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The Anglo-African who's who and biographical sketch-book online

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Kriiger resolutely set himself against miti-
gating the abuses which these concerns im-
posed upon the legitimate industries on the
Transvaal. It is true that he secured the
Raad's cancellation of the latter concession,
but in a few months it was renewed in a still
more obnoxious form.

In 1888 Mr. Kriiger was re-elected Pres.
without much opposition, Gen. Joubert re-
ceiving but few votes, but in 1893 he onlv
defeated the General by 7,881 votes to 7,009.
About this time Mr. Kriiger's control over
affairs appeared to be none too sure. Accord-
ingly, in defiance of the Grondwet (Constitu-
tion) he appointed Mr. Koch, the Landdrost and
Polling Officer of Potchefstroom, who had con-
trived the defeat of Mr. Esselen at the late
election, Minute Keeper to the Executive with
the right to vote, which, with the President's
casting vote, assured the latter the predominant
voice in the council. His position thus strength-
ened, the Pres. turned his attention to other
matters, endeavouring, not without some
success, to subordinate justice in the courts
to the requirements of his government, cur-
tailing the liberty of the Press, and withholding
the right of public meetings and political or-
ganization. However, the attempt to wrest
from the High Court the decision in the cyanide
case while still sub judice miscarried ; the en-
deavour to deprive the mines of their Bewaar-
platsen rights only failed after the Minister of
Mines had, on his own responsibility, issued
the claim licenses, and so forced the Volksraad
to face the issue of confirming or reversing his
action an alternative which the Govt. could
not afford.

Meanwhile Mr. Esselen had accepted the
State Attorneyship for a short period, during
which he brought about great reforms in the
detective and police departments, and his
activity in putting down the illicit liquor traffic
amongst the natives was so pronounced that
back-door influence was not long in making his
office untenable. Dr. Coster, a Hollander,
succeeded him and was found more amenable



to the Pretorian oligarchy. Laws were passed
in defiance of the provisions of the Grondwet,
and were made retro-active, and on several
occasions the Pres. and Executive forced re-
versals of the decisions of the High Court.
Affairs were in this condition when, late in 1895,
reform was despaired of by ordinary methods,
and a resort to force was freely talked of as a
last resource. A Reform party was organized,
under the presidency of Mr. Charles Leonard,
and eventually the active assistance of the
capitalist element was won over to the move-
ment. Dr. Jameson was detained on the
western border of the Republic by Mr. Rhodes's
orders as moral support, and to come to assist-
ance in case of urgent necessity, but so quiet
were the preparations that even Mr. Kriiger did
not realize the length to which matters had
gone. When at length old Hans Botha warned
the Pres. of the danger, he replied in his charac-
teristic way that " if they wanted to kill a tor-
toise they must wait until he put his head out
of the shell." Meanwhile he received several
deputations to induce him to make reasonable
concessions, and then Mr. Kriiger's plan of
procrastination began to reach a height which
had never previously been attained. He would
promise nothing, but said that he would do his
best to see that duties on food stuffs were re-
moved pending confirmation by the Volksraad ;
that equal subsidies would be granted to Eng-
lish as to Dutch schools, and that the Nether-
lands Railway would be approached with a
view to the reduction of rates, but that it was
impossible to grant the franchise to the Uit-
lander. The leaders, however, could have no
faith in these assurances, and matters were
hastened by Dr. Jameson crossing the border,
on Dec. 29, notwithstanding his distinct orders
to the contrary. The following night Pres.
Kriiger, recognizing that the breaking point
was nearly reached, issued a proclamation warn-
ing persons from disturbing the peace, and
stating that the Govt. was prepared to consider
grievances without delay. Delegates of both
parties met in fact in Pretoria, but their de-
liberations resulted in nothing further than the
Boer members having procured a full list of
members of the Committee; the Uitlander
delegates were handed copy of a resolution
stating that the High Commissioner's inter-
vention had been accepted, and that the grie-
vances would be earnestly considered. The
surrender of Dr. Jameson's force followed hard
upon this, but the Pres. thought that he had
still to reckon with 20,000 armed Uitlanders in



ANGLO- AFRICAN WHO'S WHO



99



Johannesburg, and although the doctor's sur-
render was accepted conditionally upon all
lives being spared, he proceeded to let it be
known that the doctor's life depended absolutely
upon all arms being laid down in Johannesburg,
at the same time stating to the High Com-
missioner that disarmament must be precedent
to any discussion of grievances. Accordingly
all arms were surrendered in good faith from
Jan. 6 to 8, and on the following day Pres.
Kriiger's " Forgive and Forget " policy was
inaugurated by the Reformers to the number of
over sixty being arrested, tried, and found
guilty of high treason, the four leaders being
condemned to death and the others to fines of
2,000 each, two years' imprisonment and three
years' banishment. Soon after these sentences
were pronounced Govt. agents were at work
trying to persuade the Committee to petition in
humiliating terms to the " proved magnanimity
of the Govt. " ; and to make statements impli-
cating one another for their complicity in the
revolutionary movement, and so on. Mean-
while the gaol treatment was telling severely
upon the prisoners, one of whom had already
died by his own hand. On May 20, ten were
liberated, and most of the other sentences were
commuted to lesser terms of imprisonment, but
so great was the feeling growing throughout
the country against Mr. Kriiger's " Cat and
Mouse " treatment that monster petitions,
headed by two hundred S.A. mayors, at
last (May 30) effected the release of all the
prisoners (with the exception of Messrs. Woolls-
Sampson and Davies and the four leaders)
conditionally on the fines being paid and each
binding himself not to meddle in the internal or
external politics of the State for three years.
After much bargaining with the leaders, Mr.
Kriiger liberated the latter on payment of a fine
of 25,000 each and an undertaking not to
meddle in politics for fifteen years.

Negotiations went on in a desultory way.
An Industrial Commission of Inquiry was
appointed by the Executive at the President's
request, and a mass of sworn evidence was taken.
In the report which followed numerous recom-
mendations were made with the end in view
of prospering the industries of the State and
benefiting the country as a whole, but Mr.
Kriiger declined to adopt the recommendations,
and even charged the chairman of the committee,
Mr. Schalk Burger, with being a traitor to his
country for having put his name to such a
report. Ultimately nothing was done of any
benefit to the Uitlander interests involved, and



it became apparent that little was to be gained
by British diplomacy. Mr. Kriiger, who was
elected Pres. of the S.A.R. for the fourth and
last time in Feb. 1898, was hurrying armaments
into the Transvaal to such an extent that it was
necessary to reinforce the British garrison in S.A.
The climax was reached when the Pres. de-
livered the ultimatum in Oct. 1899 which brought
on the S.A. War, through the early part of which
he remained in the [country, urging and en-
couraging his people to victory, but when this
seemed at length a remote possibility, his
flight to Europe was rapidly decided upon,
and the ex-President's energies were devoted un-
successfully to obtaining foreign intervention
and successfully to stirring up Anglophobia
on the Continent. But Mr. Kriiger was already
an old man, and this final blow the defeat of
his people and the loss of his country marked
practically the end of his public life.

Strong, fanatical, obstinate, shrewd and
autocratic, Mr. Kriiger never concealed his
dislike to, and mistrust of, the Uitlanders.
When the Barberton rush brought comparative
affluence to the country he never once visited
the town, and only on three occasions did he
visit Johannesburg during nine years, although
the law of the land prescribed that the Pres.
should visit every town and district yearly.
As evidence of this dislike it is remembered
that in addressing a mixed crowd at Krugers-
dorp, where some detested aliens might be pre-
sent, he began " Burghers, friends, thieves, mur-
derers, newcomers, and others." Nevertheless he
did not scruple to commandeer their services for
the war against Malaboch, until diplomatic
representations from Lord (then Sir Henry)
Loch secured exemption for them. Nor did he
scruple to fill lucrative posts with relatives who
were quite unfit for the public service, nor to
appropriate the public revenues for improve-
ments on his personal estates, for which purposes
he had little difficulty in obtaining the sanction
of the Volksraad. There is on record the case
of the editor of " Land en Volk " successfully
sustaining an alleged libel charging the Prea.
with fraud against the State. He is also gener-
ally believed to have brought away with him
from the Transvaal the State and Trust funds,
variously estimated at from 250,000 to
700,000, of which no satisfactory account can
be obtained.

Mr. Kriiger has employed part of his exile in
writing his "Memoirs," for, which he is supposed
to have received 30,000. They were dictated
to Mr. A. Schowalter, the editor of the " Buren-



4K02R4



100



ANGLO- AFRICAN WHO'S WHO



freandes," who gave much assistance in pre-
paring them for publication. He now lives
in almost complete retirement ; in a country
far removed from his native, but now-for-
bidden, veld ; with very indifferent health ;
but with recollections of a long and arduous
career of stirring adventure and continual
political strife, from which he can scarcely regret
to be released even in lonely but peaceful
exile. See "Obituaries."

KUHN, PETER GYSBERT, M.L.A., is member
of the Cape Legislative Assembly for the province
of Victoria West. He sits in the Bond interest,
and was last elected in Feb., 1904.

LABUSCHAGNE, CASPER JEREMIAH, M.L.C.,
J.P., of Haasfontein, Colenso, Natal, was born
at Weenen County, Natal, Dec. 8, 1854. He is
the son of John Henderik Labuschagne, who
fought for the British against Machana and
the Basutos, on the occasion of their invasion
of Natal, and also against Langalibalele. Mr.
C. J. Labuschagne' s grandfather was one of
the voortrekkers who left Cape Colony for Natal
in 1836, and, becoming an officer in the Boer
Army, fought against Dingaan in 1837, and
afterwards against the British in 1842 at Con-
gella, Durban

Mr. C. J. Labuschagne was appointed J.P.
in 1892 and M.L.C. in Nov. 1898 He is
a member of several Rifle Associations ; has
won several prizes, and on one occasion won
a gold medal for the best aggregate score.
He married, in 1877, Miss Hatting, the youngest
dau. of J. M. Hatting, of Blauwkrans, Natal,
on whose farm Lord Roberts' son is buried.
Mr. Labuschagne lost his first wife in 1902,
and then married Mrs. Pieters, eldest dau. of
William Maude, of Dundee, Natal.

LAGDEN, SIR GODFREY YEATMAN, K.C.M.G.
(1897), C.M.G. ( 1894), M.L.C., Member of Execu-
tive Council, and Commissioner for Native Affairs,
Transvaal ; of Blandford, Park Town, Johannes-
burg, and the Sports Club, London ; is the son
of the late Rev. Richard Dowse Lagden, Bal-
sham House, Camb., and Sherbourne, Dorset.
He was born in 1851 and educated at Sher-
bourne Sch. A bare recital of his official
appointments shows that he has had a dis-
tinguished public career. He entered the Civil
Service in the G.P.O., 1869-77 ; became Chief
Clerk to the State Secy, of the Transvaal under
British Administration in 1878; Private Secy,
to the Administrator, Sir OwenLanyon, 1878-81 ;



and Secy, to Executive Council ; was present
at the siege of Pretoria and afterwards became
Private Secy, to Administrators Sir Evelyn
Wood and Sir William Bellairs ; Secy, to Trans-
vaal Sub-royal Commission on Compensation
Claims, 1881-82; Special War Correspondent
during the Egyptian Campaign, 1882-83, being
present at all engagements, including Tel-el-
Kebir, charge of Kassassin and capture of Cairo ;
was appointed Assist. Colonial Secy., Sierra
Leone ; employed on Special Financial Mission
to Gold Coast, 1883 ; Government Secy, and
Acct., Basutoland, 1884. Asst. Commissioner,
1885; acted as Resident Commissioner, 1890;
as British Commissioner, Swaziland, 1 892 ;
Resident Commissioner, Basutoland, 1893-
1901. It will thus be seen that Sir Godfrey
Lagden has represented this country on various
missions, but it was as British Resident in
Basutoland that he made his reputation. " To
vise the power and influence of the chief as a
means of governing and guiding the nation "
was the motto of his rule, and it is claimed that
his success has shown how a black population
may be moulded and governed with its own
consent. No greater evidence exists of Sir
Godfrey's remarkable faculties for inducing
in the native mind an appreciation of pro-
gressive measures than the result of the intro-
duction of a Native Savings' Bank and re-
mittance agency established in the Transvaal
in Sept. 1902, of which the natives have taken
full advantage from its initiation. He indulges
in most games and sports, and has had con-
siderable experience of big game shooting ;
walked from the Cape Coast to Coomassie
through the Ashanti country in 1883, shooting
and collecting specimens. He married Frances
Rebecca, dau. of the Rt. Rev. Henry Brougham
Bousfield, Bishop of Pretoria.

LAMBTON, CAPT. GEORGE CHARLES, D.S.O.,
of Brownslade, Pembroke, S. Wales, was born
Nov. 10, 1872 ; is fourth son of Lieut.-Col.
F. W. Lambton, late of the Scots Guards, and
of Lady V. Lambton, dau. of the 2nd Earl
Cawdor. Capt. Lambton was educated at
Wellington Coll., and entered the Worcester
Regt. in 1895, gaining his Captaincy in 1900.
He served in the S.A. War 1900-02; was present
at the occupation of Johannesburg and Pre-
toria, and took part in the operations which
resulted in the surrender of Prinsloo in the
Brandwater basin. He then continued fight-
ing in the O.R.C. and C.C. ; was present
at the action at Bothaville, and subsequently



ANGLO-AFRICAN WHO'S WHO



101



served under Gen. Sir C. Knox until April,
1902 (despatches, D.S.O., Queen's medal with
four clasps, King's medal with two clasps).
Capt. Lambton is unmarried.

LAWRENCE, JAMES, M.L.A., J.P., of Kim-
berley, Muizenberg, and of the Kimberley
Club and Civil Service Club of C.T., was born
at Georgetown, C.C., in 1852. Educated at
C.T. and Cradock, he has represented Kim-
berley in the Cape Colony House of Assembly
since 1894. He is a Progressive Member, and
was last re-elected in Feb. 1904. For fourteen
years he has been Municipal Councillor, and
Mayor of Kimberley in 1889, 1892 and 1893.
It will thus be seen that Mr. Lawrence has
been prominently associated with the muni-
cipal affairs of the great diamond city. His
other public positions include that of Chairman
of James Lawrence & Co., Ltd., Director of the
Board of Executors, Kimberley, and Senior
Whip to the Progressive Party in the Cape
Parliament. He also served on the Peninsular
Commission in 1902-3. His recreations in-
clude riding and driving. Married, in 1880,
to Miss Kilby, of Somerset East.

LEE, CHARLES, M.L.A., is member of the
Cape Legislative Assembly for the Province
of Uitenhage, and was last re-elected in Feb.
1904. He sits in the Progressive interest.

LENFANT, CAPT., the French explorer,
returned to Paris in April, 1904, after an adven-
turous journey from the West Coast of Africa,
up the Niger, along the Benue (a tributary
of the Niger), through the Suburi marsh country,
thence along the Shari river to Lake Chad, the
return journey only occupying sixty-five days
as against five months by the Congo route.
Capt. Lenfant's white party consisted of ten.
They were confronted with innumerable diffi-
culties, hostile natives with poisoned arrows,
and much sickness. He made many scientific
observations, and discovered a monstrous
silk-spinning spider, a specimen of which he
brought home.

LEYDS, DR. WILLEM JOHANNES, LL.D.,
Knight of the Portuguese Order of Villa Vicoza,
Commander of the Legion of Honour, Knt.
of the Second Class, with Star, of the Prussian
Red Eagle, and Commander of the Orders of
Jesus Christ, St. Charles, Orange-Nassau, and
Leopold of Belgium ; of 25, Wilhelminapark,
Utrecht, Holland, and of the Club de la Haye,



The Hague ; was born at Magelang, Java, on
May 1, 1859. He is second son of W. J. Leyds,
who was youngest son of the Rev. Leyds, of
Veandaal, Holland, by Nine, second dau. of
the Rev. R. van Bessningen van Helsdingen.
Dr. Leyds came to Europe at the age of six,
and received his education at Haarlem and
Amsterdam. His original intention was to
become a teacher, and in 1874 he passed the
final examination in the Govt. school for the
preparation of tutors. Four years later he
qualified as a teacher of drawing ; took a Govt.
diploma for gymnastics, and passed in mathe-
matics in 1879. He graduated LL.B. in 1882,
and after a further two years of study took
the Doctor's degree cum laude at the Univ.
of Amsterdam. In 1884 Dr. Leyds went to
the Transvaal as the agent of the concessionaires
of the Netherlands Railway, to advance their
interests, at the same time taking office under
the S.A.R. as Attorney-Gen., a dual position
which, it was said, he could not occupy with
justice to both the State and the Concessionaires.
He appears to have dropped the former office,
but was appointed Govt. Commissioner with
the Netherlands Railway Co. in 1887. He was
made a J.P. for the whole Republic in 1889,
and in the following year was deputed Govt.
Syndic with the National Bank of the S.A.R.
Meanwhile Dr. Leyds had given ample evi-
dence of his talent for diplomacy, and in 1890
he relinquished the office of Attorney-Gen, for
the State Secretaryship, to which he was re-
elected in 1894, and again in 1898. The office
carried a seat in the Executive Council, and
was, after the Presidency, the most onerous
and responsible in the service of the Republic.
During all these years he had been filling the
public offices with his own countrymen a
more or less necessary step, seeing that English-
men were practically barred in important
positions by the Kriiger regime, and the Boera
themselves were incompetent to adequately
participate in the task of government. But
this influx of Hollanders was not welcomed
by Boer or Briton, and the State Secy.'s in-
creasing unpopularity, added to the anti-Hollan-
der feeling, made it expedient for him to resign.
Dr. Leyds had already been sent on political
missions to Lisbon and Berlin, his skill in
diplomacy had been tried, and Mr. Kriiger
appointed his able and useful Secy. Minister
Plenipotentiary in Europe. Dr. Leyds had been
for years the President's right-hand man, and
it is doubtful if his influence on affairs, so far
as concerned the Uitlanders, was as malign



102



ANGLO- AFRICAN WHO'S WHO



as was ofttimes stated. His position was
a delicate one, and it is not surprising that he
created feelings of resentment amongst the
British.

Dr. Leyds is the author of " De rechtsgrond
der schadevergoeding voor preventieve hectenis "
(1884). He married, July 10, 1884, Louisa,
second dau. of F. Roeff, Mathematician.

LINDUP, WALTER, F.R.C.I., of Fairview
Tower, Maritzburg, Natal, was born in London,
Jan. 3, 1858 ; was educated at the Philological
Sch., Marylebone Road., Lond., and studied
dentistry under his father. He now prac-
tises this profession in Maritzburg. He was
formerly a Director of the Stanhope and New
Heriot G.M. Cos., and was elected a Town
Councillor for Maritzburg in 1902. Mr. Lindup
is an amateur architect and painter in oils.
He married, in 1902, Elizabeth, dau. of J. D.
Holliday, of Maritzburg.

LIPP, CHARLES, J.P., of the Rand and Kim-
berley Clubs, was born at Fochabers, Scotland,
in 1861 ; is son of John Lipp, of Fochabers,
where he was educated at Milne's Institution.
After a bank training in the Aberdeen Town
and County Bank he went to S.A. in 1882.
He joined the Capt of Good Hope Bank, and
rapidly rose to the position of Manager of
their Kimberley branch in 1889, in which year
he was appointed J.P. for Kimberley. He
became Manager of the Kimberley branch of
the African Banking Corporation in 1892, and
was promoted to the management of the Johan-
nesburg branch in 1898, which position he
still fills. He remained in that town during
the war, and was appointed J.P. for the Wit-
watersrand in 1903. He married, in 1890,
Miss Harvey, of Aliwal North.

LITHMAN, KARL VILHELM ; of " Scandia,"
Rosebank, nr. Cape Town, and of the City
Club (C.T.) ; was born Oct. 13, 1853, at Gothen-
burg, Sweden ; is youngest son of a Gothenburg
merchant, and was educated at the Gothenburg
Coll., where he matriculated in 1872. He
went to S.A. in 1879 as Secy, to the Swedish
and Norwegian Consul-Gen, at Cape Town.
In 1881 he became Vice-Consul, and acted as
Consul-Gen, in 1885 on the death of his chief,
whose business he took over under the style
of Karl Lithman & Co. In 1886 he was ap-
pointed Agent-Gen, in S.A. to the Norwegian
Veritas, and he now holds the general agency
of the principal Scandinavian underwriters.



He was made Consul for Venezuela in 1887,
and in the same year founded the match
factory near Cape Town, which he afterwards
sold to the Rosebank Match Co., Ltd. Besides
his Consular appointment he carries on a timber,
shipping, insurance and general merchant's
business, and is a director of various cos.
He married, April 4, 1891, Sophia Akerberg,
widow of the late Swedish and Norwegian
Consul at Cape Town.

LITTLE, JAMES STANLEY, of the Royal
Colonial Institute, W.C., and of the Author's
and Anglo-African Writers' Clubs, is a son of
the late Thomas Little, of Woodville, Forest
Hill. He was educated at King's Coll., London,
and went to S.A. as a youth, when he con-
tributed to the " Cape Times " and the " Natal
Mercury." He returned to England with a
knowledge of S.A. questions, which he utilized
by lecturing on various matters affecting the
country and Imperial Federation. He was
a Member of the S.A. Committee (1886), and
served on the Executive Committee of the
State Colonization Association and the
Executive Council of the Imperial Federation
League. He edited the " African Review "
from Dec. 1895 to June 1897, and from Aug.
1891 to Aug. 1902. Mr. Little's main work
has been to popularize the Imperial idea. As
early as 1876 h& contributed leading articles
to the "Natal Mercury" advocating the
annexation of the Transvaal. His works
especially dealing with Imperial subjects began
with "A World's Empire" (1879). This was
followed by "South Africa" (1884), "The
United States of Britain" (1887), "A Vision
of Empire" (1889), "The Enemies of South
Africa " (series of articles in the " New Century
Review," 1897), " Progress of British Empire
in Century," published in Canada (1902) and
in Great Britain and the United States (1903).
During the past twenty years he has worked
hard for the reform of the Royal Academy.
On subjects connected with Imperial, Colonial
South African, artistic and literary matters
he has contributed largely to the periodical
press and magazines, including the " Nineteenth
Century," "-Academy," "Studio," "Library
Review," " The Artist," " The Morning Post,'"
" The Literary World," and other publications.
He is also the author of some half-a-dozen
novels, viz. "My Royal Father" (1886), "The
Day Ghost" (1887), " Doubt" (1888), " Whose
Wife shall she be" (1888), "A Wealden
Tragedy " (1894). He wrote the life and work



ANGLO-AFRICAN WHO'S WHO



103



of W. A. Orchardson, R.A. (1897), and beside,?
all this literary activity has found time to
write two plays, which have been presented.
He was the first Executive Secy, of the Society
of Authors, and inaugurated the system of
annual dinners, with a dinner to American
men and women of letters in 1889. He was
the Hon. Secy, of the Shelley Soc. in 1886-7,
and in conjunction with Mr. J. Robinson
organized the Shelley Centenary celebration
at Horsham, Aug. 4, 1892. His recreations



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