Walter H Wills.

The Anglo-African who's who and biographical sketch-book online

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Assist. Political Agent at Zanzibar, 1868,
Political Agent to the Viceroy of India at
Zanzibar, 1873 ; H.M. Consul-Gen. 1873, and
H.M. Agent and Consul-Gen. 1880. He was
British Plenipotentiary to the African Con-
ference at Brussels, 1889 ; British Delegate at
Brussels to fix the tariffs under the Brussels
Act, 1890 ; Member of Commission to revise the
Slave Trade Instructions, 1891 ; and H.M.
Commissioner to inquire into disturbances on
the Niger, 1895. Sir John Kirk is Chairman of
the Uganda Railway Committee, of which he
was first appointed a member in 1895. He is
also a Director of the Niger Co. He married in
1867, Helen Cooko, Gold Medallist of the Royal
Geographical Society.

KIRK, LIEUT. J. W. C., B.A. (Camb.), of the
Junior United Service Club, was born at Zanzi-
bar ; is son of Sir John Kirk, K.C.B. (q. v.) ;
was educated at Marlborough Coll. and King's
Coll., Camb. Entering the Duke of Cornwall's
L.I. he proceeded to S.A. and served throughout
the war ; was wounded at Paardeberg (des-
patches, Queen's medal, four clasps, and King's
medal). Transferring to the 6th Battn. King's
African Rifles he served in the M.I. in Somali-
land (1903). He is the author of a grammar
of the Somali Language.

of Croftlands, Equeefa, Natal, and of the Micro-
scopical Club (Lond.) and the Victoria Club,
(Maritzburg), is second son of the late Rev. T. P.
Kirkman, M.A., F.R.S., of The Croft, near
Warrington, Lanes., where he was born Dec. 22,
1843. He was educated at Rossall Sch., and
went to Natal with his brother John, in 1868,
settling on a Govt. land grant in Alexandra
County. He was elected to represent his county
in the Legislative Assembly on responsible
government being granted to the Colony in 1 893,
and was returned to the Legislative Council in
1 898. For fourteen years Mr. Kirkman has served
in the Volunteer force, seeing active service for
eight months in the Zulu War, 1878-79. He takes

an interest in coffee planting and microscopical
studies, and was elected a Fellow of the
Royal Microscopical Soc. in 1898. He is un-

KITCHIN, JOSEPH, of Beckenham, Kent,
was born at Croydon, Surrey, on Dec. 18, 1870,
and is therefore still a young man. After
leaving school at the early age of 14| years, he
followed the occupations of shorthand writer,
reporter and journalist. Early in Johannes-
burg's life he became attracted by the progress
of the world's premier goldfield ; he made a
systematic collection and study of information
relating to Rand mining, and prepared much
statistical matter, which was published in seven
or eight newspapers, one in Johannesburg,
another in Paris, and the rest in London. After
commencing the preparation of a work dealing
with the history and position of S. A.
cos., he decided, instead of publishing
a book of his own, to co-operate with Mr. C. S.
Goldmann in his work on " South African
Mining and Finance," a three- volume work which
saw the light in Nov. 1895. In September,
1895, he gave up his scattered journalistic
contributions in order to become the Mining
Editor of the " African Review," a position
which he resigned in May, 1897, in order to
enter the service of A. Goerz & Co., Ltd.,
taking charge of that Company's Intelligence
Dept. in London. In 1899 he paid a six
months' visit to Johannesburg in the interest
of the Company, and before returning to Eng-
land accomplished some 3500 miles of travelling
in the sub-Continent, visiting Pretoria, Belfast,
Barberton, Lourengo Marques, Durban, Cape
Town and Kimberley, and gaining a consider-
able insight into the actual working of the
mining industry. In Sept. 1899, he was ap-
pointed a second Manager of the Company
in London, and in the spring of 1901 he became
sole Manager in London. He has now served
the Goerz Corporation for seven years, at first
under the late Mr. Adolf Goerz and latterly
under Mr. Henry Strakosch, the two Managing
Directors who took up residence in the Metro-
polis. Since the commencement (on a very
modest scale) of his business career he has never
looked back and has consistently moved for-
ward. He is a hard worker, and dabbles a little
in science. He takes great interest in all that
affects the gold mining industry, though being
of a somewhat retiring nature he does not come
much into public view. On January 1, 1892,



he married Marianne, dau. of John Henry Davy,
of Hastings.

KLIMKE, JOSEPH, Ex-State Mining En-
gineer of the late S.A.R., a Knight of the French
Legion of Honour, Knight of the Prussian Red
Eagle, Third Class, Commander of the Portu-
guese " Nossa Senhora da Conceicao de Villa
Vicosa," of which latter order he wears the Star ;
was born Oct. 5, 1849 in Upper Silesia,
Germany, and is the son of a small farmer.
After tending a two years' course at a college
in his native country, he entered at the age of
twenty the profession of mining. Left to his
own resources he did two years' manual work
as a miner and mechanic in coal and metal
mines. At the end of this period he obtained
two years' instruction at a mining school,
and therefore he received three more years 1
training in engineering and mine surveying
offices. After being admitted as Govt.
Mine Surveyor, he practised a short time and
then took up an appointment as captain of a
zinc and lead ore mine. In 1880 he was ap-
pointed manager of a gold mining company
in Guayana, Venezuela. On arriving in S.
America he vigorously devoted himself to
attaining a knowledge of the Spanish language
and the local conditions of the country. Shortly
after his arrival he removed to the adjoining
El Callao gold field. He acquired from the
Univ. of Caracas the diploma of Civil Engineer,
and was subsequently instructed to draw up the
working plans for the once famous El Callao
and other adjacent mines. In 1887 he re-
turned to Europe, but after a very brief stay he
went on a tour of inspection to the Transvaal,
arriving there in Feb., 1889, about the close
of the first boom. Anticipating a great future
for the Rand he settled at Johannesburg as
Consulting Engineer, and was appointed in
Sept. 1891 by the Govt. as State Mining
Engineer. At that time the position did not
carry much power or responsibility, but seeing
that with the rapid development of the mines
the number of accidents increased at such a
serious rate he undertook to draw up the ne-
cessary rules and regulations for the Govt's
supervision of all mining operations,
and over all boilers and machinery, and to
establish a proper technical mining depart-
ment. Hitherto, the Mining Dept. had
confined itself to the carrying out of the pro-
visions of the Gold Law, consisting chiefly in the
disposal of mineral lands and water rights, and
receiving the taxes from the proclaimed gold

fields. The conflicting interests, however, of the
various parties of the mining public, and the
opposition of the Govt. itself and the Volksraad
to every new measure from which no direct
pecuniary returns were derived, made it a
difficult task to obtain the object in view.
After several years of ceaseless effort, however,
he succeeded in obtaining the Volksraad' s
sanction to the Mining Regulations and the
Boiler Law in their latest forms. Since those
two bills came in force the use of the metric
system in place of the old measures and weights
was legalized as far as his department was con-
cerned. At the beginning of the war he was on
leave of absence in Europe when all the mines
stopped working. Some of these were imme-
diately restarted by officials of his department.
When in the early days of Feb. 1900 ru-
mours reached Europe expressing fear that the
mines might be blown up by the Boers he re-
turned immediately to the Transvaal, and it is
stated that he arrived just at the time when
with the consent of the Govt. and by the
order of his representative bore-holes made
in some of the working shafts to prepare for
their eventual destruction. Being convinced
that wanton destruction of this character was
very ill advised he immediately had these holes
filled up. In the meantime as much gold as
possible had been extracted. The Govt.
however had failed to pay a portion of the work-
ing cost, while indebtedness to an enormous
extent had been incurred for supplies with
various commercial houses of Johannesburg.
He vigorously pressed the Govt. for an
immediate settlement of these accounts, and
took measures to put the produced gold under
proper control. As a result of this he was sus-
pended from service, but permitted to return
to Europe. Since that time he has been living
in Germany and in London, but as an ex-burgher
of the late republic it is understood that he
intends to settle later on at Johannesburg. At
the end of 1903 he was summoned to Turkey,
on professional business, in connection with the
Govt. of that country.

KOCK, ANTONIE FKANQOIS, is the son of the
late Gen. J. H. M. Kock, and grandson of
Com. J. H. L. Kock. His grandfather, who
was one of the Boer Pioneers (Voortrekkers),
fought against the English under Warren at
Boomplaats. His father, Gen. Kock, acted
before the annexation of the Transvaal to the
British in 1877 as Member of the Volksraad,
and in the war of 1880-81 he acted as Vecht-



Gen. over the District of Potchefstroom.
Advocate Kock was born at Bronkhurstfontein
District, Potchefstroom, Sept. 20, 1869. He was
educated at Potchefstroom and Pretoria. In
1885 he took the Republican Scholarship at
Pretoria, and was sent to the Netherlands, where
he attended the Gymnasiam at Doetinchem.
As the scholarship was subject to certain re-
strictions his father renounced it, giving his
son a free hand. In 1891 he went to Scotland,
and during his stay there he revived the S.A.
Union at Edinburgh. At that time he was
endeavouring to establish a Union of all South
Africans in Europe. After remaining seven
months in Edinburgh he went to London, where,
in 1892, he was admitted as a student of the
Middle Temple. He was called to the English
Bar, and after a short visit to Paris he went to
Delagoa Bay in June 1895, and attended the
inauguration of the Delagoa Bay Railway as
Member of the Festivities Committee. He was
admitted as Advocate, after an examination
in the Local Laws of the Transvaal, to the High
Court of the S.A.R. On June 8, 1897, he was
appointed a Puisne Judge of the S.A.R. Among
other well known cases he defended Col. Ferreira,
who was tried for having " maliciously, wrong-
fully and illegally pegged off the property "
of J. B. Robinson at Randfontein. He secured
the acquittal of the colonel. He made himself
notorious at the trial of Constable Jones (over-
which he presided) for the murder of the Eng-
lishman Edgar, by declaring when he discharged
the prisoners with a verdict of not guilty " that
he hoped that the police under difficult cir-
cumstances would always know how to do
their duty." In the troublotis political times
before the war he showed himself an uncom-
promising opponent of the British.

At the meeting of burghers at Paardekraal,
Krugersdrorp, to discuss the coming war, he
addressed the burghers urging them to main-
tain their rights as an independent Republic
against Great Britain. At the outbreak of
the war he accompanied his father, who was
appointed Assist. Comdt. Gen., and was present
at Elandslaagte, and with him when he
was mortally wounded. A few months later
he joined Assist. Comdt. Lucas Meyer. After
being with the Boers before Ladysmith
for some time he went with Gen. Meyer to
Colenso, and during the battle of Spion Kop
he was in command at Colenso, reinforcing
the Spion Kop position with about 1,500
burghers, and at the same time kept the
British at bay at Colenso and the lower part

of the Tugela River. After remaining three
months he left Colenso on leave for Pretoria,
and was in that city during the retreat of the
burgher forces from Colenso and Ladysmith.
He there arranged, in conjunction, it is said,
with State Secy. Reitz, to destroy the mines and
meet the British on their ruins. He was pre-
vented from doing this, and was arrested by
Dr. Krause on June 2, who in making the
arrest asserted that he acted under instruc-
tions of Commdt. Gen. Louis Botha. After
being confined in a fort he was taken under
armed escort to Pretoria, and was lodged in a
room on the racecourse amongst about 5,000
English prisoners of war. He was released
after narrowly falling into the hands of Lord
Roberts, and went to join the forces round
Pretoria, where he was slightly wounded in the
leg. Retreating with the burghers he arrived
at Machadodorp, where as President of Courts-
Martial he tried the Cooper case, at Machado-
dorp, where the prisoner was sentenced to be
shot for having blown up a railway bridge with
dynamite on the Delagoa line, causing the
death of a night-watch ; and the case of Pienaar,
a Boer Comdt., who was sentenced to six
months' imprisonment with hard labour at
Nelspruit, for attempted fraud on the Trans-
vaal Govt. Proceeding to Delagoa Bay,
after an attempt upon his life, he was arrested
by the Portuguese authorities, lodged in a
fort for three days, and then requested to leave
the bay for Europe. He went to Paris and met
Pres. Kriiger. He then visited the Boer prison-
ers of war at Portugal, and subsequently made
several attempts to get back to the scene of war
in S. A. and finally succeeded. He was,
however, captured by the British and locked
up for ten weeks, when he was tried as a rebel
spy. He was found guilty and sentenced to be
shot, but acquitted on a legal point raised by
him and upheld by the State Attorney at Pre-
toria. He was thereupon banished for life,
but succeeding in escaping and making his way
up country as far as Estcourt. He then went
to Pretoria and surrended himself under the
terms of surrender, but he was again arrested
and lodged in the Artillery Camp. He finally
took the oath of allegiance and was liberated.
He is at present practising as an Advocate in
Johannesburg and editing the newspaper " De

of Riverside, Paarl, C.C., and of the City Club,
C.T., is the eldest son of William Kohler, Archi-

9 6


tect, and Mary Fletcher Hutchinson. He was
born Oct. 14, 1802, at Calvinia, C.C., and edu-
cated at Mr. Close's Sch. and (the Rev.
Hole's) Trinity Coll , C.T. Mr. Kohler was one
of the earliest pioneers of Johannesburg ; he was
Chairman of the Aurora G.M., Co.; Managing
Director of the Unified G.M. Co, ; Chairman of
the Paarl Pretoria Co., and Director of the
Langlaagte United Co, 1888-89. He purchased
Riverside in 1890, and has since carried on wine
farming very successfully. Mr. Kohler stood
for the Legislative Assembly for Stellenbosch in
1895, but retired on nomination day. He was
nominated by Stellenbosch, Somerset West, etc.,
to contest a seat for the Cape Legislative Coun-
cil, Aug. 1903. He is a Member of the Cape
Board of Horticulture, and was a Lieut, in the
Paarl D.M.T. in 1901.

born at Leeuwenhof, C.T. on Nov. 5, 1849.
He is the youngest son of the late P. J.
Kotze, who was Member for C.T. in the
House of Assembly, and was twice Major of
that city. Judge Kotze was educated at
the S.A. Coll. ; took the degree of LL.B.
at the London Univ. in Jan. 1873, and was
called to the Bar by the Honourable
Society of the Inner Temple on April 30,
1874. He practised at the Bar of the Supreme
Court, C.T., and of the Eastern Districts
Court at Grahamstown ; was appointed Judge
of the High Court of the Transvaal Pro-
vince during the period of British annexation
on May 19, 1877, which appointment he held
until the retrocession of the country in Aug.,
1881 ; was appointed one of the Commissioners
under the Pretoria Convention to investigate
and compensate claims for losses and
injuries sustained during the first Boer War,
and became Chief Justice of the late S.A.R.,
August 9, 1881. He was Chairman of the Board
of Examiners in Literature and Science of that
State from 1890-98, and was created a Knight
Grand Cross of the Order of the Immaculate
Conception by H.M. the King of Portugal in
May 1896, in recognition of his services in the
late Transvaal Republic. In consequence of
his judgment in the case of Brown v. Leyds,
in which he held that a Volksraad resolution
could not override the Grondwet or Constitu-
tion of the country, and because he refused
to renounce the right of testing the proceedings
of the Executive and Volksraad by reference
to the Grondwet, he was summarily and
illegally dismissed from office as Chief Justice

by ex-Pres. Kriiger in Feb. 1898. He was
appointed Attorney-Gen, of Southern Rho-
desia with a seat in the Executive and Legis-
lative Councils of that territory, Aug. 1900 ;
acted as Administer of Southern Rhodesia
during the absence of Sir William Milton,
K.C.M.G. from May to Oct. 1902 ; and was
appointed Judge of the Supreme Court of the
Colony of the Cape of Good Hope, April 15,
1903. Mr. Kotze, together with the late Mr.
Frederick Jeppe, edited the Transvaal Statute
Book 1845-1885. He has also edited three
volumes of reports of cases decided by the
High Court at Pretoria 1877-88, and has trans-
lated into English, from the original Dutch,
Simon Van Leeuwen's Commentaries on Roman
Dutch Law in 2 vols. royal 8vo. He married,
in 1872, Mary Aurelia, dau. of the late Daniel
Bell of Milton House, Clapham, Surrey.

presents the electoral division of Stellenbosch
in the Cape House of Assembly to which he
was last re-elected in the Bond interest in Feb.

ex-Pres. of the S.A.R., was born Oct.
10, 1825, in the Colesberg District of the
C.C. He was reared in a hard school,
his rough training on the veld, during
which his life often depended on his readi-
ness of resource, presence of mind and
physical strength, early in life endowed him
with those qualities of self-reliance and resource
which were to prove so useful to him in his
later years. His boyhood was spent in the
manner familiar to the Boers of the early days
farming, hunting, and trekking. There were
no facilities for his receiving any scholastic
training, and even now he has added nothing to
his natural sagacity by book-reading. Such
as it was, however, Paul Krtiger's early training
encouraged those characteristics which enabled
him to lead the movement which wrested the
control of the Transvaal from the most for-
midable empire the world has yet seen, and to
hold his own for years in the face of opposition
before which the boldest might well have quailed.
At the age of ten he accompanied his father on
the great trek in search of a new country where
they might settle, xmtrammelled by the re-
strictions of civilized government. At that
time the territory lying between the Vaal and
the Limpopo rivers was being raided by Mosili-
katsi, a Zulu sub-chief who had seceded from



the main body of his nation with a large number
of followers, and young Kriiger then a lad
of twelve years saw his first active service
under Comdt. Potgeiter. Soon after Mr.
Kriiger served under Comdt. Pretorius in the
operations against Dingaan, and was present at
the desperate fight which took place at the
Blood River on Dec. 16, 1838, where the few
Boers gained a great victory which it has been
their custom to celebrate every year since then.
He also took part in the primitive expedition
against Mosilikatsi in 1839.

In 1841 Mr. Kriiger became a Field Cornet.
In 1852 he was appointed Comdt. of the
Districts of Pretoria and Potchefstroom, and
in 1856 he began to make for himself a position
in local politics, associating himself with Gen.
Pretorius in his attempt to join the three inde-
pendent communities of Lydenburg, Zout-
pansberg, and Potchefstroom under one Govt.,
with a new Volksraad, constitution, and capital
in Potchefstroom. Pretorius also sought to
absorb the O.F.S., and demanded in the
Volksraad at Bloemfontein that the adminis-
tration of the O.F.S. should be handed over
to him. Being ordered to leave the coun-
try, however, he returned to the Transvaal,
collected an army, and marched with it back
to the Free State, but was met on the banks of
the Rhenoster River by Free State forces. A
conference was afterwards held, and Pretorius
bound himself not again to enter the O.F.S.
without permission of its Govt. Many Free
Staters who had joined the northern invaders
were then tried for high treason, and it is on
record how their sentences were reduced to
nominal fines owing to the solicitations of
Messrs. Kriiger and Steyn. As a matter of
interest in showing the trend of Mr. Kriiger's
character in those first days of his public
career, the Pres. of the Free State, referring
to this invasion, stated in the Raad that he had
proof that the raiders had made a hideous
complot with the Basutos under Mosheshto join
in the attack against the Orange Republic.

In 1862 Mr. Kriiger became Comdt.-Gen.,
and was elected a member of the Executive

Some years later (1877) he promised Pres.
Burgers his support on the question of the
inevitable annexation of the Transvaal, but
Mr. Kriiger secretly prompted the resistance
of the irreconcilables, and eventually (May
1877) left for England with Dr. Jorrisen to pro-
test against the measure. But it was not
thought that either member of the commission

really wished the Act of Annexation to be an-
nulled. In fact on returning to the Transvaal
they both took office tinder the British Govt.,
Mr. Kriiger only relinquishing his post owing
to the refusal of the Govt. to increase his re-

After the Convention of 1881 Mr. Kriiger us
Vice-Pres. formed one of the triumvirate in
whom the Govt. was vested, but in 1882 the old
form was restored and he was elected Pres. of
the Transvaal State. From this time Mr.
Kriiger's history is the history of the Trans-
vaal. His policy soon began to declare itself.
In that year the first of many laws was passed
extending the term of residence for aliens to
qualify for naturalisation from one to five years.
Soon followed the granting of monopolies, the
agitation for the removal of the Suzerainty and
freedom in their external relations, whilst he
also looked around for new countries to be
acquired. Thus Mr. Kriiger's Govt. annexed
Mafeking and part of Bechuanaland until the
Warren Expedition caused a retreat ; part of
Zululand was taken over, and hungry eyes were
turned towards Swaziland (the cession of
which we ultimately permitted). In 1890-91
an expedition was sent to Chartered territory,
but was appropriately turned back at Rhodes'
Drift. Tongaland was also coveted. Mean-
while in 1884 the Pres. and Mr. Smit proceeded
to Europe to endeavour to obtain some modifica-
tion of the Convention and to raise much
needed funds, in both of which they were only
partially successful. But the discovery of gold
at Moodies in 1 885-6, and on the Witwatersrand
later, brought revenue to the country, which
enabled Mr. Kriiger to pursue his schemes
without remedying the ill-condition of the
Govt., or providing for the large population
which began to flock into the country, and
without allowing it, after reasonable residence,
a participation in the management of State or
even Municipal affairs. Political agitation for
reforms, improved ways of communication,
remission of taxes, security of titles, etc., gave
birth to the Transvaal Republican Union of
Johannesburg. The Witwatersrand Chamber
of Mines was also formed partly to protect
shareholders' interests, and for eight years this
Chamber pleaded to the Volksraad for reforms
and representation. But Mr. Kriiger remained
obdurate. Legislation was passed making this
practically an impossibility to the then living
generation of Uitlanders who had taken up their
residence in the Republic. Railways were kept
out of the country as long as possible, and then


construction was only permitted under such
terms as were granted under the Netherlands
Railway and Selati Railway concessions, in
which connection it may be mentioned that the
Selati Railway Co., in order to obtain its con-
cession, had to pay bribes or make presents to
many members and officials of the First Volks-
raad. The dynamite concession was another
iniquitous burden upon the industry which had
built up the fortunes of the country. Pres.

Online LibraryWalter H WillsThe Anglo-African who's who and biographical sketch-book → online text (page 20 of 49)