Walter H Wills.

The Anglo-African who's who and biographical sketch-book online

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incidents of Sanna's Post and Lindley. He
was soon reappointed to Gibraltar by Lord
Lansdowne, but in February, 1901, was recalled
and placed on retired pay by Mr. Brodrick.

Sir Henry has also written a description of
his Arabah exploration entitled, " The Accursed
Land," " The History of the Soudan Cam-
paign," " The Land of the Nile Springs,"
describing his Unyoro Expedition, " The Work
of the Ninth Division," and occasional contri-
butions to the Press. Sir Henry married :
first, in 1878, Alice Rosa, daughter of the Hon.
Robert Daly, who died in 1882; and second,
in 1886, Zelie Isabelle, daughter of M. Pierre
Richard de Preville, of Basses Pyrenees, France.

C.I.E., Grand Cordon of the Orders of Osma-
nieh and Medjidieh ; of Earl Soham Lodge,
Framlingham, Suffolk, and of the Traveller's
Club, is the son of the late John R. Colvin,
Indian Civil Service. He was born March 8,
1838, in India, and was educated at Eton, and
the East India Coll., Haileybury, and entered
the Indian Civil Service in 1858. He has held
with success a number of Govt. secretaryships
of importance, and was in 1880 appointed a
member of the International Commission for
Egyptian Liqxiidation, and shortly afterwards
became the representative of England under
the scheme of Anglo-French control. During
the Arab insurrection Sir Auckland was Coun-
cillor to the Khedive. When, the dual control
was abolished in 1883 he became Financial
Adviser to the Khedive (1882-3), but shortly
after he returned to India as Financial Sec. to
the Viceroy's Govt.. in which capacity he
introduced an Income-Tax Bill in 1885. In
1887 he was Lieut.-Gen. of the North-West
Provinces of India, retaining that position till
1902. He is Chairman of the Burmah Rail-
ways, of the Egyptian Delta Light Railways,


of the Oriental Telephone Co., of the Khedlvial
Steamship Co., and a Director of the British
and Chinese Corporation. He married, Aug. 4,
1859. Charlotte Elizabeth, dau. of Lieut.-Gen.
Herbert, C.B.

SITTART, of 3, Carlyle Mansions, Cheyne Walk,
S.W., and the National Liberal and New Re-
form Clubs, was born at Kew, June 1, 1853 ; is
the eldest son of John Chas. Conybeare, by
Katherine Mary Vansittart ; was educated at
Tonbridge and Christ Church, Oxford, where
he took a Junior Studentship by open com-
petition ; Lothian Prize Essayist 1876 ; pub-
lished Text Books on the Married Women's
Property Acts and the Corrupt Practices at
Elections Act ; represented Camborne in Parlia-
ment 1885-95 ; and is a Director of the Beira
Junction Railway, Oceana Development Co.,
N. Charterland Exploration Co., etc. He
married, Oct. 15, 1896, Florence Annie,
eldest dau. of Gustave Strauss, of 2, Bolton
Gardens, W. Kensington. Mrs. Conybeare
takes an interest in matters of moment, and
publicly opposed the Education Act introduced
by Mr. Balfour's Govt.

Ibrahamieh, Alexandria, Egypt ; was born in
Aberdeenshire, N.B., Oct. 1, 1866 ; was educated
at Aberdeen Gram. Sch. ; King's Coll.,
Aberdeen, and New Coll., Edin., graduating
M.A., and taking 1st class Honours in Classical
Literature. He took Holy Orders as a Minister
of the Presbyterian Church of Eng. ; spent
three and a-half years in Bengal, and is now
Agent-Gen, of the B. and F. Bible Soc. for
Egypt and Sudan, Syria and Palestine, Cyprus,
Aden, Abyssinia, and E. Africa. He is author
of " The Story of the Turkish Version " (B. & F.
B. S., 1901), and "God's Forget-me-Not "
(Elliot Stock, 1900), and other addresses to
boys and girls. He married, Sept. 28, 1893,
Florence, dau. of the late John Howden, of
Waterloo, Liverpool.

Cairo, and the New University Club ; youngest
son of the late Rev. Andrew Corbett ; was
born at South Willingham Rectory, Line.,
June 22, 1854 ; was educated at Cheltenham
Coll. and Balliol Coll., Oxon., where he graduated
M.A. He was appointed English Secy, to the
late Khedive, Tewfik Pasha, in July, 1885 ;
was made Judge in the Native Court of Appeal,

Apr. 1891 ; and became Procureur-General to
Native Courts in Nov. 1897. He was decorated
with the Orders of the Osmanieh ( 2nd Class)
and Medjidieh (3rd Class).

Mem. Am. Soc. C.E., and Member of the S.A.
Association for th e Advancement of Science ;
of Agorica, Paignton, Devon ; of Gwelo, ;Rho-
desia, and of the Salisbury Club, Rhodesia,? is
the son of the Headmaster of Wellington
Academy, now West Somerset County School.
He was born Nov. 1859, at Wellington, Somerset,
and was educated at Wellington Academy.
Mr. Corner was Assis. Engineer to the Harris-
burg and San Antonio Railway Company
(Southern Pacific System) 1881-2-3, during
construction of 232 miles of railway ; Assis.
Engineer to the San Antonio and Aransas Pass
Railway of Texas, 1884 ; Engineer in charge of
Graduation, Bridges and Buildings, San Antonio
and Aransas Pass Rly., 1885-88 (687 miles of
rly. ) ; Division Engineer in charge of Location,
French Company of Venezuelan Rly., Com-
pagnie de Fires-Lille, 1889 (60 kilometres of
rly. ) : Div. Engineer for Sub-Contractors,
Interoceanic Rly. of Mexico, 1890 (20 kilometres
of rly. ) ; Sub. Div. Engineer, w ith Messrs.
Reed & Campbell, of Lond. and Mexico,
Mexican Southern Rly. of Mexico, 1890-91-92
(23 kilometres of rly.); Civil Engineer to the
Railroad Commission of Texas, 1893-98, in-
specting, valuing and reporting on nearly 10,000
miles of rly., and from 1899 to the present
time he has been District Engineer of the
Beira and Rhodesia rlys. under Sir C. Metcalfe
and Sir Douglas Fox, Engineer-m-Chief and
Consulting Engineer respectively. He married,
Mar. 24, 1887, Margaret Muncey, of San
Antonio, Texas, U.S.A.

Bishop of Grahamstown, of Bishopsbourne,
Graharnstown, C.C., is the eldest son of the
Rev. Charles L. Cornish, formerly Fel. of
Exeter Coll., Oxon. He was born in London,
October 9, 1842, and was educated at Upping-
ham, and Exeter Coll., Oxon. He is M.A. and
D.D. of Oxon, and M.A. Univ. of the Cape of
Good Hope. From 1882-9 he was Vicar of
St. Mary's, Redcliffe, Bristol. He was also
Rural Dean of Bristol and chaplain to the
Bishop of Bristol, and still remains Hon. Canon
of Bristol. In 1899 he left England for the
purpose of taking up the appointment of
Bishop of Grahamstown.



B.Sc. (Edin.), Ph.D. (Munich), M.A. ad eund.
grad. (Cape), of Johannesburg, and of the Rand
and Athenfeum Clubs, Johannesburg, was born
at Edinburgh, Nov. 19, 1865 ; is the eldest son
of the late John Corstorphiiie of that town,
where he began his education. He is an
eminent geologist who has had much experience
in S.A. in the service of the Cape Colonial

Dr. Corstorphine was Asst. in the Dept. of
Geology and Mineralogy at Edin. Univ. 1892-4 ;
Lecturer on Geology at Heriot-Watt Coll.,
Edin., 1894 ; was appointed first professor of
Geology and Mineralogy in the S.A. Coll. and
Keeper of Minerals in the S.A. Museum, Cape
Town, in 1895 ; Geologist to the Geological
Commission, Cape Col., in 1896 ; and Director
of the Geological Survey, Cape Col., 1901.
From 1897 to 1902 he was Member of the Coun-
cil of the University of the Cape of Good Hope,
and in the latter year he was appointed Con-
sulting Geologist to the Consolidated Goldfields
of S.A., Ltd.

He has published : Reports of the Geological
Survey, Cape Colony, 1896-1901 ; " The Massive
Rocks of the Southern Portion of Arran, Scot-
land," in Tchermak's geol. u. niin. Mitt., 1895 ;
" Note on the Age of the Central South African
Coalfield," in Trans. S.A. Geol. Soc., 1903. He
married Miss Clara Ursula Hoffman, July
2, 1896.

N.W. Rhodesia ; 2, London Wall Buildings,
London, E.G., and of the Devonshire (Lond.)
and Salisbury and Bulawayo (Rhodesia) Clubs ;
was born at Queenstown, Cape Colony, Apr. 2,
1870, and was educated at St. Andrew's Coll.,
Grahamstown, C.C., and at Cheltenham Coll.,
Eng. He joined the B.B.P. in Nov. 1889, and
the Mashonaland Pioneer Force in June, 1890,
serving in the Matabele War of 1893 and the
Matabele Rebellion of 1896 (medal and clasp).
Prior to this date Mr. Coryndon spent some
years hunting big game, and in the office of
the Surveyor-Gen, in Salisbury, Mashonaland.
In one of his hunting expeditions he shot two
specimens of the almost extinct white rhino-
ceros. In June, 1897, he took charge of the
B.S.A. Co.'s expedition to Lealui, Barotseland,
and became British Resident with the Barotse
chief, Lewanika. He was appointed Adminis-
trator of N.W. Rhodesia in 1900. Unmarried.


in Holland. He was State Atorney of
the late S.A.R. and ex-officio J.P. He prose-
cuted on behalf of the State in the case
of the Reformers. There were originally four
indictments against the whole of the prisoners,
but negotiations between Dr. Coster and
Advocate Wessels (the latter representing the
accused) resulted as follows : That the leaders,
Col. Rhodes and Messrs. L. Phillips, Hays
Hammond, and Geo. Farrar, should plead
guilty to count 1 (conspiring with Dr. Jameson
to make a hostile invasion), and that the rank
and file of the committee should plead guilty
to counts 3 (distributing arms, guns, erecting
defences, etc.) and 4 (arrogating the functions
of Government in Johannesburg, arming their
own Police Corps, etc.) ; that counts 2, 3 and 4
should be withdrawn against the former and
counts 1 and 2 should be withdrawn against the
latter. Dr. Coster admitted that the effect of
this would be making the charge against the
rank and file purely nominal, while in the case of
the four leaders he xmdertook not to press for
exemplary punishment. Nevertheless, at the
trial Dr. Coster, in a violent speech, depicted
in the blackest terms the action of those men,
and claimed that the Court should apply the
Roman-Dutch Law in preference to the statutes
of the S.A.R., and demanded the severest
penalty that could be imposed under that law
and under the Thirty-three Articles and the Gold
Law. Dr. Coster resigned the State Attorney-
ship in consequence of an insulting reference
of President Ivriiger's to his countrymen.

COWEN, CHARLES, is the only surviving son
of Joseph Cowen, of Bryanstone Street, Port-
man Square, London, and of Catherine Louisa,
his wife, of Merion Square, Dublin. Mr. Cowen
has been identified with our colonial life from
1853, when he arrived in S.A. Having
been, from a very early date, associated with
educational organizations in England, and with
the Press, he soon found a new sphere for his
energies after landing at Cape Town, where he
inaugurated, with others classes, conducted
gratuitously by some of the best members of
the community, for elementary instruction, as
well as for advanced young men, in modern
languages, the classics, literature, and some of
the arts. He also occupied himself as a lecturer
and journalist, and in 1874 became Secy, of the
Port Elizabeth Chamber of Commerce. Broken
down in health, about the end of 1886 he left
for the newly opened goldfields, paying visits
to the Free State Territories and other parts.



An old M.M. of the British lodge, co-founder
of and P.M. of the Joppa, one of the originators
of the D.G.L. of S.A., and a member of its
executive until 1875, Bro. Cowen was influential
in obtaining the warrant for the first Brit. L.
under the Cons, of the G.L. of England for
Johannesburg, and was elected its first W.M.
When Mr. Rhodes, having passed the Glen
Grey Act, decide to visit the Trans-Keian
tribes, to explain to them the merits and re-
quirements of it, Mr. Cowen met him at Butter-
worth, as the " Cape Times " representative,
and accompanied him on the tour, and then
stayed behind to watch the practical working of
the new measure. In 1892 he was associated
with the Editorship of the " Cape Mercury " for
a while. In 1898 he went to the East ; later
settled in Rome, and came back to England at
the close of 1902. He is an Hon. Life Member
of the Chamber of Commerce at Port Elizabeth ;
Hon. Member of the S.A. Press Association
and of the Imperial S.A. Association ; F.S.A.,
and M.R.C.I.

He is the author of " The Life of William
Schroder, Artist," " The Zingari Series of Our
Public Men," " The Wynberg Times' " new series,
" Men of Mark," " The Law in relation to the
Farmer," " Johannesburg the Golden," and
has also published Eleven Years' Annual Re-
views of the Trade and Commerce of S.A.
(for the Chamber of Commerce at Port
Elizabeth) and of the Cape of Good Hope. He
married : first, the eldest dau. of Wm. Painton,
brewer, of Oxford ; and second, a sister of the
Right Rev. Jn. Rooney, D.D., of St. Mary's,
Cape Town.

J.P. for the Cape of Good Hope, of Cambridge,
East London, and of the Civil Service Club,
Cape Town ; is the son of Capt. Frederick Crewe,
17th Madras Infantry, and is descended from
the Crewes of Crewe, Cheshire, of which family
he is one of the few male representatives re-
maining. He was born in London on Jan. 11,
1855, and was educated privately. Col. Crewe
has had a varied political and military career.
He went to S.A. in March, 1878, and joined the
Cape Mounted Riflemen, serving with this
regiment through the Kafir War, receiving for
his services medal and clasp, 1878-79. He again
saw service in the Basuto War of 1880-81, re-
ceiving medal and clasp. In 1881 he retired
from the C.M.R., and commenced farming. In
1898 he stood for Aliwal North for the House of
Assembly and was only defeated by two votes.

In May of the following year he was returned to
the Legislative Assembly for East Griqualand,
and devoted himself to the reorganization of the
Progressive party. At the general election in
Feb. 1904 he succeeded in ousting Mr. J. W.
Satier from the representation of Aliwal North,
and on the resignation of Sir Gordon Sprigg's
Ministry immediately after the elections he
joined Dr. Jameson's Cabinet as Colonial Sec.
On war breaking out in S.A. he raised the
Border Horse Regt. (Feb. 1900), and served first
as Major commanding and was promoted Lieut.-
Col. in May 1900, and full Col. in May 1901. He
for many months commanded a mobile column
of Colonial troops in the O.R.C., and later on
took command of the Western Div. of the Cape
Colony from Nov. 1901 to the end of the war.
He retired from the C.C.F. Dec. 31, 1902. For
his eminent services Col. Crewe was mentioned
in despatches, received the C.B., and the medal
with clasps for Wepener, Transvaal and Cape
Colony. He married Helen Orpen, dau. of J. M.
Orpen, late Surveyor-Gen, of S. Rhodesia, on
July 11, 1887.

CRISP, VENERABLE WM., B.D., was ordained
at Bloemfontein in 1872, and was Canon there
from 1885 to 1901, being made Archdeacon in
1887. In 1901 he became Priest-in-charge of
Muizenberg, a fashionable resort near Cape
Town, and Diocesan Sec. at Cape Town.
In the following year he was appointed a Canon
of St. George's Cathedral, Cape Town.

TON, G.C.B., G.C.M.G., K.C.S.I., C.I.E., 1st Class
Medjidieh ; of Cairo, and of the Turf, Brooks',
Travellers', St. James', and Marlborough Clubs,
is son of the late Henry Baring, M.P., and
Cecilia Windham. He was born at Cromer Hall,
Norfolk, Feb. 26, 1841, and was educated at
the Hethel Hall, Norfolk, The Ordinance Sch.,
Carshalton, and at Woolwich, and is Hon.
D.C.L. of Oxford. At the age of seventeen he
joined the Royal Artillery, retiring with the rank
of Major in 1879 for the purpose of taking up
his duties as one of the Controllers-General ap-
pointed in Egypt in 1879 by England and France,
when Ismail had been deposed by the Sultan,
and his son Tewfik had succeeded on the Khedi-
vial throne. Previously Mr. Evelyn Baring, as
he then was, had acquired much useful experience
to fit him for his responsible post. He had acted
as Private Sec. to his cousin, Lord North-
brook, when that nobleman was Governor
General of India, and during this period had



obtained a close insight into the practical art of
government. While he held a commissionership
of the Public Debt in Egypt, he was enabled to
greatly extend his financial knowledge. The
powers held by Mr. Baring and his fellow con-
troller, M. de Blignieres, were very considerable.
They were admitted to the Ministerial Council ;
they had the right to advise in all matters of
finance, and they were authorized to appoint
Resident Inspectors. The success of his work of
that period in Egypt was borne witness to by
Lord Granville in the House of Lords in 1881,
when he stated that the system " had un-
doubtedly worked admirably for the finances and
administration of Egypt." Towards the end
of 1880 Sir John Strachey's resignation left
vacant the post of Finance Minister of India.
Mr. Baring received the appointment under the
Marquis of Ripon, who was then Viceroy, and
during his tenure of office framed and carried
three successful budgets. In 1883 he was made
a K.C.S.I., and became and has since remained
Consul-General and Minister Plenipotentiary in
Egypt. Sir Evelyn Baring had not been many
years in Egypt before the memorable financial
crisis occurred. It had been evident for some
time that the finances of the country must be
again taken in hand by the Powers. There was
the question of meeting the heavy liability of
the Alexandrian Indemnity, as well as the debts
due to the rebellion and to the war in the Sudan.
The question also as to the distribution of the
Revenue between the Government and the Bond-
holders had assumed an acute phase. The law
of Liquidation under which the Public creditor
" starved the Government " could not be altered
without the consent of the Great Powers. To
raise a new loan required the consent not only
of the great Powers, but of Turkey. As an
initial step towards procuring these consents the
British Government appointed a Committee, of
which Sir Evelyn Baring was one, to examine
and report. A Conference was held in London
for the purpose of discussing the schemes put
forward by this Committee, but the Conference
broke up without coming to any agreement.
After many negotiations an arrangement was
come to whereby a loan of 9,000,000 sterling
was agreed to be issued. In connexion with this
transaction Sir Evelyn rendered one of the
most valuable of his many important services
to the prosperity of Egypt. 8,000,000 of this
new loan was applied to the Liquidation of the
Indemnities and to wiping out the deficits of the
three previous years. The remaining 1,000,000
was the sum of money which enabled the Consul-

General to work such a marvellous change in
the economic condition of the country. It was
life and death to Egypt to put the great Central
Works upon which the irrigation of the country
depended into proper order. This extra million
provided the necessary capital to save the irriga-
tion system and with it the finances of Egypt. No
sooner was the financial position of the country
dealt with than Sir Evelyn Baring entered into
his long struggle for reforms ; how he has suc-
ceeded the present state of prosperity of the
country is sufficient proof. In 1892 Sir Evelyn
Baring was raised to the peerage under the title
of Lord Cromer, and in the same year occurred
the untimely death of Tewfik Pasha and the
descent of the Khediviate to his son. It was
not long before Lord Cromer's struggles again
commenced. In Jan. of the following year
Abbas declared war, so to speak, with the British
Government. A sharp but short struggle ensued,
but it was followed by the complete victory of
the Consul-General. Before this was, however,
accomplished, Lord Cromer had to invite His
Highness to look from a window of the Abdin
Palace on a British regiment parading on the
square without. Unquestionably it was by the
Consul-General's firmness at this critical juncture
that British prestige and power were not seriously
threatened. But the truce was of short dura-
tion, for in January of 1894, the Khedive com-
plained publicly and pointed out to the Sirdar,
General Kitchener, the military inefficiency of tho
force under his command. The British Consul-
General waited on the Khedive and there de-
manded that he should issue a general order
expressing his approval of the discipline and
efficiency of the army, and his satisfaction with
the officers whose authority he had so deliberately
attempted to overthrow. He was also required
to remove Maher Pasha from his post at the
War Office. These demands were complied
with and from it may be dated a cessation of
the struggle of the Khedive to emancipate him-
self from British control. Lord Cromer received
his K.C.B. in 1887, his G.C.M.G. in 1888, and
was raised to the peerage as Baron in 1892, as
Viscount in 1898, and Earl in 1901. He married :
first, in 1876, Ethel Stanley, daughter of Sir
Roland Stanley Errington, Bart, (died Oct. 16,
1898); and second, Lady Catherine Thynne,
sister of the present Marquess of Bath.

of the Potchefstroom District, Transvaal, of
Palmietfontein, Schoon Spruit, Klerksdorp,
Transvaal. During the War of Independence h e


commanded the Boer forces at Potchefstroom.
At that time he ordered the summary execution
of several British subjects who were suspected
on wholly insufficient grounds of being spies ;
he caused prisoners of war to work in the trenches
where they were shot by their own comrades,
and refused to allow women in delicate health
to leave the fort to obtain medical aid and food.
When the general armistice was declared he
treacherously withheld the news from the
besieged garrison, until, in order to save the
lives of the wounded and the women and child-
ren, they were compelled to surrender.

Many years later (Jan. 1896) Comdt. Cronje
was in command of the commando which beat
Dr. Jameson's forces at Vlakfontein, and received
his surrender on condition of sparing the lives
of the entire force. This condition when known
to Comdt. Malan caused the greatest anta-
gonism, and Cronje was accused of neglect of
duty for accepting such a condition. Seeing that
Comdt. Cronje stoutly maintained against all
opposition that the condition should be loyally
recognized, it was probably strong Government
pressure which induced him later on to stretch
the terms, explaining that the promise to spare
the lives was only to hold good until the prisoners
were handed over to the Comdt. -General.
He succeeded Gen. Joubert as Superintendent
of Natives, and was given a seat on the Execu-
tive. Comdt. Cronje was married, and no less
than thirty-three of his descendants were either
killed or died of disease in the field or concentra-
tion camps during tha last S.A. War. Mrs.
Cronje herself died of paralysis at the age of
64 at the latter end of 1903.

of Hanover, Cape Colony, is the dau. of a German
Missionary of the L.M.S., and has written a
number of interesting stories of South African
life, besides frequently using her pen in further-
ance of her political sympathies which are
decidedly pro-Boer. She married in 1894, Mr.
S. C. Cronwright, who thereupon adopted the
surname of Cronwright-Schreiner (q.v.).

M.L.A., of Hanover, Cape Colony, is son of the
late S. C. Cronwright, who for many years
represented Grahamstown in the Cape Legis-
lature. Mr. Cronwright-Schreiner is a mem-
ber of the Afrikander Bond, and came over to
England during the late S.A. War to lec-
ture and represent the views of the pro-Boers.
His tour was a complete failure, however, as no

British audience would give him a hearing. In
Dec. 1902 he defeated the Progressive candidate,
Mr. Macfarlane, at Colesberg, and at the
general election in Feb. 1904 he was elected for
Beaufort West.

He published in 1895, " The Political Situa-
tion," jointly with his wife, Olive Schreiner
(q.v.) whose surname he added to his own on the
occasion of his marriage in 1894.

F.R.C.S. (Edin.), F.R.G.S., Grand Cordon of the
Order of the Medjidieh, Order of the Osmanieh
(2nd class), Knt. of Grace, Order of St. John of
Jerusalem ; of Cairo ; of the Junior Carlton
(Lond.) and the Turf and Khedivial Sporting
(Cairo) Clubs, was born in Cuddalore, India, in

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