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MJ'



(AF TA



THE



HISTOEY OF EOME



VOL. III.



I.OXI>0X : PlilXTED BY

SrOTTISWO 'DE ASD CO., XETT-STREET SQUARE

AND PAULIAJIEXT STREET



THE



HISTORY OP EOME.



BY



WILHELM IHNE.



I ^



ENGLISH EDITION.



VOL. III.



LONDON :

LONGMANS, GEEEN, AND CO.

1877.



^) -



^L.. - ^'' V\



V'3



CONTENTS



THE THIRD VOLUME.



FIFTH BOOK.
THE ^YAR& FOR SUPREMACY IN THE EAST.



CHAPTER I.



THE SECOND MACEDONIAN WAR, 200-196 B.C.

Immediate results of the peace

Rome after the peace of Carthage

Motives for a new war with Macedonia

Condition of Macedonia

Condition of the Greek states

Phihp, king of Macedonia

Extent of the kingdom of Egypt

The Syrian kingdom of the Seleucid^e

Character of the Seleucidte

Antiochus the Great

Alliance between Antiochus and Philip

Philip's expedition into Asia Minor .

Dicisarchus .....

The islands of Crete and Rhodes

Wanton attacks of Philip on independent Greek cities

Coalition of Greek cities against Philip

Capture of Samos by Philip

Sea-fights of Chios and Lade

Ravaging of Caria by Philip

Philip's campaign on the Hellespont .



PAGK

3

3

3

5

6

G

7

8

10

10

10

11

11

11

12

13

13

14

15

16



VI



CONTEXTS OF



utral



of



Dispute between Athens and the Acarnanians

Interference of Rome ....

Attains at Athens .....

Declaration of war against Philip

Siege of Abydos by Philip

Policy of the Romans ....

Successful eiForts of the Romans to secure the ne

Antiochus
Roman embassy to Philip ending in a declaration
Taking of Abydos ....
Operations of Attalus
Attitude of iEtolians
Attitude and policy of the Greek states
Ineffectual efforts of the Romans to secure the active

the Achaeans ....
Sulpicius Galba sent to Macedonia
Capture of Chalcis by the Roman fleet
Philip's invasion of Attica
Sparta and the Achaean league
Neutrality of the Achaeans

Renewed devastation of Attica .

First military operations of the Romans
Alliance of Dardanians, Illyrians, and Athamanian
Rome ......

Neutrality of the ^tolians

Defensive measures of Philip

First campaign of Romans and their allies

.^tolians, allied with Rome, invade Thessaly

Operations of the allied fleet

Demonstrations at Athens hostile to Philip

Result of the first campaign

Mutiny in the Roman army

Neutrality of Antiochus

Continued neutrality of the Achaeans

Opening of the third campaign .

T, Quinctius Flamininus .

Abortive negotiations of peace .

Forcing of the pass of the Aous

/Ftolian devastation of Thcss-aly

Fhiinitiinus in Thessaly

Ijiist operntions of Fiaininimis in the canij

Naval opcraHons ....



aid of



tyof



with



17
18
18
19
19
19

20
20
22
23
24
24

24
25
26
27
28
28
29
29

30
31
31
32
33
33
35
36
36
37
38
38
39
41
42
43
43
4;',
44



THE THIRD VOLUME.



Congress at Sicyon , . . ,

Alliance between Rome and the Acliaeans

Philocles at Coi'intli .

Argos captured by Philocles

Second peace negotiations

Terms offered and refused

Armistice of two months .

Flamininus continued in the command as proconsul

Device of Philip for the alliance of N^abis

Argos handed over to Nabis

Bceotia joins the Roman alliance

Strength of the Roman army .

Strength of the Macedonian army

Battle of Cynoscephalaj

Victory of the Romans

The phalanx and the maniple

Share of the j3iltolians in the battle .

Taking of Leucas ....

Loss of Caria .....

Defeat of Macedonians in Peloponnesus
Philip's wish for peace

Motives of Flamininus for granting favourable t
Peace negotiations .....

Pretensions of the ^tolians

Truce .......

Disturbances in Bceotia ....

Assassination of Brachyllas

The senate as umpire in Greek affairs

Conditions of peace .....

Difficulties of a new settlement of Greek affairs
The three great fortresses ....

Solemn declaration of the independence of Greece

Discontent of the iEtolians

The affairs of the Peloponnesns

Character and practices of ITabis

War against Nabis

Attack lipon Sparta .

Capture of Gythium .

Assault on Sparta

Peace with Nabis

The Spai'tan exiles not reinstated

Unsatisfactory character of the new settlement



Vlll



CONTENTS OF



The Greek fortresses evacuated by the Roman garrisons

Restriction of Greek democracy

The "war in a military point of view .

Auxiliary troops in the Roman army

The naval -war .....

Political object of the war

Roman estimation of the Greek character



1^

11
11
78
78
79
79



CHAPTER II.

THE SYRO-^TOLIAN WAR, 192-189 B.C.

The success of Roman diplomacy in isolating Macedonia

Ambitious schemes of Antiochus ....

The Rhodians opposed to the encroachments of Antiochus

Change in the policy of Rome with regard to Antiochus

Conquests of Antiochus in Asia and Thrace

Roman embassy to Antiochus .

Negotiations broken ofiT and resumed

Hannibal's flight from Carthage

Renewed negotiations

Antiochus attempts to secure allies

Diplomatic congress in Rome

Final rupture delayed

The frequency of embassies

Last Roman embassy in Asia

Hannibal's intrirjues in Carthajje

Suspicions cast on Hannibal

Difficulties of the Roman ambassadors

Antiochus urged by the -^tolians to declare war

His determination to reject the Roman demands

Negotiations broken off

Plans for the war

Discontent in Greece

Gytliium aUacked by Nabis

Jtornau delay and indecision

Pliilopmmon's campaign against Nabis

Discontent in Greece

Macedonian alliance secured by Rome

The Afliac'ins leagued witli Rome

T{fHenfincn< of llic yl<]i()liiuis

RcHolntion to invite Antiochus .



81

81

83

84

85

85

86

87

89

89

90

91

92

93

93

94

95

95

95

97

97

98

99

100

101

102

102

103

104

104



THE TPriRD VOLUME.



IX



Slowness of Roman preparations
Federal institutions in Greece .
Demetrius seized by the ^tolians
^tolian force sent to Sparta
Assassination of Nabis ....

Sparta incorporated in the Achaean league

Landing of Antiochus in Greece

Hannibal in a secondary station

Antiochus declared commander of the -^tolians

Attempt to gain Chalcis ....

Disappointment of the king

His proposals rejected by Philip

The Achaeans declare for Rome

Capture of Chalcis .....

Antiochus invades Thessaly

Antiochus at Chalcis ....

Roman military movements

Proportion of Romans and allies in the legions

Commencement of the war by the Romans

Formal declaration of war

Roman armaments .....

Departui-e of Acilius Glabrio
Advance of the Romans and Macedonians into Thessaly
Position of Antiochus at the pass of Thermopyl»
Forcing of the pass ......

Return of Antiochus to Asia ....

Continued resistance of the ^tolians

Offence given to Philip .....

Submission of the i33tolians given in and retracted

Pacification of the Peloponnesus

Policy of Rome with regard to acquisitions in Greece

Co-operation of Philip secured .

Armistice granted to the ^tolians .

Chai'acter of the campaign

Operations of the fleet ....

Battle of Corycus .....

Roman reply to the ^tolian embassy

L. Cornelius Scipio elected consul

New armaments .....

Third armistice granted to the ^tolians .
March of Scipio to the Hellespont
Loyalty of Philip .....

Antiochus' preparations to meet the Romans



CONTENTS OF



The Greek towns in Asia Minoi'

Sestos and Abydos .

Defeat of the Rhodian fleet

Operations of the Roman fleet .

Difficulty of provisioning the fleets

Measures of Antiochus on the approach of the Roman

Fruitless attack on Pergamum .

Inefiectual attempts at peace negotiations

Battle of Sida or Aspen dns

Battle of Myonnesus

Eifect of the victory of Myonnesus

Sack of Phocgea ....

Second attempts at peace negotiations
Conditions of peace rejected by Antiochus
P. Scipio's sickness and transactions with Antiochus
The Roman army at Ilinni ....

Battle of Magnesia ......

Eifect of the battle of Magnesia

Antiochus sues for peace .....

Political congress in Rome for the settlement of the

of the East ......

Conflicting interests of Pergamum and Rhodes

Senatorial commission to decide disputed claims

Settlement of the aff'airs of Asia

Enlargement of Pergamum

Prolonged stay of the Roman army in Asia

Expedition to Crete .

Manlius Vulso's plans of a campaign, irrespective of

from Rome
Expedition against tlie Galatians
The Galatiuns ....
Return of the Roman army
New rising of the ^tolians
Siege of Ambracia
Peace with the -^tolians .
Tlio condition of Greece
Constant interference of Rome .
Seeds of discord at Sparta

DistiirbanccK at S[)arta put down by the Achaeaus
Roman interference

SeccHHior» of Mcssenia IVom tlio Achaean league
Doitli of Pliiiopfemen
Vigorous p(jlicy of Lycortas



array



ffairs



•den



PAOR

139
140
140
140
142
143
144
144
145
147
148
149
149
151
151
152
153
157
157

158
159
160
160
162
162
163

163
164
165
167
168
170
171
173
174
175
177
179
183
183
184



THE THIRD VOLUME.



CHAPTER III.



THE THIRD MACEDONIAIs' WAR, 171-168 B.C.



Hannibal's deatli ....

Unsettled state of affairs .

Ungenerous policy towards Macedonia

Charges brought against Philip .

Philip's preparations for war

Murder of Demetrius

Character and policy of Perseus

Anti-Roman feeling in Greece .

Frightful condition of Greece

Eumenes in Rome as accuser of Perseus

Alleged attempt to murder Eumenes .

Dispute between the senate and the consul

Moderation shown by the senate

Condition of Macedonia and Greece .

The war voted by the centuries

Roman preparations ....

Pei'seus endeavours to preserve peace

Perseus isolated and outwitted .

Armistice concluded ....

Permanent character of Roman policy

Weakness of Macedonia and Perseus

Defensive measures of Perseus .

Roman invasion of Thessaly

Pass of Tempe fortified by Perseus .

Combat of Callicinus

Combat of Phalanna

Destruction of Haliartus .

Treatment of Thebes, Coronea, and Chalci

^tolians charged with cowardice

Revolt of Epirus ....

Campaign of 170 B.c.

Plundering of Abdera

Gentius of Scodra ....

Appius Claudius in Ulyria

Perseus' operations in Illyria and ^tolia

Q. Marcius PhilipjDUS

Marcius invades Macedonia

Retreat of Perseus ....



Popi



llius Lajnas



Xll



CONTENTS OF



Roman advance delayed

Operations of the fleet

Attempt to form a coalition against Rome

Negotiations of Perseus with Eumenes

Continued neutrality of Syria .

Rhodian policy .....

Gallic mercenaries refused by Perseus

Alliance of Gentius with Perseus

Condition of the Roman land forces .

Condition of the Roman fleet .

L. iEmilius PauUus

Roman armaments

Defeat of Gentius

Rhodian mediation

Battle of Pydna

Conduct of Perseus

Perseus' flight .

Collapse of the Macedonian monarchy

Capture of Perseus ....

^lacedonia left in nominal independence

Congress at Amphipolis

Settlement of IMacedonia .

Settlement of lUyria ....

Greece after the war

Relations of Achaia to Rome

Acliaeans exiled to Italy

Distress of Rhodes ....

Fate of Polyaratus ....

Rhodes admitted into the Roman alliance

Humiliation of Eumenes of Pcrgamum

Human intrigues to cause disunion in the family of the

Attalida)
Galatian inroads encouraged
Kumciics refused ;idmittancc to the senate
Sorvility of J*rusias .
War between Syria and lOgypt
Interference of Rome
RchuMh of the battle of Pydna
/1'iiiiilius J'aulluH' journey tlirough Greece
Congress of Anipliijjolis
Do violation of J'ipirus
News of the battle of Pydna brought to Rome



PAGE

233
234
236
237
238
239
242
242
243
244
244
246
247
248
249
251
252
253
254
2.56
258
258
260
261
262
265
266
267
270
272

274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284



THE THIRD VOLUME.



Xlli



Emilias Paullus' return .
Opposition to his triumpL. .
His domestic affliction
Triumph of ^milius Paulhis
Character of ^milius Paullus



PAOK

285
285
287
287
289



CHAPTER IV.
THE FALL OF MACEDONIA AND GREECE, 148-14Ü B.C.



Condition of Macedonia after the war

Ti'eatment of Perseus

Andriscus a pretender to the Macedonian

Defeated by Csecilius Metellus .

Macedonia a Roman province .

Last period of Greek independence

Athenian quarrel with Oropus .

Achaia after the war ....

Return of the exiles delayed

Polybius one of the exiles .

Condition of Peloponnesus on the return

exiles .....

Political unfitness of the returned exiles
New rupture between Achaia and Sparta
Roman decree to break up the Achaean lea
Outburst at Corinth against Rome
Critolaus captain of the Achaean leag
Agitation against Rome
Meeting of the Achaeans at Corinth
War declared
Battle of Scarphea
Lucius Mummius
Defeat of the Achaeans
Destruction of Corinth
Acts of punishment .
Good services of Polybius
Roman settlement of Greece
Changed condition of Greece
Causes of the downfall of Greece



of the Achaean



291
292
292
293
' 294
295
296
298
299
300

301
302
303
305
306
307
308
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318



XIV



CONTENTS OF



CHAPTER V.



THE TIIIKD WAR WITH CARTHAGE, 149_146 B.C.



Roman feelings towards Carthage ..... 320

Hostility of Masinissa to Carthage ..... 321

Roman unfairness ........ 323

Continued aggression of Masinissa restrained by Rome 324-327
New aoforession of Masinissa . . . . . .327

Cato as ambassador in Carthage . . . . .327

Cato's views with regai'd to Carthage .... 328

Cato's views adopted ....... 329

Internal strife at Carthage ...... 330

War with Masinissa ........ 330

Roman interference ........ 332

Carthaginian endeavours to deprecate the hostility of Rome 333

War decreed 333

Submission of Carthage tendered ..... 334

The Carthaginians disarmed ...... 336

Carthaginians refuse to give up their town to desti'uction . 337

Resolve to defend the town ...... 339

Postponement of the siege ...... 340

Difficulty of ascertaining the topography of Carthage . 341

Site of Carthage 343

The ports of Carthage 346

Siege of Carthage begun ....... 347

Result of the first campaign ...... 348

Death of ^fasinissa ........ 349

Settlement of the succession in Numidia .... 349

The second campaign ....... 351

Scipio yl'^milianus elected consul ..... 352

Perilous situation of Mancinus ...... 353

Scipi(j takes the command ...... 354

Abandonment of the suburb ...... 356

Entrance to liavbour blocked up ..... 357

New entrance io hai-boui" made ...... 357

Shi lif,'lit 358

A Hack on the dock quay ....... 359

TcrmH of Hurrcndcr rejc( led by Hiis(liiil>;il . . 360

Capture of Ncplicri.s 361



THE THIRD VOLUMP].



XV



Capture of Carthage .
The Roman deserters
Destruction of Carthage



PAüK

3G1
3G3
3G3



CHAPTER VI.

THE WARS IN SPAIX UP TO THE FALL OF NUMANTIA,
200-133 B.C.



Geograpliical condition of political power
Geographical seclusion of Spain
Character of the native Spaniards
First Roman possessions in Spain
Wars in Spain imperfectly known
Distance of Spain ....

No Roman colonisation in Spain
Character of the wai's in Spain
Numerous reverses of the Romans iu Spain
Roman victories ....

Oppression of Roman magistrates in Spain
Treaty of Gracchus with Spanish towns
War with the Bellians
Disastrous campaign of Fulvius Kobilior
Treaty of Marcellus ....

Lusitania in arms ....

Campaign of Lucullus
Treachery of Lucullus
Atrocities of Sulpicius Galba
Trial and acquittal of Galba
Viriathus ......

Murder of Viriathus ....

Subjection of the Lusitanians

War with Numantia ....

Treaty of Pom peius ....

Defeat of Mancinus ....

Treaty of Mancinus rejected by the Senate

Lepidus routed by the Vaccaaans

Scipio elected consul

Discipline restored in the Roman army

Siege of Numantia ....

Capture of Numantia
Pacification of Spain



367

368

309

370

371

372

373

374

376

377

378

380

381

382

383

384

384

385

386

388

389

393

394

395

396

399

400

402

403

404

405

406

406



XVI



CONTENTS OF THE THIKD VOLUME.



CHAPTER VII.

THE CONQUEST OF NORTHEEN ITALY. THE WARS WITH
THE GAULS, LIGURIANS, AND ISTRIANS.

PAGE

Annalistic method of history not applicable . . . 408
Our knowledge of the Italian wars ..... 409

The Gauls during the Hannibalic war .... 409

Gauls continue the war under Haniilcar .... 410

Capture of Placentia . . . . . . .411

Reverses of the Romans . . . . . . .411

Campaign of Cethegus and Minucius, consuls of 197 B.C. . 412
Campaign of Marcellus and Furius, consuls of 196 B.C. . 413
Campaign of Cornelius Merula, consul of 193 B.c. . . 414

The Boians exhausted and subdued ..... 415

Colonisation of conquered districts . . . . .415

Warinlstria . . • 417

The Ligurians ......... 417

The frequent wars with the Ligurians .... 418

Defeat of Marcius Philippus ...... 420

Campaign of .5l]milius Paullus ...... 420

Transference of Ligurians to Southern Italy . . .421

Pisse reinforced ........ 421

Colony of Luna founded ....... 422

Popillius Lasnas' war with the Statellates . . . .422

Appius Claudius' war with the Salassians .... 423

Conquest of Illyria and Dalmatia ..... 425

Wars in Sardinia and Corsica ...... 425

The formation of the Roman empire facilitated by the
geographical position of Rome and Italy, and by the
submission of the Romans to the government of
laws 42G-42 7-428



FIFTH BOOK.

THE WAES FOE SUPEEMACY
IN THE EAST.



VOL. III.




CHAPTER I.

THE SECOND MACEDONIAN WAE, 200-1 9G B.C.

The peace of the year 201 b.c. between Eome and
Carthage had not put au end to hostilities in all the
countries which had been the theatre of the Hannibalic
war. The Gauls were not included in its provisions, and
were now carrying on the war on their own account with
a degree of determination and energy which they had failed ^^® peace.
to display for a long time. Nor could Spain be transferred ^«^^^''^ter
without much difficulty from the dominion of Carthage of Car-
to that of Rome. The Sj)aniards had hoped to find in ^^**
the Romans their deliverers from a hateful oppression,
not new and more exacting masters. The proud and war-
like nation, impatient of control, struggled hard, before it
would submit. At the same time the periodical insurrec-
tions in Corsica and Sardinia continued as before, and in
Italy the long war had brought about a state of things
which imperatively demanded permanent peace, if order
and national wealth were to be restored. In spite of all
these considerations, the peace with Carthage was scarcely
concluded, when the Roman senate decided on commencing
a new war, a war not like those of Cisalpine Gaul, Liguria,
and Spain, which were only continuations of the Punic
war, but one coolly planned for a j)olitical purpose and
forced upon an enemy who wished nothing more than to
live in peace with Rome.

Pour years before the end of the Hannibalic war, in Motives
the year 205 b.c., Rome had come to terms with kino- ^°^ ^ °^7

Ö "wfir witli

Philip of Macedonia. This step had become necessary, Mace-
because Rome's allies, the ^tolians, had already given ^°"''^'
up the unequal struggle with Philip, in which they had

n 2



B.c.



ROMAN HISTORY.

BOOK not been strenuously supported by Eome.' The exliaus-
^- tion of Italy in tbe latter part of the Hannibalic war,

200-196 which had been the cause of this neglect of the ^tolians,
made it imperative for the senate to purchase the peace
with Philip even at the sacrifice of some Eoman posses-
sions in Elyria.'- That a peace concluded under such cir-
cumstances and such conditions could not be a sincere
and lasting one is very clear. The Eomans looked upon it
only as a suspension of hostilities,^ and resolved to use the
first opportunity to make Philip suffer for the troubles
which he had caused them by interfering in the Hannibalic
war. Yet it was not solely a feeling of revenge by which
the cool and far-seeing statesmen in the Eoman senate
were determined in their policy. It was the well-founded
apprehension which the alliance between Philip and
Hannibal in the course of the second Punic war had called
forth. It seemed at that dark period that the power of
Eome would soon be at an end, if Philip acted as boldly
as his ally, and carried the war into Italy. After the
humiliation of Carthage, a similar danger, it is true, was
not to be feared, at least for some time to come; but
who would undertake to answer for the future? Once
already Carthage had recovered with wonderful rapidity
after a great fall, and had become more formidable to
Eome in the second war than she had been in the first.
Though Masinissa, the king of Numidia, was now a
troublesome neighbour and relentless foe of the Cartha-
ginians, yet he aiforded the Eomans no absolute security.
No reliance could be placed on the permanence of a Numi-
dian kingdom. The condition of the unsteady barbarian
communities in the north of Africa changed as easily as

' See vol.ii. \>. 414. Livy,xxix. 12: Neglects? co bicnnio res in Grpecia erant.
Itiiquc P!iilii)j)us ./I<2tolos, dcsertos ab Romauis, eui uni fiJebant aiixilio,
quiljUH voluit conditionibus, ad petendam et paciseondam subegit pacom.

- Livy, xxix. 12 : lu.s.sorunt (paceni) omnes tribns, quia vei'so in Afrieam
bello omiiiliUH aliis in prrc.sentia levari volebaiit bellis.

• Appian, ix. 3 : Kai tos ffuvOijKas ovSfjepoi ßeßaiovs ovS' dn evvolas eSoKOW
wfiroi^fTÖo«. .rustiii, XXX. '.i: Omta Icgatio Ivoniaiiis fuit, causam belli adversus
I'hiiipjmni quitTüiitibns, (jiiia insidiidiis eis tunipui'ibus I'unici belli erat.



THE SECOND MACEDONIAN WAE.



tlie sand of their native desert. The very existence of CHAP.



I.



200-196

B.C.



these states depended mostly on the life and prosperity of
a chief, and their policy was equally shifting and uncon-
trollable. Syphax had once been the great enemy of
Carthage. He became afterwards her useful ally. Who
could vouch for Masinissa's fidelity, if the crafty Punians
should offer a sufficient temptation to gain liim over to
their side? Above all, Hannibal was yet living, and was
actually guiding the policy of the Carthaginian states.
His name, even after the defeat at Zama, had hardly
lost anything of the terror with which during a seventeen
years' war it had fascinated all Italy. It was, therefore,
a natural and well-considered plan of the men who ruled
the Roman state, to make use of the first leisure which
the peace with Carthage afforded for the purpose of
humbling Macedonia. The actual conquest of the lands
on the east side of the Adriatic was not yet aimed at ; at
most, a moderate extension of the possessions in Illyria
was contemplated as the prize of victory.^

Macedonia alone, as things then stood, was not dan- Condition
gerous to the Eoman republic. It was no longer the ^qj^^'^^'
Macedonia of the second Philip and of the great Alexander.
The endless wars and the inroads of the Northern bar-
barians had depopulated and impoverished the country.
But it was still the first power on the eastern peninsula,
and king Philip, who had ruled it since the year 221 b.c.
had displayed unusual military abilities which had pro-
cured for him an undisputed pre-eminence in Greece. He
had humbled the -lEtolian confederation, the most powerful
of his enemies, notwithstanding its alliance with the
Romans. The Achaean League, which was second in

' This may be inferred from the policy adopted after the successful termi-
nation of the war, and from the auguries which the priests announced before it
was undertaken. A solemn sacrifice and prayers having been ordered, the
consuls reported to the senate (Livy, xxxi. 5, 7) : Rem divinam rite peractam
esse et precatioui annuisse deos harnspices respondere, Isetaque exta fuisse et
lorolationem finium, victoriamque, et triumphura portendi. Some extension of



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