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THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY
OF CALIFORNIA

LOS ANGELES




LUCIUS GARY, VISCOUNT FALKLAND.

From the portrait iy VANDYKE.



THE



FIRST AND SECOND



BATTLES OF NEWBURY



AND THE



SIEGE OF DCOTINGTON CASTLE

DURING THE CIVIL WAR,
A.D. 1643-6.



WALTER MONEY, F.S.A.



Illustrated foiifj portraits, flairs, anb $fos.



LONDON :
SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, AND CO , STATIONERS* HALL COURT.

NEWBTTRY: ~w. j. BLACKET, NORTHBROOK STREET.



MDCCCLIXTI.



ENTERED AT STATIONERS' HALL.



y/r



TO
THE EIGHT HONOUEABLE HENEY HOWAED MOLYNEUX,

EARL OF CARNARVON,

D.C.L., F.E.S.,

PBESIDENT OF THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQTTABIES,
&c., &c., &c.

WHOSE Ancestors took a prominent part in the Great Civil War,
with, which this Volume deals, and under Whose auspices the
FALKLAND MEMORIAL, raised to record the names of those who
fell fighting in their Country's Cause, was successfully completed
and inaugurated, this Book is, with his Lordship's Permission,
respectfully and gratefully dedicated by

THE AUTHOE.



*. >



PREFACE.



PERHAPS no part of the Military transactions and operations of the
Great Civil War in the time of Charles I. has been so cursorily dealt
with and so confusedly treated as that relating to the Two Battles
fought in the neighbourhood of the ancient town of Newbury, in the
years 1643 and 1644.

Although the chief incidents of that stormy period are related by
Clarendon and other writers of the time, the local circumstances
and traditions of those two important engagements have not by any
means been fully chronicled.

The value of placing on record, in a connected form, all that could
be gathered together relating to the period in question requires
no comment. Year by year as books have multiplied, and civilization
has increased, commercial activity has penetrated from the great
centres of industry into the rural districts, and has resulted in the
gradual obliteration of many an old landmark, in the removal or
alteration of many an historical building, and in the dying- out of
many an old tradition.

To supply this want in our chronicles, to record as faithfully as
possible all that can be obtained, both locally and generally, about
the history of these Battles, which will always be memorable in our
annals, and should be attractive to all classes of Englishmen, I have
undertaken this work.



VI

Born almost under the shadow of the grey walls of Donnington
Castle, near which my ancestors dwelt during the occurrence of these
stirring events, I have naturally felt a special interest in anything that
concerns the varied fortunes and associations of the old fortress, which
figures so prominently in these local, but at the same time national,
transactions.

To those numerous friends, who have helped me by their advice
and information, I wish to express my cordial thanks; especially to
PROFESSOR T. EUPERT JONES, F.K.S., Staff College, Sandhurst;
CAPTAIN 0. COOPER KING, E.M.A., F.GKS., Professor of Tactics,
Administration, &c., Eoyal Military College, Sandhurst; COLONEL
J. L. CHESTER, LL.D.; CHARLES TRICE MARTIN, Esq., F.S.A., and
WALFORD D. SELBY, Esq., of the Public Eecord Office; all of whom
have materially contributed to lighten my labours and add pleasure
to this self-imposed task.

Finally I have to tender my sincere acknowledgements to those who
assisted in the establishment of the Memorial to Lord Falkland and
the patriots who fell with him, the proposal to erect which I was led
to originate by the study of that section of English History which this
volume endeavours to illustrate and explain.

WALTEE MONEY.
Neiclury, March 1 5th, 1881.



ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA.



Page 25, foot-note, for Orry's read Orrery's.

31, line 10 from bottom, for auxiliaries read auxiliaries.

48, line 7 from top, With regard to BERNARD BROCAS, and

the flag taken by him at the First Battle of Newbury,
Reginald Brocas, Esq., has obligingly favoured me with
the following particulars: "An ancestor of mine, Sir
Thomas Brocas, of Beaurepaire, had eight sons, seven of
whom fell in the Civil War, fighting for the King. The
one (Bernard) who captured the flag at the Battle of
Newbury was the fifth son of the said Sir Thomas; and
the affair happened thus. He, Bernard Brocas, being in
love with a daughter of Lord Sandes, of the Vyne (a
property which adjoins the Beaurepaire property, and once
formed part of it), took every opportunity of passing his
time with his fair mistress, much to the dislike of all his
relatives, who were staunch Royalists, and many of whom
had fought at Edgehill, in fact, four of his brothers were
there. Refusing to give up his Intended, and being told
that his loyalty was distrusted, and that his mistress would
wean him away to her father's side, he took an oath that
he would give substantial proof, in the next engagement, of
his loyalty, and would either bring back a standard, or
stay on the field. He did both! He took the flag, killed
the bearer (who is said to have been one of the Hazleriggs),
and was found on the field after the battle, dead, with the
flag beside him.

"After all was over the flag was taken and given to the
Sandes family; and it was at the Vyne when Chaloner
Chute, the Speaker to the House of Commons, took it from
Lord Sandes. He gave it to my ancestor; and we have
had it ever since. I myself have had it for over thirty
years in my possession.

"The mistake in the date 'August,' instead of 'Sep-
tember,' was owing to my brother, who amused himself in
putting the writing under the flag, having substituted the
date of the promise to take the flag for the date of the
battle."

70, line 8 from bottom, for Blagne read Blague.

72. Since the text was printed, some fresh information has

been obtained with regard to Lord Belasyse and his
Monument mentioned in the Appendix to the First Battle.

The Inscription mentioned in the text as having been
copied from his Monument, on the authority of Maitland's
"History and Survey of London," has since been found to
be inaccurate. The Monument is still to be seen on the
outside of the east wall of the Church of St. Giles in the
Fields, with the following inscription :

"This monument was erected in the year of our Lord
1786, by the pious direction of the honourable Dame



Vlll ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA.

Barbara Webb, wife of Sir John Webb, of Cranf ord Magna
in the county of Dorset, baronet, and the honourable
Catharine Talbot, wife of the honourable John Talbot, of
Longford in the county of Salop, esquire, surviving
daughters and co-heirs of the right honourable John,
Lord Belasyse, second son of Thomas, Lord Viscount
Fauconberg, in memory of their most dear father, his
wives, and children.

"Who, for his loyalty, prudence, and courage, was pro-
moted to several commands of great trust by their majesties
King Charles I. and II., viz., having raised six regiments
of horse and foot in the civil wars, he commanded a tertia
in his Majestie's armies at the battles of Edge-hill, Newbury,
and Knavesby; at the sieges of Reading and Bristol:
and afterwards, being made governor of York, and com-
mander-in-chief of all his Majestie's forces in Yorkshire,
he fought the battle of Selby, with the lord Fairfax. And
being lieutenant-general of the counties of Lincoln,
Nottingham, Derby, and Rutland, and governor of Newark,
he valiantly defended that garrison against the English and
Scotch armies, till his Majesty came in person to the Scotch
quarters, and commanded the surrender of it. At which
time he also had the honour of being general of the King's
horse-guards; in all which services during the war, and
other achievements, he deported himself with eminent
courage and conduct, and received many wounds, sustained
three imprisonments in the Tower of London; and after
the happy restoration of Charles II., he was made lord-
lieutenant of the east-riding of the County of York,
governor of Hull, general of his Majesties forces in Africa,
governor of Tangier, captain of his majestie's guard of
gentlemen pensioners, and first lord commissioner of the
treasury to King James II. He died the 1 Oth of September,
A.D. 1689, whose remains are deposited in this vault."
The remainder of the inscription refers to his marriages
and issue.
Page 72, line 8 from top, for Fanconberg read Fauconberg.

73, line 17 from bottom. With reference to the death of

Richard Brydges, which is stated in the text, on the
authority of Jacob s "Peerage," to have been in 1548, it is
evident that, as Queen Mary was not crowned until 1553,
the person referred to as being made K.B. at her coronation
was Sir Richard Brydges, M.P. for Berkshire in 1554.

75, third paragraph. Read thus BERNARD BROCAS. Of Beau-

repaire, near Sherborne St. John, Hants, He was the fifth
son of Sir Thomas Brocas (son of Sir Pexall Brocas) by
Elizabeth, daughter of Robert Wingfield, of Upton, Co.
Northampton.

78, line 4 from top. Colonel Daniel O'Neill. This officer

was Lieutenant-Colonel of Prince Rupert's regiment of
horse; afterwards groom of the bedchamber to the King.

85, first line, insert 2. before PARLIAMENTARIAN.



TABLE OF CONTENTS.



FASE,

Dedication . . . . . . . . . . iii

Preface . . . . . . . . v

Addenda et Corrigenda . . . . . . . . vii

Table of Contents . . . . . , . . he

List of Plans and Illustrations . . . . . . xii

THE FIEST BATTLE AT NEWBUEY, SEPTEMBEE 20TH, 1643 1
APPENDIX.

I. A list of those Regiments of Trained-Bands and
Auxiliaries of the City of London, which were engaged at

the First Battle of Newbury . . . . 55

II. The Attack on Essex's Bear the day after the First
Battle of Newbury . . . . * . . 58

HI. The presence of Queen Henrietta Maria at the
Battle (disproved). . . . . . . 61

IV. A case of Witch-murder at Newbury . . 63
IV.* The Discovery of the Coffin and Remains of the

Vault of Robert Devereux, third Earl of Essex, in the
Chapel of St. John the Baptist in Westminster Abbey,
June 1879 . . ..-,-. . . . . 65

V. Biographical Notices of Officers and others men-
tioned in connection with the First Battle of Newbury . .

1. Royalist Officers

PAGE.

Sir Thomas Aston
67 Sir Anthony Mansel
67 Sir Edward Stradling

67 Sir Michael Wodehouse

68 Sir Jacob Astley

68 Sir John Frechville

69 Sir John Hurry

69 Major-Gen. George Porter

70 Col. St.-John

70 Col Edward Villiers
70 Col. Will. Legge



Patrick Ruthven, Earl of

Forth

Prince Rupert
Sir John Byron
Lord Wilmot
Earl of Caernarvon
Earl of Lindsey . .
Earl of Northampton
Earl of Nottingham
Earl of Cleveland
Earl of Holland . .
Earl of Bedford
Earl of Clare
John, Lord Belasyse (see

also List of Corrigenda)
Lord Chandos
Lord Molyneux ,,
Hon. Henry Bertie
Sir Charles Lucas
Sir George Lisle
Sir Edward Waldegrave
Bernard Brocas ,,

Sir Lewis Kirke . .
Sir Henry Slingsby
Sir William Vavasour



71

71



vii,



72
73
73
73
74
74
75

vii & 75
75
75
76



Col. Daniel O'Neill
Col. Morgan
Col. Thomas Eure
Col. Richard Platt
Col. Charles Gerard
Col. Thomas Bagehot
Capt. Basil Woodd
Capt. Clifton
Capt. Newman
Capt. Gwynne
Henry Spencer,

Sunderland
Lord Falkland



67
67

PAGE.

76
76
76
76
76
76
77
77
77
77
77

viii and 78
78
78
78
78
79
79
79
79
80
Earl of

80
81



TABLE OF CONTENTS.



2. Parliamentarian Officers and others . .



PAOB.

85



PAGE.

Earl of Essex . . 85

Lord Robartes or Eoberts 85

Lord Grey of Groby . . 85

Sir John Meyrick 85

Sir Philip Stapleton . . 85

Sir William Constable 86

Sir William Balfour . . 87

Sir Samuel Luke . . 87

Sir Arthur Godwin . . 87

Major- General Skippon 87

Major-General Deane . . 87

Lieut. -General Middleton 88



Colonel Sheffield

Col. John Meldrum

Col. Norton

Col. Dalbier

Captain Hunt

Capt. Francis St.-Barbe

Capt. Hammond

Capt. Charles Fleetwood

Capt. Charles Pym

William Twisse, D.D.

Eobert Codrington



VI. Extracts from tho Certificates or Returns of those
Persons who, pursuant to the Order of the House of
Commons, made the Protestation in the County of Berks,
30th July, 1641



PAGE.

Brimpton Parish . . 91
Chaddle worth . . 91

Chieveley . . 91
Compton . . 91

Enborne . . . . 91
Frilsham . . 91

Greenham (a Tything of

Thatcham) . . 91

Hamsted-Marshall . . 91
Hampsted-Norris 91

West Ilsley . . . . 92
East Ilsley . . 92

Inkpeu . . . . 92

VII. List of the Sequestrators of the Estates of
"Delinquents, Papists, Spyes, and Intelligencers," for the
County of Berks, appointed under Ordinance of the Lords
and Commons, April 1, 1643

PAGE.

Sir Francis Pile . . 93

Sir Francis Knollys, junior 93

Peregrine Hoby . . 94

Harry Marten . . 94



Kintbury

Leckhampstead

Midgham

Newbury

Peasemore

Shaw-cum-Donnington . .

Little Shefford . .

Great Shefford

Speen

Wasing

Welford

Winterborne-Danvers .



Roger Knight
Henry Powle
Thomas Fettiplace
Tanfield Vachell .



VII.* The Commissioners for raising Money and Forces
within the County of Berks, and for Maintenance of
Garrisons within the said County for use of Parliament,
appointed June 27, 1644



f A\*Et

William Lenthall . . 95

Sir Robert Pye . . 96

Sir Benjamin Rudyerd . . 96

Edmund Dunch . . 97

Daniel Blagrave . . 98



Richard Browne
John Packer
Robert Packer
Cornelius Holland



93

PAGE.

94
94
95
95



95

PAGB.
98

99
99
99



TABLE OF CONTENTS.



XI



Ship Money . . . . . . 99

IX. State of Public Feeling in the County in 1643 102

X. Agreement between Charles I. and the County of
Berks respecting a Contribution to be levied for the
support of the King's Army . . . . . . 104

THE SECOND BATTLE AT NEWBTJEY, OCTOBEE 27ra, 1644 . . 107

APPENDIX. . . . . . . . . . . 162

I. The King's March to Newbury . . . . 162

II. The King's Stay at Newbury . . . . 163

III. Red Heath and Red HiU . . . . 165

IV. Account of the Second Battle of Newbury, from a
MS. belonging to the Earl de la Warr

V. Newbury Church as a Prison and Hospital . .

VI. Boxford

VII. Bucklebury

VIII. License of War . . '

IX. Capture of Lady Forth, Countess of Brentford

X. Captain Knight's Relation of the Siege of Don-
nington Castle . . . . . . . . 177

XL Depositions of Witnesses at the Trial of King
Charles I., as to the presence of the King at the Two
Battles of Newbury . . . . . . 185

XII. Biographical Notices of some of the Officers and
others mentioned in connection with the Second Battle



of Newbury


. . . . . .


187


A. Royalist Officers


. .


187




PAGE.




PAGE.


Prince Maurice


187


Sir John Owen


192


Duke of Richmond


187


Sir Thomas Hooper


192


Lord Bernard Stuart


187


Sir Richard Page


1.92


Earl of Newport . .


188


Sir Thomas Basset


192


Earl of Berkshire


183


Sir Humphrey Benett . .


192


Earl Rivers


188


Sir John Granville


192


Lord Capel


188


Sir Joseph Wagstaffe . .


192


Lord Hopton


189


Sir Charles Lloyd . .


192


Lord Colepeper


189


Sir Edward Walker


192


Lord Goring


190


Colonel Leke


192


Sir John Boys


190


Col. Anthony ThelwaU . .


193


Sir Bernard Astley


191


Col. Giles Strangeways


193


Sir William Brouncker


191


Col. Houghton


193


Sir William Ashburnham


191


Captain Catelyn . .


193


Sir William St.-Leger . .


191


Robert S trad ling


193


B. Parliamentarian


Officers


194




PAGE.




PAGE.


Earl of Manchester


194


Lieut.-Gen. Ludlow


195


Sir William Waller


194


Colonel Norton


196


Sir Arthur Hesilrige


195


Col. Sir Richard Ingoldsby


196


Major- General Crawford


195


Col. John Birch


196


Lieut. -Gen. Middleton . .


195







XIII. Historical Notices of the Manor and Castle of
Donnington . . . . . . . . 197

INDEX 212



LIST OF THE PLANS AND ILLUSTRATIONS.



1 Portrait of LORD FALKLAND. (Frontispiece.) Opposite title-page.

2 ,, PRINCE RUPERT . . . . Opposite page 8

3 View of DONNINGTON CASTLE . . . . . . ,, 18

4 Portrait of the EARL OF ESSEX . . . . ,, 22

5 BRENTFORD or BRAINFORD . . 28

6 ,, SUNDERLAND . . . . 38

7 Copy of the COFFIN-PLATE of the EARL OF ESSEX . . 66

8 Portrait of the EARL OF CAERNARVON . . ,, 68

9 Plan of the FIRST BATTLE OF NEWBURY . . . . 106

10 Plan of the DEFENCES OF DONNINGTON CASTLE 108

11 Portrait of the EARL OF MANCHESTER .. .. 118

12 View of SHAW HOUSE . . . . . ,,122

13 Portrait of SIR WILLIAM WALLER .. 132

14 H SIR JOHN BOYS . . . . . . 160

15 Plan of the SECOND BATTLE OF NEWBTTRY . 212



THE FIRST BATTLE AT NEWBURY,
SEPTEMBER 20TH, 1643.



IN order to understand the political situation of the precise
period of English History under review, a brief description of the
previous operations of the hostile armies, which resulted in the
Two Battles of Newbury, is necessary, because the narrative will
then be rendered more complete. At the same time the means
will be provided of rightly estimating the value and effect of
these engagements on the fortunes of the two combatants.

After the assault of Bristol and its surrender to the Royalists
under Prince Rupert, in July, 1643, the King again joined the
camp; and, having sent Prince Maurice with a detachment into
Devonshire, he deliberated how to employ his remaining forces
in an enterprize of moment. Some of his followers proposed
that he should march direct to London, where everything was
in confusion, though this undertaking, by reason of the great
strength of the London Militia or Trained Bands, was thought to
be attended with great difficulties; but Gloucester, lying within
20 miles of Bristol, presented a possibly easier conquest. This
was the only remaining garrison possessed by the Parliament
in the west of the kingdom; and, by interrupting the communica-
tions of the royal armies between the south-west and north-east,
prevented these from acting in concert. Hence the King at last
assented to the plan of besieging this important town. The
questionable policy of this measure is thus noticed by one of
Charles's most faithful adherents, Sir Philip Warwick; "One
(or the like) councill in both quarters, north and west, soon
blasted the prosperity in each place; for the King pitcht upon
that fatall resolution, recommended to him, it is said, by the
Lord Culpeper (who wanted no loyalty), of beseiging Glocester,
who thought it a good policy not to leave a strong towne
behind him. But the counsell proved fatall; for had the King
at that time resolv'd in himself to have struck at the proud
head of London and had had authority enough at that time to
have required the Earl of Newcastle to have joyned with him,

humanely speaking, he had rais'd such confusion among

the two Houses and the Londoners, that they had either sent



THE FIRST BATTLE OF NEWTBtTRT.

him his owne terms, or if they had fought him, most probably

he had bin victorious But the King fixes on Gloucester, and

the Earle of Newcastle as fatally about the same time setts down
before Hull."* This was by the advice of Lt.-Gen. King, whose
loyalty was suspected.

After all, it is by no means certain that Charles' march to-
London would have been so effectual and so little opposed as it
is here taken for granted it would have been.

On the 10th August, f the King's army, under his immediate
command, occupied the heights above the City of Gloucester,
The town was defended by a garrison of only fifteen hundred men,
besides the inhabitants; and the Governor (Massey) was peremp-
torily summoned to surrender, two hours being allowed for an
answer. Before the expiration of that time, two deputies from
the city, Sergeant-Major J Pudsey and a citizen, presented them-
selves at the camp. They were pale, thin men, dressed in
black, and closely shaven: " We bring to- the Majesty," said they,
"an answer from the godly city of Gloucester ;." and, on being
introduced to the King, they read a letter, which ran thus: "We.
the inhabitants, magistrates, officers, and soldiers within the
garrison of Gloucester unto his Majesty's gracious message return
this humble answer, "That we do keep this city, according to our
oath and allegiance, to and for the use of his Majesty signified
by both houses of Parliament : and are resolved by God's help r
to keep this city accordingly."

On hearing this brief reply, delivered in a firm, clear tone, and
perceiving the strange appearance of the messengers, who stood
motionless before the King awaiting his answer, a movement at
once of surprise, derision, and anger was about to manifest itself
on the part of the courtiers; but Charles, as grave as his enemies,
repressed it with a gesture, and dismissed the deputies with these
words : " If you expect help you are deceived ; Waller is extinct,
and Essex cannot come." The deputation, had no sooner entered
the city, than the inhabitants set fire to the suburbs, and left
themselves nothing to defend but what was within the walls.
For twenty-six days, from Aug. 10th to Sept. 5th, the citizens,
by their indefatigable exertions, frustrated all the efforts of the
besiegers. Except a hundred and fifty men kept in reserve, the
whole garrison were constantly on foot. In all their labours, in
all their dangers, the people took part with the soldiers, the
women with their husbands, the children with their mothers.
Massey even made frequent sallies, and only three men took

* Sir Ph. Warwick's ' Memoires,' pp. 2602.

t The "Old Style " of reckoning was employed in England at this period and
long afterwards, though the "New Style" according to the Gregorian Calendar
was in general use on the Continent.

t " Sergeant-Major" formerly signified the officer now styled Major, and the
"Sergeant-Major General" was what is now called Major-General.



THE FIRST BATTLE OF NEWBURY. 3

advantage of them to desert. Tired of so long a delay, attended
by neither glory nor rest, the royal army in a spirit of revenge
licentiously devastated the country round, the officers frequently
employing their men to carry off from his house some rich farmer
or peaceable freeholder of the other side, who only regained his
liberty on payment of ransom.*

The news of the siege of Gloucester caused the greatest con-
Vernation in London; and the Parliament, seeing the absolute
necessity of relieving the town as the only means of supporting
their cause, now exerted to the utmost their power and authority.
Trading was for a time suspended, in order that none should
decline military service upon whom the lot should fall. The
relief of Gloucester was urged in every pulpit. A force of 8000
horse and 4000 foot was expeditiously put into a condition of
marching against the King; and a committee, comprising some of
the warmest partisans of war, went to the Earl of Essex on the
4th August to inform him of the measures that had been taken
to recruit and make full provision for his army, and to enquire
what else he needed. In a word they entrusted the destiny of
the country to his hands, with assurance of the complete con-
fidence reposed hi him by Parliament. The Earl, in a letter to
the Speaker, assured the House he would never desert the
cause "as long as I have any blood in my veins, until this
kingdom may be made happy by a blessed peace (which is all
honest men's prayers) or to have an end by tne sword." -f

On the 24th August the Earl of Essex mustered his forces on
Hounslow Heath ; and, after a solemn review in the presence of
nearly all the Members of both Houses, marched by way of
Colnbrook, Beaconsfield, and Aylesbury to the assistance of
Gloucester. On the 1st of September he arrived at Brackley
Heath, the general rendezvous, where he was joined by a rein-
forcement of horse and a train of artillery, which brought his
force up to about 14,000 men. He then proceeded by way of
Bicester, Chipping Norton, and Stow-on-the-Wold ; here he was
attacked by a detached corps of cavalry under Prince Eupert,
who vainly endeavoured to stop him; but the Earl advanced,
without suffering himself to be turned from his road, driving
the enemy before him. He was already within a few miles of
the Royalist Camp, already the King's horse had fallen back on
the advanced posts of his infantry, when, in the hope of delay-
ing the Earl, if only for a day, Charles sent him a messenger
with proposals of peace. " The Parliament," answered Essex,
" gave me no commission to treat, but to relieve Gloucester ; I
will do it, or leave my body beneath its walls ! " "No proposi-
tions: no propositions! " shouted the soldiers, when they heard of

* Clarendon's 'Hist, of the Rebellion,' vol. ii, p. 341.
t Carte's MS. Letters; BibL Bodl.



Online LibraryWalter MoneyThe first and second battles of Newbury and the siege of Donnington castle during the civil war, A.D. 1643-6 → online text (page 1 of 28)