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Missouri the center state, 1821-1915 (Volume 2) online

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MISSOURI



THE CENTER STATE
1821-1915



By WALTER B. STEVENS



"Every day I become prouder of being a Missourian. Every day I am
gladder that my wife and children are natives of this imperial commonwealth.
Every day I more and more magnify the presence, patriotism and courage of
Thomas jeiTerson for adding to the American Republic, without the shedding
of one drop of blood, a domain the richest under heaven." — Champ Clark.



ILLUSTRATED



VOLUME II



CHICAGO- ST. LOUIS
THE S. J. CLARKE PUBLISHING COMPANY
1915

T r



-: „1£RARY


TILL*.. . _
R 1?','.


■ '.■ D



COPYRIGHT, 191S

By

THE S. J. CLARKE PUBLISHING COMPANY



JEFFERSON ON THE LOUISIANA
PURCHASE



"The territory acquired, as it includes all the waters of the Missouri and Mississippi,
has more tlian doubled the area of the United States, and the new part is not inferior to
the old in soil, climate, productions and important communications." — Jefferson to General
Gates, July nth, 1S03.

"On this important acquisition, so favorable to the immediate interests of our Western
citizens, so auspicious to the peace and security of the nation in general, which adds to our
country territories so extensive and fertile, and to our citizens new brethren to partake of
the blessings of freedom and self-government, I offer to Congress and our country my
sincere congratulations." — Jefferson to Congress, January i6th, 1S04.

"Whilst the property and sovereignty of the Mississippi and its waters secure an inde-
pendent outlet for the produce of the Western States, and an uncontrolled navigation
through their whole course, free from collision with other Powers, and the dangers to our
peace from that source, the fertility of the countrj-, its climate and extent, promise, in due
season, important aids to our Treasury, an ample provision for our posterity, and a wide
spread for the blessings of freedom and equal laws." — Jefferson to Congress, Oetober 17th,
1S03.

"I know that the acquisition of Louisiana has been disapproved by some, from a candid
apprehension that the enlargement of our territory would endanger our Union. But can
you limit the extent to which the federative principle may operate effectively? The larger
our association, the less will it be shaken by local passions ; and in any view, is it not bet-
ter that the opposite bank of the Mississippi should be settled by our own brethren and
children than by strangers of another family? With which shall we be most likely to live
in harmony and friendly intercourse?" — Jefferson's Second Jnaugural Address, iSoj.

"Tlie treaty whicli lias so happily sealed the friendship of our two countries has been
received here with general acclamation. Some inflexible federalists have still ventured to
brave the public opinion. It will fix their character with the world and with posterity, who,
not descending to the other points of difference between us, will judge them by this fact,
so palpable as to speak for itself in all times and places. For myself and my country, I
thank you for the aids you have given in it : and I congratulate you on having lived to
give those aids in a transaction replete with blessings to unborn millions of men, and which
will mark the face of a portion on the globe so extensive as that which now composes the
United States of America." — Jefferson to M. Dupont De Nemours, French Minister, Novevi-
ber 1st, 1803.

"I confess I look to this duplication of area for the extending a government so free
and economical as ours, as a great achievement to the mass of happiness which is to ensue.
Whether we remain in one confederacy, or form into Atlantic and Mississippi confed-
eracies, I believe not very important to the happiness of either part. Those of the west-
ern confederacy will be as much our children and descendants as those of the eastern, and
T feel myself as much identified with that country, in future time, as with this: and did
I now foresee a separation at some future day, yet I should feel the duty and the desire
to promote the western interests as zealously as the eastern, doing all the good for both
portions of our future family which should fall within my power." — Jefferson to Dr. Priest-
ley, January jgth, 1S04.



JEFFERSON'S LETTER OF CREDIT
TO MERIWETHER LEWIS



Washington. U. S. of America, July 4, 1S03.
Dear Sir :

In the journey which you are about to undertake for the discovery of the course and
source of tlie Missouri, and of the most convenient water communication from thence to
the Pacific Ocean, your party being small, it is to be expected that you will encounter con-
siderable dangers from the Indian inhabitants. Should you escape those dangers and reach
the Pacific Ocean, you may find it imprudent to hazard a return the same way. and be
forced to seek a passage round by sea. in such vessels as you may find on the Western
coast. But you will be without money, without clothes and other necessaries ; as a sufifi-
cient supply cannot be carried with you from hence. Your resource in that case can only
be in the credit of the U. S., for which purpose I hereby authorize you to draw on the
Secretaries of State, of the Treasury, of War and of the Navy of the U. S., according
as you may find your draughts most negotiable, for the purpose of obtaining money or
necessaries for yourself and your men. And I solemnly pledge the faith of the United
States that these draughts shall be paid punctually at the date they are made payable. I
also ask of the consuls, agents, merchants and citizens of any nation with which we have
intercourse or amity to furnish you with those supplies which your necessities may call
for, assuring them of honorable and prompt retribution. And our own Consuls in foreign
parts where you may happen to be. are hereby instructed and required to be aiding and
assisting to you in whatsoever may be necessary for procuring your return back to the
United States. And to give more entire satisfaction and confidence to those who may be
disposed to aid you. I, Thomas Jefferson, President of the United States of America, have
written this letter of general credit for you with my own hand, and signed it with my name.

Th. Jefferson.
To Ca/'t. Meriwether Lewis.



SEE IMPERIAL MISSOURI FIRST

On the Fair Grounds at Columbia, August lo, 1897, Champ Clark delivered an address
on the State and the people. He stamped permanent coinage on "Imperial Missouri."
He made what, in the opinion of those who heard him, was his greatest speech. Among
other things he said :

"What is the sense of going to California to see the mammoth redwoods when by
going to Stoddard County, in Southeast Missouri, you can see a gigantic oak that measures
twenty-five feet in diameter and pierces the clouds with its lofty crown?

"Why travel thousands of miles to gaze upon the 'deep blue sea' which Byron loved to
apostrophize, when down in Crawford County, only a short day's journey, you can see
the Blue Spring, which discounts the sky cerulean hue and whose depth no plummet has
ever fathomed ?

"Why sigh for the distant beauties of the Alps when the beauties of the Ozarks are
almost in sight, and yet unfamiliar to your eyes?

"Why wander abroad like Don Qui.xote in quest of adventures when you can behold
the largest nurseries in the world and the largest dynamite mill on earth by going down to
Pike County?

"Why rave about the horses of Arabia when .Audrain County produces tlie finest sad-
dlers in all creation and sells equines in Kentucky — a performance which twenty years ago
would have been considered as preposterous as sending coals to New Castle?

"Why hanker after a view of the Hudson wlien the Meramec and the Osage are just
as picturesque and almost in the range of vision from your own windows ?

"Why go a thousand miles to see the far-famed wheat fields of North Dakota when
you have never seen the largest orchard on the face of the earth, which is in Howell
County ?

"Why spend time and money in visiting the battlefields of Chickamauga, Vicksburg or
the Wilderness before you have seen the fields of action at Wilson's Creek and Lexington,
where the Blue and the Gray contended with each other for the mastery and enriched the
land with their blood?

"Why go into raptures over the royal mummies of Egypt, when, by stepping into the
museum in Columbia, you can behold the most perfect mastodon's head now in existence
— a curiosity worth a king's ransom, which every scientific society on eartli yearns to
possess?

"Why roll as a sweet morsel under your tongues the phrase, 'There were giants in
those days,' when by going to Scotland County you can gaze upon a Missouri woman
nearly nine feet in altitude and still a-growing?

"In the short and beautiful One Hundred and Thirty-third Psalm, King David em-
balmed Aaron's beard in immortal verse— as every preacher and every Free and Accepted
Mason knows; but if the sweet singer of Israel had lived down in Pike County, he would
have written a poem as long as Paradise Lost or Don Juan about the beards of two of
her citizens living in one township — one of whom has a beard nine feet two inches long,
and the other seven and one-half feet long. Senator Peffer of Kansas is not in it with my
bewhiskered constituents.

"Why risk your life in searching for gold in .Maska, when you can- grow tobacco in
Lincoln County and get $1.25 a pound for it?

"There is a little Klondyke in every quarter-section in Missouri if you will only
dig for it.

"Why send your children to Yale, Harvard, Princeton, Ann Arbor, Johns Hopkins or
■Virginia University, when, at your very doors, is the L'niversity of Missouri, wliere a boy
or a girl can be thoroughlv educated and at the same time form thousands of acquaint-
ances and friends who shall be serviceable to them as long as they shall tabernacle in the
flesh?

"Why go five hundred miles to get lost in the Mammoth Cave, when you can perform
that unpleasant caper in the great Hannibal Cave— the scene of the remarkable exploits of
Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn?"



JEFFERSON'S LETTER OF CREDIT
TO MERIWETHER LEWIS



Washington, U. S. of America, July 4, 1803.
Dear Sir :

In the journej' which j-ou are about to undertake for the discovery of the course and
source of the Missouri, and of the most convenient water communication from thence to
tlie Pacific Ocean, your party being small, it is to be expected that you will encounter con-
siderable dangers from the Indian inhabitants. Should you escape those dangers and reach
the Pacific Ocean, you may find it imprudent to hazard a return the same way, and be
forced to seek a passage round by sea, in such vessels as you may find on the Western
coast. But you will be without money, without clothes and other necessaries ; as a suffi-
cient supply cannot be carried with you from hence. Your resource in that case can only
be in the credit of the U. S.. for which purpose I hereby authorize you to draw on the
Secretaries of State, of tlie Treasury, of War and of the Xavy of the U. S,, according
as you may find your draughts most negotiable, for the purpose of obtaining money or
necessaries for yourself and your men. And I solemnly pledge the faith of the United
States that these draughts shall be paid punctually at the date they are made payable. I
also ask of the consuls, agents, merchants and citizens of any nation with which we have
intercourse or amity to furnish you with those supplies which your necessities may call
for, assuring them of honorable and prompt retribution. And our own Consuls in foreign
parts where you may happen to be. are hereby instructed and required to be aiding and
assisting to you in whatsoever may be necessary for procuring your return back to the
United States. And to give more entire satisfaction and confidence to those who may be
disposed to aid you. I, Thomas Jefferson, President of the United States of America, have
written this letter of general credit for you with my own hand, and signed it with my name.

Th. Jefferson.
To Capt. Mcrm'eihcr Lewis.



SEE IMPERIAL MISSOURI FIRST

On tlie Fair Grounds at Columbia, August lo, 1897, Champ Clark delivered an address
on the State and the people. He stamped permanent coinage on "Imperial Missouri."
He made what, in the opinion of those who heard him, was his greatest speech. Among
other tilings he said:

"What is the sense of going to California to see the mammoth redwoods when by
going to Stoddard County, in Southeast Missouri, you can see a gigantic oak that measures
twenty-five feet in diameter and pierces the clouds with its lofty crown?

"Why travel thousands of miles to gaze upon the 'deep blue sea' which Byron loved to
apostrophize, when down in Crawford County, only a short day's journey, you can see
the Blue Spring, which discounts the sky cerulean hue and whose depth no plummet has
ever fathomed ?

"Why sigh for the distant beauties of the .\lps when the beauties of the Ozarks are
almost in sight, and yet unfamiliar to your eyes ?

"Why wander abroad like Don Quixote in quest of adventures when you can behold
the largest nurseries in the world and the largest dynamite mill on earth by going down to
Pike County?

"Why rave about the horses of Arabia when .A.udrain County produces the hnest sad-
dlers in all creation and sells equines in Kentucky — a performance which twenty years ago
would have been considered as preposterous as sending coals to New Castle?

"Why hanker after a view of the Hudson when the Meramec and the Osage are just
as picturesque and almost in the range of vision from your own windows?

"Why go a thousand miles to see the far-famed wheat fields of North Dakota when
you have never seen the largest orchard on the face of the earth, which is in Howell
County ?

"Why spend time and money in visiting the battlefields of Chickamauga, Vicksburg or
the Wilderness before you have seen the fields of action at Wilson's Creek and Lexington,
where the Blue and the Gray contended with each other for the mastery and enriched the
land with their blood?

"Why go into raptures over the royal mummies of Egypt, when, by stepping into the
museum in Columbia, you can behold the most perfect mastodon's head now in existence
— a curiosity worth a king's ransom, which every scientific society on earth yearns to
possess?

"Why roll as a sweet morsel under your tongues the phrase, 'There were giants in
those days.' when by going to Scotland County you can gaze upon a Missouri woman
nearly nine feet in altitude and still a-growing?

"In the short and beautiful One Hundred and Thirty-third Psalm, King David em-
balmed Aaron's beard in immortal verse— as every preacher and every Free and Accepted
Mason knows; but if the sweet singer of Israel had lived down in Pike County, he would
have written a poem as long as Paradise Lost or Don Juan about the beards of two of
her citizens living in one township — one of whom has a beard nine feet two inches long,
and the other seven and one-half feet long. Senator Pefter of Kansas is not in it with my
bewhiskered constituents.

"Why risk your life in searching for gold in Alaska, when you can' grow tobacco in
Lincoln County and get $1.25 a pound for it?

"There is a little Klondyke in every quarter-section in Missouri if you will only
dig for it.

"Whv send vour children to Yale. Harvard, Princeton, Ann Arbor, Johns Hopkins or
"Virginia 'Universitv, when, at your very doors, is the University of Missouri, where a boy
or a girl can be thoroughlv educated and at the same time form thousands of acquaint-
ances and friends who shall be serviceable to them as long as they shall tabernacle in the
flesh ?

"Why go five hundred miles to get lost in the Mammoth Cave, when you can perform
that unpleasant caper in the great Hannibal Cave— the scene of the remarkable exploits of
Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn?"



TABLE OF CONTENTS



CHAPTER XX.
MISSOURI CAMPAIGNS.

Bingham's County Election — An Incident at Old Chariton — The Man ]\'ho Broke a Tie —
When Abraham Lincoln Shocked Missouri Whigs — How Providence Elected a Con-
gressman — The Jackson Resolutions — Benton's Defiance — John Scott's Letter — Sterling
Price and the Governorship — Three Good Stories from Walter Williams — How Rollins
Got the Best of Henderson — Senator Schurz and Eugene Field — "Bully" Pitt — The
Know Nothing Days — St. Louis Riots — Boernstein and the Forty-cighters — A Repor-
ter's Impressions of Polk, Rollins and Steivart — Missouri's Longest Campaign — Clai-
borne F. Jackson's Opportunity — A Newspaper Ultimatum — William Hyde's Graphic
Narrative — One of Fayette's Greatest Days — John B. Clark, the Political Adviser —
Sample Orr, the Unknown — A Moonlight Conference — Douglas or Breckinridge? —
Jackson Declares His Position — A Campaign of Oratory — Blair's First Speech After the
War — A Thrilling Scene at the Pike Comity Forum — Blair at Mexico — The Republican
Split of iS/O — Birth of the Possum Policy — Holding the Wire — Freedom of Suffrage —
Judson on the Liberal Movement — New Parties in Missouri — Greenbackers and Wheel-
ers — Campaign Stories — How Telegrams Saved an Election — Vest on Party Loyalty —
Champ Clark on Politics and Oratory — The Barber Shop Barometer 389

CHAPTER XXI.

MISSOURI IN CONGRESS.

The Lozver House a Training School — Benton Line and Barton Line — The Nullification
Issue — Defense of Jackson — Benton, the Conservationist — Expunging Resolution — The
Great Salt Speech — How Clay Was Converted — Webster's Tribute to Benton — A Politi-
cal Suicide — Galusha Groiv's Recollections — Father of Oregon — The Model Senator —
Lewis F. Linn — Geyer's Senatorial Career — Last of the Whigs — Atchison's Difficult Posi-
tion — Blair's First Term — The Barret-Blair Contest — Bland and His Issue — "The Crime
of '73" — A Champion of the People — Missouri and the Speakership — Why John S.
Phelps Was Put Aside — The Admission of Oregon — Hatch Denied a Solid Delegation
— Champ Clark's Distinction — The Patronage Certificate of 1S83 — A Missouri Boy's
First I'otc — "Pub. Docs." — IVhen Agricultural Reports Were Appreciated — Champ
Clark and the New Member — Vest's Scathing Rebuke of Executive Interference —
Martin L. Clardy's Discovery — Advice to Young Men — Drafts on a Congressman —
Morgan's Tariff I^roblem — The Lead and Zinc Issue — Vest on Missouri Industries — The
Cockrcll Brothers — Vest on the Income Ta.v Decision — Missouri's Tidal IVaz'e of 1S94
— Dockery's Monument — Richard Bartholdt's Career — The Torrey Act — Cockrcll's
Arraignment of Cleveland — Mr. Tarsnev and the Lobbyist — The Missourians' Day
Off " ^ 413



viii CONTENTS

CHAPTER XXII.

MISSOURI AND THE WHITE HOUSE.

Electors Before Statehood — A Hot Protest — Mr. Lehinann on Missouri's Extraordinary
Position — The Casting Vote in 1S24 — How John Scott Elected a President — Eccentric
but the Idol of His Fellow Tozvnsmcn — John B. Clark, a National Figure — Fight Against
John Sherman — Split at Charleston — Missouri, the Balance of Power — When Benton
■was Talked of for President — Relations of -Lincoln and Blair — Bates in the Convention
of 1S60 — A Missouri Movement Against Lincoln — The Radicals at Baltimore — A Stormy
Convention Scene — The Broadhead Letter — Blair at the End of the War — The Liberal
Republican Convention — B. Gratz Brown — The Striking Down of Bland — Suppression of
a Telegram — Secret InAuences — Blaine's Boy Stanard — The Cockrell Opportunity in
igoo — Champ Clark at Baltimore — Nine times the Choice of the Majority — The Two-
thirds Rule — William J. Bryan's Astonishing Course — Desperate Tactics to Dictate — A
Slander Challenged — The Speaker's Manly Position — Tribute to Senator Stone — When
a Missourian Entertained a Tired President — Some Patronage Stories — Hozv Certain
Cabinet Selections Came About — Switzlcr's Statistical Record 455

CHAPTER XXIII.
SOME MISSOURIANS ABROAD.

Standard Time — A Lesson in Courtesy at Washington — Missouri the Mother of States — ■
Sponsorship for Oregon — F. N. Judson's Comments — The Four Sublettes — A Mighty
Bear Hunter — Stephen B. Elkins and the Guerrillas — Impressions of Quantrell — A
Divided Family — The Case of Juan Gid — Misadventures of a Colony — Four Missourians
in Statuary Hall — Oregon's First Senator — A St. Louis Boy's Ambition — Pat Donan of
Devil's Lake — Missouri's Greatest Poet — Eugene Field, Editor and Actor — "Most Studious
Designer of Pranks"- — The Real Tom Sawyer's Recollections — Private Sam Clemens in
the War — Professor of Anecdote — Missourians as Constitution Makers — Ten Members
of Washington's Convention — The Left Wing of Price's Army — Governor Samuel T.
Hauser — Ashley, the E.vplorer — First Knowledge of Utah — Jim Bridger — The Duke of
Cimarron — Flush Days on the Maxwell Grant — Kit Carson — The Discovery of Yellow-
stone Park — John Colter's Veracity — Missouri Diplomats — Law and Order in Montana —
Judge Alexander Davis and the Vigilantes — The Court of Alder Gulch — Death Penalty
for Contempt of Court — What a Missouri Home-Coming Would Mean — Emily Grant
Hutchings' Suggestion 481

CHAPTER XXIV.
MISSOURI IN THE WARS.

Battle of the Everglades— The Gentry Family — When the Slate Compelled Military Service —
Benton's Mexican Plan — A Political Ballad of '46 — Missourians Start for Mexico With-
out Orders— The Army of the West — Doniphan's Marching and Fighting — Sterling
Price's Memorable Part— The Revolt of the Pueblos— Sergeant Drescher's Ride for
Mercy— Execution of the Revolutionists — The Battle at Rosalia — William Cullen Bryant's
Tribute to Doniphan's Expedition — New Mexico Annexed by Kearny — The Nerve of the
Rangers — Homeward Bound — A Missouri Welcome — Long Live Governor Lane — The
Historic Brass Twelve-Pounders — Troubles on the Kansas Border — John Brown's In-
vasion of Missouri — William Hyde, War Correspondent — The Southzvest Expedition —
Trophies of the Civil War — Shelby's Story of His Expedition — What Lincoln Planned
for the Confederates — Negotiations with Maximilian — MissoJiri and the War With Spain
—Bland, Dockery and Cochran — Sedalia's Object Lesson in Loyalty — Grant and Doni-



CONTENTS ix

phan on Mexico — Mullanphy and the Cotton Bales — The American Spirit in Upper
Louisiana — George Rogers Clark's Tribute — Francis I'igo, the Patriot — Battle of Pen-
cour — The British Plans to Take the Mississippi Valley — St. Louis in the American
Revolution — Captain BcausoleH's Expedition 513

CHAPTER XXV.
UNTOWARD EVENTS.

The New Madrid Earthquake — Descriptions by Eye IVitnesses — Effect on the Mississippi —
Two Months of Terror — Senator Linn's Report — Investigations by Scientists — Con-
gressional Act of Relief — The Mormon War — Joseph Smith's Revelations — City of Zion
and Land of Promise — Expulsion from Jackson County — Conferences at Liberty — Arrival
of a Mormon Army — The Ferry Tragedy — Appeals to Governor Dunklin — A Legislative
Investigation — Segregation Planned — A County Set Apart — The Mormon Regiment —
Captain Fear Not — The Danites — Battle of Crooked Creek — Militia Ordered Out
^Governor Boggs' Instructions — Extermination or Exodus — The Surrender at Far
West — Execution of Leaders Proposed — General Doniphan's Refusal to Shoot Them —
The Fight at Haun's Mill — John D. Lee's Confession — Eighteen Bodies Buried in a
Well — Gen. John B. Clark's Ultimatum — Midivinter Exodus from Missouri — The Slicker
War — A Custom Brought from Tennessee — Recollections of Uncle Nattie McCracken
— Removal of Tom Turk — The Flood of 1844 — Conditions Along the Missouri — The
"Head Disease" — Data Preserved by the Government — American Bottom Submerged —
The Gasconade Disaster — Recollections of G. B. Winston — Grasshopper Visitation of
1875— The Peralta Claim 545

CHAPTER XXVI.
THE MAKING OF A CITY.

West port Landing — Pioneer McCoy's Recollections — Kansas City Just Sixty. Years Ago —
The First Business Review — Wonderful Stride of a Four-Year-Old — As a Woman
Saiv the Bluffs — The Year of the Boom — Speculative Conditions Without Precedent —



Online LibraryWalter B. (Walter Barlow) StevensMissouri the center state, 1821-1915 (Volume 2) → online text (page 1 of 60)