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History of Calhoun county, Michigan : a narrative account of its historical progress, its people, and its principle interests (Volume 1) online

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Titus, Samuel J., 895.

Township histories, Albion, 164; Athens,
165; Battle Creek, 169; Bedford, 173;
Burlington, 175; Clarence, 176; Clar-
endon, 178; Convis, 179; Eekford, 180;
Emmett, 182; Fredonia, 186; Homer,
188; Lee, 192; LeRoy, 194; Marengo,
197; Marshall, 199; Newton, 200;
Pennfield, 201; Sheridan, 310; Tekon-
sha, 212.

Township schools, 165. 173, 180, 181, 190,

Training school for nurses, 383.
Transport "Florida" disabled, 601.
Treasurers. 225.

Treatment, Battle Creek Sanitarium, 375.
Treatv of Paris, 2.
Treaty of 1795, 4.

Trinity Episcopal church, Marshall, 293.
Troops raised in state and county, 484.
Truant officers, 152.
Tucker, Cash L., 1306.
Tuttle, Alfred H., 893.
Twelfth Infantry, 507.
Twelfth Michigan Infantry roster, 508.
Twentieth Michigan Infantry, 517; ros-



Twenty-eighth Michigan Infantry, 529.
Twenty-fifth Michigan Infantry, 524;

roster. 526.
Twenty-fourth Infantry, 524.
Twcnty-sixtli and Twenty-seventh Mich-

i^iiii Infaiitiv roster, 529.
Tweiity-tliinl Infantry. 524.
Two white oak trees (near Athens),

(view). 166.

round railway. 82,
City Local," 215.


'Union City Register," 2
Union Grange, No. 292, ]

Union sentiment, 485.

Union Steam Pump Company, 317.

Union Steel Screen Company, 435, 453.

University of Health, 380.

Upton Avenue Methodist Episcopal

church. Battle Creek, 400.
Upton, .James S., 1121.

Van Arman, John H.. 1211.

Van Nocker, James W.. 1001.

Van Tuvle, James C, 756.

VanZile," Philip T., 275.

Vary, Clarence G., 1075.

Vernon, Michael H., 617.

Verona, 183.

Vester, William R., 1304.

Vibrator thresher, 355.

View of main dining room. Battle Creek
Sanitarium (view), 376.

Views— Chapel, Albion College, 120; Rob-
inson building, Albion College, 122;
observatory, Albion College, 125; Lot-
tie L. Cassette Memorial library, 134;
McMillan laboratory, 135; two white
oak trees (near Athens), 166; new
high school building, Athens, 168;
David Young farm house, 171; Jersey
cattle on Sutfin farm, 185; high
school. Homer, 190; cobblestone school-
house erected 1849, 202 ; Anthony dairy
farm (near Albion), 311; Main street,
north, Tekonsha, 214; only old style
sawmill left in county, 231; court-
house, Marshall, 236; the old stone
barn, old stage depot, a relic of stage
days, Marshall, 250; Marshall Furnace
Company, 251; the modern way of
threshing, 252; old and new high
school, Marshall, 264; Dulcenia hoihe,
288; Jefferson avenue, north, in 1866,
317; Battle Creek Sanitarium, 318;

fire aepartment. Battle Creek, 321;
mills mill inamifiicturing establish-
ments of Battle Creek, 1861. 323; old-
est building in Battle Creek, 334; rural
mail carriers, Battle Creek, 327; new
high school. Battle Creek, 329; old
Brooks mansion, 340; Willard library.
Battle Creek. 341; soldiers' monu-
ments. Battle Creek, 344; American
Steam Pump Company, 358; Battle
Creek .Sanitarium. 368; grand march
in gymnasium, 371 ; main building
erected 1903-03. 373: main dining room,
376; Battle Creek Sanitarium in 1876,
377; palm garden. Battle Creek Sani-
tarium. 379; Battle Creek Sanitarium
in 1866, 381: outdoor swimming tour-
nament, 383; a corner in one of the
greenhouses, 386; Nichols Memorial
Hospital, 390; Adventist tabernacle,
403; Y. M. C. A. building. Battle
Creek, 411; old red schoolhouse, Al-
bion, 433; high school, Albion, 434;
Gale Manufacturing Company, 448;
Albion Malleable Iron Company, 451.

Village schools. 154.

Volunteers outside of Company D. 59S.

Watlle. William. 1255.
Wagner. John. 1266.
Wagner, -lohn A., 1367.
Walbridge. John J., 930.
Walbridge, Robert M., 930.
Walker, Charles E.. 894.
Walkinshaw, James E., 1048.
Walter, George C, 616.
Walter, Lizzie M., 617.
Ware, William E., 1188.
Warner. Wareham. 418.
Warner. Willard H., 1338.
Warren. Frank A., 1283.
Warren, Levi S., 469, 1321.
Warriner. Eva, 338.
Warsop, Ervin A., 1255.
War times, 96.
War with Spain, 597.
Washingtonian movement, 160.
Waterman, Adolphus C, 969.
Waterman, Henry B.. 968.
Waterman. John B., 972.
Water system, Marshall, 355.
Watson," John, 1285.
Wattles, Jervis H., 886.
Wayne, General. 3.
Webb, Caleb, 1101.
Webb, Fred H., 1363.
Weeks, Burr L., 670.
Weeks. Monfort D.. 438.
Weeks, Ralph, 1301.
Weeks, Ward S., 664.
Weickgenant, Jacob, 622.
Welcome home, 603.
Wells, Fred, 815.
Welsh, James M., 439.
Werstein, Leopold, 800.
Wesleyan Seminary and Female Colle-
giate Institute. 120.
West. Edmond C. 1335.
"Western Citizen," 332.
"Western Health Reform Institute," 370.
Western sharpshooters, 5.47.
"Western Statesman," 270.


7 79,


Wet Prairie. V,

Wetzel. Kiank

Whalon. .John, 1093.

WhalcTi. Thomas F.. 1093.

Wheelock, Charles H., 710.

Wheelock, Frederick A., 440.

Wheelock, Moses W., 707.

Wheelock, Sarah W., 709.

Whitbeck, George S., 991.

Whitbeck, Henry E., 990.

White. Arthur J., 1143.

White, Gilbert B., 1019.

White. L. E., 447.

Whitney, Harlan K., 978.

\Miitney, Henry A., 975.

Whitney, William W., 941.

Wild cat banks, 246.

Wild cat banking, 105.

Wildey, Clark E., 803.

Willard, Charles, 341, 1116.

Willard, Charles, Library, 339.

Willard, George, 1112.

Willard, George B., 331, 1115.

Willard library, liattle Creek (view),

Williams. Arthur B.. 808.
Williams, Howard II.. 440.
Williams. Isaac L.. 1289.
Williams. L. C, 859.
Willis, Edward F., 1307.
Willis, Stephen H., 1173.
Wilmot proviso, 51, 78.
Winsor, Herbert E., 272, 277.
Winter, John. 1163.
Wirt, George P., 818.
Wisner, Robert P.. 1064.
Wolcott, H. J., 455.
Wolcott. L. J.. 455.
Woman's Christian Temperance Union,

163, 409, 413, 476.
Woman's Club, 408.
Woman's League, 408, 410.
Woman's Relief Corps, 283, 474.
Wood, Abram L., 1098.
Wood. John V., 780.
Wood, Luke B., 1065.
Wood, Melville J., 1318.
Wood. William D., 641.
Woodbrid-e. William, 13.
Woollen, Andrew, 912.
Wooden, W. It,, 408.
Woollen. William R., 987.
Woodruir, Frank G., 1070.
Woodruff, (ieorge. 273.
Woolnough, Walter W., 857.
Woolsey, George S., 699.
Wright, Orin J., 609.

Yankees. 16.

Year Book of Albion College, 117.

York, George H., 1228.

Young, David, farm house (view), 171.

Young Men's Christian Association, 409,

Y, M. C. A. building. Battle Creek (view),


History of Calhoun County


Three different national flags have waved in recognized authority over
wliat is now the State of Michigan. That of France for 156 years, that
of Great Britain for 20 years and that of the United States for 129
> ears. In 1607, or but one year after the English sailed up the James
River, landing at Jamestown and affecting there the tirst permanent
English settlement in America, the French ascended the Saint Lawrence
and established the first permanent settlement of the French in the New
World. Fourteen years later, the Pilgrims landed from the Mayflower
on the shores of Plymouth Bay. From these three fountains opened
in the New World, there was destined to flow three mighty streams of
influence affecting severally and unitedly every part of the North
American Continent.

It is our purpose to treat liriefly the second of these as most affecting
Michigan in the order of time. Three motives seemed to dominate the
French in their coming to America — first, the love of adventure on the
part of a few resolute and ambitious men who sought to explore unknown
parts of the northeastern section of America, to plunge into the wilder-
ness and search out the great lakes, the mighty rivers and the lofty
water falls and over all to raise the standard of their sovereign and
claim the soil as subject to the government of France. Another class,
moved by the love of gain, came in the wake of the explorers hoping to
find, as many did, rich rewards for the perils and privations they
endured. The third class was composed of priests, mostly of the Jesuit
order, who, fired with a zeal which no hardship could abate and no
sacrifice quench, plunged into the trackless wilderness searching out tlie
haunts of the wild men of the woods and, having found them, counted
not their lives dear unto themselves if they could but bring the savage
warriors to accept the Prince of Peace and pattern their lives after the
Man of Galilee. While the results seemed meager and not at all com-
pensatory of the efforts put forth, it still remains that the story of the
hardships passed through, the, privation endured, the tortures patiently
borne for His sake, and finally the sacrifice on the altar of self-immola-


tion in the name of the jMaster, constitute one of the most thrilling
chapters in the history of our conmion country.

While the French attempts at colonization were not a success, for
reasons which do not come within the scope of this work to discuss, it
is but fair to say that the foot prints of explorer, of trader and priest
are still traceable from the Raisin to the Straits and from the Straits to
the Saint Joseph ; that the nomenclature derived from the French rivals
that from the Indian in our state ; and that so long as ]\Iarquette, Cadillac,
Saint Iguace, Sault Ste Marie, Ponchartrain and Detroit remain, the
influence of the heroic and devoted men who lived and wrought under
the French regime will abide a living force within the borders of our
State, constant reminders of the heroic people who lived and endured in
the days of its primitive history. The rival claims of the French and
English explorers; the sharp competition between the traders of the
two nations with the Indians, particularly in furs ; and the enlistment on
the one side or the other of the friendship and warlike aid of the
powerful Indian tribes whose habitations bordered on the Great Lakes ;
the jealousies and resulting clashes between the colonists, that fringed
the Atlantic seaboard from the Penobscot to the James with their constant
extensions toward the interior, with those of the Saint Lawrence and
the Great Lakes, were sure to arouse to action the respective home goveni-
ments, jealous of their real or assumed rights and relations of their
children on this side the seas. Harrassing encroachxnents with threatened
invasions and counter invasions resulted in the inevitable. The student
of history is not surprised to see columns of marching troops under
English commanders heading north and northwest through the forests,
leaving the settlements behind them, nor counter columns of French
soldiers headed southward ; each and every column on both sides accom-
panied by the ferocious and blood-thirsty savages as accepted allies.
The unbroken wilderness repeatedly resounded to the clash of arms,
and Crown Point, Ticonderoga, Fort DuQuesne, Fort Frontenac and
Fort Niagara are enrolled among the places for which brave men
struggled and baptized them with their blood. Upon the Plains of
Abraham, adjacent to Quebec, in September, 1759, the decisive battle
was fought. Wolfe, the commander of the British troops, fell upon
the field where his soldiers were victorious, while Jlontcalm, commander
of the French, died a few days later of wounds received in the engage-
ment, but not until the city, in defense of which he gave his life, had
been surrendered to the triumphant enemy. A year later Montreal
capitulated to the British arms. In due time the Treaty of Paris
followed and the French power was broken and its flag forever furled
on the North American Continent.


With the ratification of the Treaty of Paris, Great Britain claimed
sovereignty over all North America, save a strip to the southeast held
by Spain and to the Louisiana country in the southwest. The nuitter-
ings of discontent which were heard in some of the colonies on the
Atlantic seaboard, even while the struggle was yet on with the French
along the Canadian border, grew in scope and intensity until the tlame
of war blazed up at Lexington and Concord and burned with increasing
intensity through seven weary years from Bunker Hill to Yorktown.
The treaty of 1783 between Great Britain and America, whereby the
former granted independence to the latter with jurisdiction over certain
defined limits of territory which latter embraced the present state of
^lichigan, did not result in the immediate withdrawal of the British
troops, nor bring peace and repose to the inhabitants residing in what
is now the Peninsular State.

AVhen the line of the Great Lakes was agreed upon as the international
boundary, it was expected that the military posts held by Great Britain
within the United States would be surrendered, l)ut instead, she not
only continued to hold them, but her agents and representatives
encouraged, if they did not aid, the Indians in their declared purpose
to make the Ohio River the northwest boundary of the United States.
To make good this purpose, the great Shawanese Chief, Joseph Brant,
who had held a commission in the British army during the Revolution and
who was a man of very unusual talents and possessed of some education,
formed an alliance of the tribes of the six nations viz : the Ilurons,
Ottawas, Miamis. Shawanese, Chippewas and Cherokees. with the Dela-
wares and Pottawattomies and the Wabash Confederacy to resist the
encroachments of the Whites noi-th and west of the Ohio River. In the
endeavor to carry out this purpose there is abundant evidence that the
Indians were encouraged and alietted by conspicuous British officers,
both civil and military. Repeated councils were held with the repre-
sentatives of these various tribes, but were unavailing to effect a per-
manent settlement.

Three different military expeditions were sent against the i)owerful
Indian confederation. The first, led by General Harmar in the fall of
1790, met with defeat : the second, by General Saint Clair in the follow-
ing year, met with most disastrous results; but the third, under the
leadership of General AVayne. was correspondingly successful. The



power of the federation was broken at the battle of Fallen Timbers,
August 20, 1794, after which the savages were ready to sue for peace.
Accordingly chiefs in large numbers met at Greenville, Ohio, in the fall
of 1794, where after a long consultation a treaty was agreed upon between
these savage leaders and General Wayne. It was signed by all
the Chiefs in Council and resulted in the cession of a vast domain of
territory to the Whites and in terminating any serious trouble with the
Indians in the northwest until the war broke out with Great Britain in

In the mean time the Treaty of 1795 negotiated by John Jay and his
associate members brought about the evacuation of all forts and the
withdrawal of all British troops from within the American boundary.
This was to be done on or before the eleventh day of June, 1796, and on
the eleventh day of July following the American flag was far the iirst
time raised over Detroit. This was twenty yfears after the opening of
the Revolution and nearlj^ thirteen years after the surrender of Corn-
wallis and the treaty that acknowledged American Independence.


A L-oufusioii of claims by individual States to territoiy lying north
of the Ohio River and west of Pennsylvania presented a perplexing
problem to the Colonial Congress. ^lany of these claims were based
upon assumed rights under royal grants and charters prior to the
Revolution. The different States of the Confederacy gradually came to
see the wisdom and the justice of surrendering these claims and ceding
to the general government the territory west of certain definite limits
which had been gained by common sacrifice and treasure during the
war for independence. So it gradually came about that all the territory
north aud west of the Ohio River, within the treaty limits, was brought
under the jurisdiction of the United States. This Northwest Territory,
as it was called, embraced all of the present states of Ohio, Indiana,
Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin. AVhile at the time we are considering
there were a good many people living within the limits named, there
was no form of government ; hence it devolved upon tiie Congress, repre-
sentative of all the people, to make provision for the control and govern-
ment of this vast and soon to be generally inhabited region.

Out of this situation confronting the Congress, there was evolved the
celebrated Ordinance of 1787. So important was this ordinance and so
inseparably associated with the future welfare, not only of ^Michigan
and the northwe-st, but of the whole country, that we deem it proper to
quote some of its salient features. It ma.v be said "'tliat a comprehensive
plan was first evolved and reported in 1784 by a committee of which
Jefferson was chairman: later this was modified by a committee of wiiich
^Monroe was chairman and was still further amended and finally reported
in Jul.y, 1787, by Nathan Dane, of Massachusetts, and passed on the
13th of the same month by a unanimous vote of all the States then
represented in Congress. This ordinance became a sort of constitution
for the Northwest Territorj*. Among other things, it provided for not
less than two nor more than five States to be created out of the territory ;
that a temporary government in each of these should be administered by
a governor, a council of five, a secretary and a court of five judges, all
to be appointed by Congress. "When a certain population should be
reached, then representative government should begin and a House of
Representatives should, with the Governor and the Council, make a
Legislature. When this state was reached, a delegate might be sent to
Congress." Among other things, the Ordinance declared that "Religion.


morality and knowledge being necessary to good government and the
happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall be forever
encouraged," and as an earnest of good faith, the 16th section in everj-
township of land was set apart for the support of public schools. In
Michigan at this time the proceeds from the sale of school lands amount
to something over five millions of dollars, which is held by the State as
a trust fund upon which interest is annually paid for the support of
the public schools. Freedom of religious worship was stipulated in the
Ordinance. Considering the times and the provocations, the paragraph
relating to the Indians speaks well for the fathers of the Republic. It
declares that "The utmost good faith shall always be observed toward
the Indians; their lands and property shall never be taken from them
without their consent; and in their property, rights and liberty they
shall never be invaded or disturbed unless in just and lawful wars
authorized by Congress; but laws founded in justice and humanity
shall from time to time be made for preventing wrongs being done to
them and for preserving peace and friendship with them."

It is doubtful if any member of Congress realized the tremendous
import of the brief paragraph relating to slavery or deemed it possible
that seventy-five years later in a great civil war, when the perpetuity of
the government itself should hang in the balances, it should tip the
scales in favor of the Union. The paragraph in ciuestion declared:
"There shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in the said
territory, otherwise than in the punishment of crime whereof the party
shall have been duly convicted."

A plan of civil government, freedom of religious worship, provision
for public schools, the prohibition of slavery and justice and humanity
toward the Indians are salient points in this immortal instrument.

Bancroft, the historian, calls it "The Great Ordinance." The late
Chief Justice Cooley of our State says that "No Charter of Government
in the history of any people has so completely stood the tests of time
and experience."

The distinguished Senator Hoar, of Massachusetts, put it on a plane
with the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence. The his-
torian, Sehouler, says, "The Ordinance of 1787 deserves to rank among
immortal parchments, both for what it accomplished and what it inspired.
Nor would it be wild hyperbole to opine that, save for the adoption and
unflinching execution of that ordinance by Congress in early times,
the American Union would ere today have found a grave."


The withdrawal of the British from American soil, under the treaty,
left the way open for settlement aiid improvement of ^liehiufan which,
aft^r Ohio was made a State in 1802. became a part of the territ«iy of
Indiana with William Henry Harrison, afterward President of the
United States, as Governor.

In 1805 the territory of Michigan wa.s created and set apart from
Indiana with General "William Hull, of Massachusetts, as the first
territorial governor. There was but little gain in population, in enter-
prise or development in the earlier yeai-s of the last century. In the
entire territory of ^lichigan down to 1812, it is estimated there was
not to exceed 5,000 white people, while Detroit, thougli a hundred and
eleven years had passed since Cadillac had first established a settleuient
there, contained but 800 Europeans. Several things contributed to this
slow growth. It had been originally settled by the French and not the
English and had drawn its life from French rather than Engli.sh
sources. After the Kevolution conditions remained practically the
same with British garrisons holding the forts on American soil along the
frontier, with a wide expanse of unbroken forest lying between the
settlements of the Americans t-o the south and southeast and the fringe of
French settlements along the border of the north and northwest. There
were by land no roads worthy of the name and no boats of carrying
capacity on the lakes. As a result, the country known as the territory
of I\Iiehigan remained for years practically at a stand still.

There was also a twofold menace to the ^lichigan settlements. The
one, was the British troops stationed near the border on the one side
and the Indians in sullen and hostile mood on the other, both under con-
ditions that might at any time arise and unite to overcome the Ameri-
cans and devastate the settlements.

On the 18th of June, 1812, the Congress declared war against Great

One of the fir.st moves of the enemy was to capture Detroit, the most
important post on the frontier. The authorities at Washingon showed
lamentable lack of foresight and enterprise in view of the fact that they
were the initiators. While Governor Hull was making his way through
the wilderness of Ohio to his post at Detroit with a considerable foi-ce
of troops, the British Commander in Canada, through inexcusable
neglect on the part of the American Secretary of War, was first apprised
of the fact that war had been declared and by that knowledge entered


the contest at an advantage that resulted in the surrender of General
Hull and his entire force with the town of Detroit to the British General
Brock, on Sunday morning, August 16, 1812, less than two months after
the declaration of war. This surrender of the most important post on
the American frontier, without the firing of a single shot, was a dis-
graceful and humiliating act, which brought, upon the Americans shame
and ridicule at home and abroad. General Hull was tried by Court
Martial and sentenced to be shot, but with a recommendation for execu-
tive clemency, which resulted in his permanent retirement to private
life and the spending of the rest of his days in a vain effort to repair
his shattered reputation.

Included in the surrendered forces under Hull was a young Colonel
of Infantry, named Lewis Cass, who indignantly snapped his sword
blade as a helpless protest against the action of his superior officer. He
was destined to be, for a hundred years at least, the most conspicuous
character developed by the commonwealth and to do more for the
upbuilding of a great state than any other one person.

A sequel to the surrender of Detroit was the invasion of northwestern
Ohio by the British under General Proctor, of unenviable fame. The
march of the American forces to counteract that advance made in the
icy days of January, 1813, resulted in the frightful massacre on the
river Raisin which, for atrocity, has no parallel in the annals of Michigan
and few in those of the entire country. But disastrous and in part dis-
graceful to the American Arms as the war had thus far been, better

Online LibraryWashington GardnerHistory of Calhoun county, Michigan : a narrative account of its historical progress, its people, and its principle interests (Volume 1) → online text (page 3 of 74)