of granite in the Sierra de la Caca-

chillas. Lower California 250

148. Figures from the caves of the Gleuelg Valley, N.W. Australia 251

149. Elands pursued by lions 253

150. A group of ostriches and a Bushman hunter disguised as an

ostrich 254

151. Outline of a picture of a rhinoceros 254

152. A Bushman cattle-raid ; pursuit by the Kaffirs and rear-guard

action. From a cave near Hermon, Basutoland . . . 255

153. Bushman paintings 256

154. Bushman paintings 257

155. Generalised paintings by the men of Cogul and by the Bushmen 257

156. Part of a long picture showing undulating lines, rows and dots,

Bushmen and animals, from Zuurfontein, Cape Colony . . 258

157. Symbolic paintings from striated rocks on the banks of the

Gumaap, Griqualand AVest 259

158. Head of a horse neighing, from Mas d'Azil 259

159. Carving in geometric designs 260

160. Aurignacian figurines 261

161. Avu-ignacian figurines 263

162. Aurignacian tigui'ines 2(54

163. Aurignacian figurines . • 2()5

164. Section through the Grotte des Enfants, iNIentone . . . 266

165. Skull of a Bushman for comparison with that of the Aurignacian

woman 267

166. A Bushman from the Kalahari desert 272

167. A Bushman from the Kalahari desert 273

168. Bushman's arrows 275

169. Bushman's quiver 276

170. The Bushwoman's 'Kibi or digging stick 277

171. The lower end of the Bushman filter-pump . . . . . 279

172. A Bushman's pipe 279



LIST OF ILLUSTRATlOiNS xv

FIG. TAGE

173. Elephant sculptured in sunk relief, from South Africa . . 281

174. Stages in the manufacture of Bushman's beads .... 283

175. Part of a Bushman's kraal in the Middelveld, showing huts . 284

176. Mythical Bushman painting, from the Biggardsberg . . . 29,5

177. Animal-headed men in dancing postures, from South Africa . 297

178. Bushman stone imjjlements from Orangia 298

179. The routes taken by the Bushmen in their migrations from the

E(]uator southwards to the Cape of Good Hope . . . 302

180. Deeply incised drawings of Biihalus antiquus from the Col d'Er

Hicha, Aflu, Southern Orau 304

181. Solutrian flint implements 309

182. Magdalenian flint implements 313

183. Magdalenian spear-heads and arrow-heads 315

184. Barbed harpoons from the Middle and Upper Magdalenian stages 316

185. Harpoon heads with jaerforations for attaching a thong . . 317

186. Problematical characters, supposed by Piette to be primitive

writing 317

187. Simple forms of the raven totem in use among the Eskimo of

Bering Strait 318

188. Eskimo and Australian spear-throwers 319

189. Throwing stick in ivory, from the Magdalenian of Mas d'Azil . 320

190. The INIagdalenian hatun de commandement and an Eskimo's

arrow-straightener 321

191. Magdalenian and Eskimo shaft-straighteners .... 324

192. Bone implements from the Magdalenian of Kent's Hole, Torquay 325

193. Bone implements used by the Eskimo in East Greenland . . 326

194. Ivory peg from Brassempouy and wooden peg used by the

Eskimo to stop the wounds made by their spears . . . 327

195. Magdalenian bone implements, supposed to be fish-hooks . 328

196. A perforated stone, probably used to load a digging stick, from

Salpetriere 328

197. Magdalenian implements 329

198. Implements from the caves at Creswell Crags .... 3.30

199. Magdalenian implements from the mammoth cave of Wierz-

chovie, Poland • . . 331

200. Magdalenian and Eskimo implements in bone and ivory . . 333

201. A sandstone lamp from the Magdalenian of La Mouthe . . 334

202. An ivory pendant from an Eskimo chatelaine .... 335

203. Ivory carvings l^y Pakeolithic men and the Eskimo . . . 336

204. Mammoth engraved on ivory, from La Madeleine . . . 337

205. The reindeer grazing, from the Kesserloch, near Thayngen,

Switzerland, engi'aved on a shaft-straightener .... 338

206. The running reindeer, deer and salmon, and the stag . . 339

207. The "following" reindeer, engraved on slate, from Laugerie

Basse 340

208. Man stalking a bison, on reindeer horn, from Laugerie Basse, etc. 341

209. Man's head carved on reindeer's horn, from Grotte de Roche-

berthier, Charente 342

210. Goose^oii reindeer horn, from Gourdan, etc. .... 343

211. Two troops of horses, each with its leader, engraved on a slab

of stone, from Le Chaft'aud (Vienne) 344

212. Dagger of reindeer horn, from Laugerie Basse, etc. . . . 345

213. Various Magdalenian relics 346



xvi LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

TIO. PAGE

214. Distrilnition, past and present, of the Eskimo .... 352

215. Portraits of Polar Eskimo 353

216. Map showing the distribution of musk-ox (after A. G. Nathorst)

and the migrations of the Eastern Eskimos .... 356

217. An Eskimo lamp 361

218. The Eskimo bow 365

219. A snow scraper and harpoon head of ivory with a tiint point . 365

220. Wooden needle-cases, Baffin Land Eskimo . . . . . 366

221. An ornament for the hair with pendants of reindeer's teeth,

Baffin Land Eskimo 366

222. A rudimentary harpoon used by the Alaskans .... 367

223. An ivory smoother used by the Eskimo of Point Franklin,

West Georgia ,368

224. Drawings on Eskimo bow-drills 370

225. Photographs of portraits drawn by an untaught girl seven or

eight years of age 371

226. Skull of the old Man of Cro Magnon 373

227. The Magdalenian skull of Chancelade and a recent Eskimo skull 374

228. Profiles of the Eskimo skull, the Cro Magnon skull, and the

skull of an Eskimo superposed on the glabella-lam1)da line

as a base 375

229. Magdalenian stations in Europe 377

230. Upper PaLiJolithic stations in Belgium, Goyet typically Magda-

lenian 378

231. Azilian harpoons 386

232. Chronological scale from 2000 a.d. taken as the origin down to

the last glacial episode 393

233. Section at Hoxne 400

234. Section across the valley of the Ouse, two miles W.N.W. of

Bedford . 401

235. Chronological scale 404



ERRATUM.

Page 51. " Andrew " should Ije "Andrews."






ANCIENT HUNTERS AND THEIR
MODERN REPRESENTATIVES

CHAPTER I

THE GREAT ICE AGE

The changes which have affected the face of the earth
since the dawn of recorded history are comparatively
few and unimportant. In some regions, as in the
British Isles, great tracts of forest and marsh have been
replaced by cultivated land, and some few species of
wild animals, such as wolves and bears, have been
exterminated ; but, so far as we can judge, the climate
has remained the same, and no movements have per-
manently disturbed the level of the sea. The recent
period seems to have been one of geological repose,
affording a peaceful and stable arena for the great
drama of human existence. The historian consequently
may pursue hia researches untroubled by disturbances
of the environment, accepting the world as it now is, as
that which, so far as he is concerned, has always been.^
But directly we extend our inquiries into antecedent
periods, and endeavour to recall the story of our species
from the unwritten past, we are conscious of a new
regime : not constancy, but change seems to dominate

1 Recent researches in Central Asia seem to show that important
changes of climate have aflfected that region in historical times ; see E.
Huntingdon in Explorations in TurListan, ivith an account of the Basin of
Eastern Persia and Sistan, edited by R. Pumpelly, Washington, 1905 ;
and the same author in The Pulse of Asia, 1907 ; also M. A. Stein, Geoyr.
Journal, vol. xxxiv, Nos. 1 & 3, 1909.

B



M



ANCIENT HUNTERS chap.



the environment. The climate loses its stability ; it
swings slowly to and fro between extremes of heat and
cold, of moisture and dryness, in long oscillations
several times repeated. Harmoniously with these,
successive assemblages of living forms — southern,
temperate, northern — faunas of the forest, the tundra,
and the steppe — make their appearance in the temperate
European zone, disappear to reappear, and then finally
vanish, either altogether or into remote regions of the
earth.

Even the land itself ceases to maintain its solid
firmness, but subsides over larger or smaller areas
beneath the waters of the encroaching sea, or in some
places rises to greater altitudes, and even shares in the
increasing growth of mountain chains.

No doubt, in a retrospective glance, we are liable to a
deceptive effect of perspective, and events widely
separated in fact appear unduly crowded together by
foreshortening. We are not, however, altogether



Online LibraryW. J. (William Johnson) SollasAncient hunters : and their modern representatives → online text (page 1 of 26)