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many consequent reductions in their expenses.

As to the practicability of the scheme, it is sufficient to point out that
manufacturers, to avoid e.xcessive rents and rates, or for other reasons,
often seek out new sites for their works in places in the country, at a
considerable distance from those they have hitherto occupied in some
crowded city.

The boot and shoe industry has largely migrated to Northampton-
shire, Leicestershire, Bristol, and Norwich, and the clothing industry to
Leeds, Bradford, and other places ; and, as is well known, many of the
largest printing firms have now established branches in the country — at
Aylesbury, St. Albans, Tonbridge, Dunstable, Beccles, and Watford —
towns, which were little more than rural villages a few years ago. It is
not alone a question of rates and rents. Colour and photographic
printing are becoming increasingly difficult in large centres, owing to
the impure atmosphere, as is shewn by the fact that this class of printers,
as well as photographic paper manufacturers, have their works at such
places as Ashstead, Watford, Elstree, Rickmansworth, and West Drayton.
The Xylonite Company have transferred their works from Homerton
to Hale End, and have a small colony near Harwich ; the Linotype
Company from Manchester to Altrincham ; Kent (brush makers) to
Hemel Hempstead; Smith ([)rinters) to St. Albans; Burroughs and
Wellcome to Dartford; the Nine Elms Locomotive Works of the L. and
S. W. R. have been transferred to Eastleigh, Hants.

JVlessrs. Cadbury (cocoa manufacturers), Messrs Lever Bros, (soap
makers), Messrs. Milne and Co. (car builders), and others, have not only
moved out, but have acquired freehold sites on which they have
established new industrial centres, where they have scope for the
development of their factories, and are also able to provide bright and
cheerful homes for their workers at less rents than the rents of worse


Cottages facing Railway — Greexdale Road, Port Sunlight.

Cottages — Park Roah, i'oK'r Sunlighi-,



houses in large towns, yet with the addition of gardens or allotments,
and of recreation grounds, swimming baths, and indoor clubs.
" Nothing," says Mr. Cadbury, "pays the manufacturer better"; and,
he adds, " It would be the greatest boon to the toilers of this country,
if it could be carried out to any large extent."

These large firms have not, it is true, established "Garden Cities,"
but Bourn ville and Port Sunlight illustrate many of the advantages
which a Garden City would afford ; and one of the objects of the
project is to make it possible lor numerous small undertakings, which
could not go out singly, to secure the benefits which such removal, if
well organised, may ensure.

Then, besides the establishment of new works in country districts in
substitution for old works in crowded centres, there are numerous cases
of branch factories being started in the country, and also — and these
cases are perhaps equally numerous — the starting in open districts of
entirely new works in connection with new industries which the progress
of invention has created. As instances of the latter class, may be
mentioned the Kodak Company's works at Harrow, and the Westing-
house Company's works at Old Trafford.

Mr, Troup, head of the Parliamentary Department of the Home
Office, in his evidence given before the Joint Committee appointed to
consider the hearing of the Private Bill Legislation on the Housing of
the Working Classes, made the following remarks in reply to a question
of the Chairman (the Earl of Camperdown) : —

The relief of congested districts might be met by the removal of factories to the
country. Of course, that was a general suggestion. The number of factories in
Lonlon which employed over 100 persons was 748. The total number of employees
was 200,000. With the wives and families this would represent a total population
of 600,000. These iigures referred to the administrative County of London. He had
ascertained that there was already a tendency to remove the factories to the country.

On the score of sufficiency of space, it may be pointed out that the
counties of Surrey, Kent, Sussex, Hampshire, and Berkshire would
absorb the poi)ulation of London, in addition to their own population
more than three times over on the Garden City basis of five to the acre

The following figures, shewing the amount realised by a few large
estates sold by auction in 1900-1901, give an indication of the probable
cost of the site of a Garden City : —

(iateforth Hall, Selby, Yorks, 1,882 acres, for ^85,000.
Whittlebury. Northants., 3,000 acres, for ;^ioo,ocX).
Clarendon Park, Wilts., 4,250 acres, for ;,f8o,ooo.
Reedham Hall, Norfolk, 1900 acres, for ^45,000.
Berrington Hall, Eye, Suffolk, 3,200 acres, for ^70,000.
Hinxton, Cambs., 1,910 acres, for /,'58,ooo.
West wood Park, Worcester, 3,077 acres, for ^^70,000.
Elton Manor, Notts., 1075 :icres, for ;^27,ooo.
Stukelv Hall, Huntingdon, 1,050 acres, for ^30,000.
Huris Wood, Spcldhurst, Kent, 676 acres, for ^28,000.

The average price paid for agricultural land in iScjy was ^40 an
acre. At this figure the cost of the estate would be ^,240,000. The


tcnvn site would occupy only about one-.si.\th of the whole area, and
these i,ooo acres would cost about _;^,40,ooo. At 4 per cent., this would
amount to ^1,600, and, divided by the population of 30,000, would
average only i/i per head. Sites of parks and public buildings would
occupy land purchased at agricultural price, and thus the rates would be
very low in respect of those public institutions which are such a heavy
burden elsewhere. Richmond, which is a town of about 30,000 popula-
tion, has had to pay over ^2,000 per acre for sites of such institutions,
and in one year has had to buy land for street widening at the rate of
^250,000 an acre.

For an annual levy of 6/- per head, the community would secure
;^9,ooo, which would be sufficient to pay the ground rent of the entire
site, and, if thought desirable, secure —

(i) liuilding site of not less than 20 feet by 100 feet for each five persons, with
a considerably higher average ;

(2) Road space of the amplest kind, no road being less than 90 feet wide, and

several 120 feet wide ;

(3) Ample sites for library, schools, churches, swimming baths, etc. ;

(4) Sites for town hall and other municipal buildings ;

(5) A central park of 145 acres, and a magnificent avenue 420 feet wide (Grand

Avenue), extending in a circle of ^^ miles ;

(6) Land required for a circular railway encompassing the town ;

(7) S2 acres for warehouses, factories, etc., all of which would be situated on

the circular railway, and would tlius economise greatly in cartage, etc. ;

(8) Site for arcade for shopping (Crystal Palace), the circular form of which

would bring it within 600 yards of the furthest removed inhabitant ;

(9) 5,000 acres of agricultural land.

A second step towards the establishment of the first Garden City
has been the formation of Garden City Pioneer Company, with a capital
of ^20,000, the whole of which has already been fully subscribed, for
the purpose of doing such preliminary work as will result in the successful
•establishment of the actual Garden City Company. Some of the best
known public men, manufacturers, and economists have given their
adhesion to the scheme, and have taken up shares in the company, and
it is fair to say that before many years are over the first Garden City
will be an accomplished fact.

The great Co-operative Societies are already seriously considering
as to the feasibility of a scheme financed entirely by themselves.
They have ample funds, and a levy of a penny per month for three
years from each co-operator would purchase the freehold of the first
Garden City.

The London County Council and the great towns of the north
might well acquire the site for a Garden City, and by co-operation with
private enterprise successfully establish such a colony, either under the
Housing Acts of 1890 and 1900, or under such local acts as might be
necessary for the proper development of the scheme.



It is obvious that the ideal provision for the working classes of large
towns is the Suburban Cottage, and there is no doubt that the great
bulk of the improved housing of the working classes must be effected
by the multiplication of Model Industrial Villages in the suburbs,
consisting of various types of cottages at corresponding rentals, and
accompanied by an improved system of cheap trams and trains.

Mention has already been made of the Manchester, Shefitield, and
London County Council suburban housing schemes, but as these are
not yet established, it will be useful to consider what has been done in
this respect by others, and for this purpose three schemes of different
types may be considered, all of which could be established under
Part III of the Act of 1890.

(i) The London suburban villages of the Artisans Labourers

and General Dwellings Company — types of a town

estate of workmen's cottages ;

(2) The village of Port Sunlight, near Birkenhead, established

by Messrs. Lever Brothers — a type of what can be
done by large manufacturers for the housing ot their

(3) The village of Bournville, near Birmingham, established by

Mr. George Cadbury — a type of the residential garden
villages that ought to be established round all centres
of population.


This Company was formed in 1867, with the idea of carrying out
schemes for the construction and management of cheap, commodious,
and sanitary working class dwellings all over the country, allowing only
a fixed and limited rate of interest (5 per cent.) on its capital, and
subject to this return, administering its large property in the interests of
the tenants.

Altogether, the Company has gradually raised about ^2,500,000
for its object, and now provides accommodation for between 30,000 and
40,000 people, mostly working men earning from 25/- to 50/- per week,
but some of the superior houses are let to tenants with higher incomes,
and the greater profits from these enable some of the cottages for the
poorer classes to be let cheaper than they would otherwise have been.

Most of the houses are in London. I'uilding work was actually
begun in several provincial centres, such as Salford, Liverpool,
Birmingham, Smethwick, and Gosport, but it was found preferable to
restrict work in the main to London, where h'gher rentals could l)e


riiL- capital of the ('om[)any now consists of about ^1,500,000, in
ordinary shares of ^,10, on which 5 per cent., free of income tax, has
been regularly paid since 1879 • '^'^° '^^ about ^1,000,000 preference
stock, paying 4.', per cent.

Four Model Industrial Villages in London. — The property
of the Company in London consists of four estates of cottage dwellings
and small houses, and ten large block buildings in different parts of
London. The cottage settlements are considered the more successful.
The following particulars with regard to them rnay be useful.

The Shaftesbury Park Estate is at Lavender Hill, near Clapham
Junction, S.W., and was the first large undertaking of the Company.^
It consists of 422 acres, covered by 30 shops, 1,135 single houses, 33
double houses, and one block of 22 tenements, costing about ^370,000^
and yielding a collective annual rental of about ;^28,ooo.

The Queen's Park Estate is near Harrow Road, W., and consists of
76 acres, covered by 116 shops, 2,076 single houses, 108 double houses,
and a public hall, costing about ^770,000, and yielding an annual
rental of over ;^63,ooo.

The Noel Park Estate is about ten minutes from Hornsey and
Wood Green Stations, in the north of London It consists of 100
acres, 50 of which are covered by 85 shops, 1,076 single houses, and
174 double houses, costing about ^475,000, and yielding an annual
rental of over ^'35,000.

The Leigham Court Estate is at Streatham, in the S.W. district
of London, and consists of 66 acres, covered by 292 houses and 373
maisonettes (with two separate dwellings), yielding at present about
;^2 1,000 per annum. Most of these houses are for a superior class of
residents, and building is not yet completed.

Description of Typical Estate — Noel Park. — The following
short account of the Noel Park Estate may be taken in most respects
as applying to each of the above-mentioned estates of the Company: —

This estate is laid out for building purposes, with a main avenue 60 feet wide,
other avenues 50 feet wide, and cross streets 40 feet wide. As the houses are built,
the roads are completely made up, channelled and curbed, and the footways are
entirely paved witli York stone, and planted at regular intervals, mostly with Plane
trees. The general drainage of the estate, in accordance wiih the requirements of the
Local Authorities, has been arranged on the dual system, tlie rain and surface water
being kept separate from the sewage. No drains run through the houses, back drains
with intercepting manholes, specially ventilated, being provided to all terraces.

There will be about 2,500 houses and shops built on this estate, mostly of five
diftertnt classes, as shewn in the plans. About 1,305 houses are already built, and
are already occupied.

Houses are built, geneially speaking, in five classes, as follows : —










per week


area in




ft. ft.

sq. ft.

1st Class Houses -

16 bv 85 -


- eight -

^350 -

1 1/- to 14/-

2nd Class Houses -

15! by 80 -


- seven -

/■280 -


3rd Class Houses -

15 l)y 70 -



^240 -


4th Class Ploiises -

14^ by 70 -



.^200 -


5th Class Houses -

13 by 60 -

470 •


^iSo -



In addition to these, an endeavour has been made to provide two separate
dwellings by shutting oft' the staircase in the 3rd class houses, and arranging the upper
floor so as to have a living room and two bedrooms, with an outside staircase down
to the back garden, the closet and wash-house being held in common In the same
way, the plan of first-class houses has been developed so as to have a frontage of
19 feet, and two separate dwellings with separate entrances back and front on each
floor, and a small additional bedroom, besides a W.c, wash-house, and scullery for
each flat. The cost of these flats has varied from ;^300 to ;!^500 for the double flat,
and the rents from 4/6 to 8/6 per week for each single flat.

The general planning of these houses does not show any specially new arrange-
ment, the type, with the exception of the fourth and fifth class houses and double
flats, being that which seems to have been universally adopted in all town and
suburban terrace dwellings.

The houses are all built with a layer of concrete over the whole area of the
buildings; the walls are of brickwork, rhe party walls being hollow or 14 inch thick,
to prevent the passage of sound between the tenements ; slate and cement damp-proof
courses are used ; the walls are faced with red and yellow bricks, with terra cotta or
artificial stone cills and flower guards ; the roofs are mostly slated, but to give variety
many are tiled ; the 'whole being built with the best materials and designed to have a
bright and cheerful appearance. There is a constant water supply, and no cisterns
are used except the water waste preventers to the water-closets. The sanitary
arrangements are of approved yet simple character, all waste and other pipes being
discharged over open trapped yard gullies.

Some of the land not yet built upon is used for cricket and recreation grounds,
and aliio allotment gardens. In order to promote thrift and self-respect, no public-
house.) or pawnbrokers' shops are allowed un the estate.

Management of the Estates. — The total working expenses on
the four London cottage estates amount to about ^40,000 on a rental
of about ^150,000, and although the houses have now been occupied
many years, the expenses have always been below the average for this
class of dwelling, owing to the admirable system of management.
Tenants do not like to move, so losses from empties are pracically nil.
Sometimes there are absolutely no arrears. The average loss from
irrecoverable arrears is about one-eighth per cent.

Each settlement has its own superintendent, who is a practical
builder, living on the spot, and who has to make regular, full, and
frequent reports on the estate, with the assistance of a staff of collectors
and officers, who are paid a gratuity, in addition to their fixed salary,
for securing prompt payment of rent. Repairs foremen inspect the
buildings and see what damage is done, or what repairs are needed, but
the tenants are remarkably careful in this respect, and little has to be
done. Committees of the Directors also periodically visit each estate.
The danger arising from fire has been found to be so infinitesimal (only
jQioT, lost in 14 years) that the Company, after paying ^7,000 in 14
years, has discontinued insuring anything but the shops, forming instead
an insuraiice fund of its own, which now stands at about ;!^5,ooo.

The Company began by selling its houses on the Shaftesbury Park
Estate, but this was found to be disadvantageous for purchasers in
cases of removal for fresh employment, when they were left with the
houses on their hands, and it also interfered with the successful
management of the estate by the Company. Accordingly, most of the
houses sold have been bought back, and at present no house is sold ;
all are only lei.


The estates are occupied by travellers, warehousemen and clerks,
railway employees, tradesmen's assistants of all kinds, artisans of all
classes, cabmen, letter carriers, labourers, policemen, pensioners, etc.
The inhabitants are healthy, and but few complaints are made. The
death rate on the Company's estates in a typical year was about i4"4i
per thousand.


Mr. W. H. Lever, the founder of Port Sunlight, has made architecture
and building a lifelong hobby, and firmly believing in the humanising,
refining, and elevating influences of beautiful dwellings with healthy
surroundings, he has expended much of the large fortune derived from
his colossal business in establishing a model village of pretty cottages
and well-equipped social and public institutions for the benefit of his

Finding the works at Warrington too small for a rapidly growing
business, the firm decided to remove entirely to some rural district,
where ample acreage could be secured adjacent to both rail and water
transport, with reasonable facilities for obtaining the necessary supply
of labour. The spot selected was on Brom borough Pool, a tidal
tributary of the Mersey, where a strip of land containing 230 acres was
gradually acquired, and utilised as to 90 acres for the business and
works, and as to 140 acres for the village.

Development of the Site. — The site of the village was intersected
by ravines or gutters, up which the tide used to flow, but they are now
filled up above high-water mark, and left for parks and recreation
grounds, occupying some 25 acres. In shape, it is an irregular oblong
about 1,200 yards in length by 700 yards in width, and it is served by
three straight roads running along its length, with fifteen or more smaller
roads, lined with trees, running in various directions to follow the
curves of the ravines, and connected in several places by banks or
light and graceful bridges. The general width of the roads is 40 feet,
say, 8 feet for each footpath and 8 yards for the roadway, but the widest
road is 12 yards for roadway and 12 feet for each footpath. The total
length of roadways is some three and a half miles.

bealing first with the general development of the village, it is cut
up into some twenty-five or more parcels of ground, of which about
twelve are utilised as sites for dwellings, and six for public buildings
and institutions, the others being open spaces. Each parcel of ground
is surrounded by roads, which are faced on one side by cottages, and
on the other by an open space. At the rear of the cottages, forming
a quadrangular enclosure, are garden allotments, which are very much
appreciated, and which are let at 6d. per rod (or perch) per annum,
with water laid on gratis. In addition to the houses, there are a
gymnasium, an open air theatre, an oval open air swimming bath (100
feet by 75 feet, with convenient dressing rooms), and two large halls,
known as Gladstone Hall and Hulme Hall. There is a men's social
club, with bowling green attached. A group of shops, for grocery,
provisions, drapery, millinery, and meat are managed by the employees
themselves entirely on co-operative lines. Over the shops is the

Bungalow Cottages— Raby Road, Thornton Hough.

Cottages— Corn It 11 K Roah, Tori Sinmcii:.

CoTTACEs — Bkisi.xcion Roai), Tokt Sunlight.


Cottages— New CiiEsri:K RnAn. I'tiRT Suni.U'.ht.


Girls' Institute, where sewing classes, ambulance classes, and other
semi-educational gatherings are held. There are some handsome school
buildings, giving ultimate accommodation for 1,500 scholars, and a
church is in course of construction. The village inn is a very handsome
structure, but is not intended for the sale of intoxicants. Altogether,
the whole scheme of building is so devised as in time to give the whole
village all the air of a quiet and pretty old-fashioned Surrey village.

There are about 600 dwelling houses, and the accompanying
photographs give a variety of types of pretty elevations. The Bungalow
cottages at Raby Road are on much the same plan as the Irish
labourers' cottages, but it must be admitted that the elevation is well
worth the extra cost.

Description of Dwelling Houses. — There are about a dozen
houses occupied by the various heads of departments and professional
men, and employed in the village, but the rest of the dwellings consist
of cottages with a standard type of plan, but with all sorts of variations
in the elevations. In planning the standard type, the idea has been to
provide a garden as foreground to the cottage and screen from the road.
These front gardens are kept by the firm at a cost of 3d. each per
week. The accommodation in the standard type of cottage provides
for three bedrooms upstairs, with living room or kitchen, scullery, bath-
room, and larder on the ground floor, with enclosed yard and usual
outbuildings. Each house is square built, with no back addition. The
entrance from the street is into a vestibule, giving access to the stairs,
bath, and kitchen. The materials used are mostly bricks and tiles,
but in many cases a great deal of beautiful half timber work has been
put into the elevations. The frontage is about 18 feet, and the depth
24 feet. Each yard is about 200 feet in extent, and the average area
of each room is about 120 square feet. As a rule, one large bedroom
takes up the front of the house, and the space behind is divided into
two small back bedrooms.

Thirteen years ago these cottages cost ^200 each to build, and
identically the same cottage in 1901 cost ^330 to build. There are
also some dwellings known as parlour houses, which have an additional
bedroom on the first fioor, and a parlour on the ground floor. The
parlour houses cost ^350 each to build in 1888, and now about
^550 each.

Financial outlay and return. — The total capital outlay on the
village, including everything, has been about ^350,000, but as the rents
are fixed so as simply to pay for rates, taxes, repairs, and maintenance,
no attempt has been made to secure that they should be a financial
success. The rents were formerly about 3/-, but are now 5/- per cottage
per week, owing to the unduly heavy cost of repairs. Mr. Lever con-
siders that tlie bare cost of management of the cottages upon the most
economical lines would be 3/6 per week. Allowing ^240 per acre
for site, and taking 10 cottages to the acre, the total cost for a cottage and
land is ;^354, which, at 4 per cent, interest and i per cent, depreciation,

Online LibraryW. ThompsonThe housing handbook → online text (page 23 of 50)