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History of Calhoun county, Michigan : a narrative account of its historical progress, its people, and its principle interests (Volume 1) online

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Wm. HefBey, David Quinn, J. A. S. Derby and W. H. Jones. This com-
pany produced a cereal beverage which was widely advertised and for
a time was successfully mai-keted.

On June 11, 1897, another company came into being known as The
Moko Health Drink Company, claiming a capitalization of $50,000.
Managing the affairs of this corporation were John C. Reynolds, C. W.
Sellers and W. A. Crosby. The product of the company was a cereal
drink called ' ' Moko ' ' and it was the first to possess a fanciful name the
like of which characterized the ' ' boom. ' ' Most of the products were given
old soubriquets, catchy in many instances and easy to remember. These
names M'idely advertised made possible many a sally of wit at the expense
of the breakfast food industry. These companies floui-ished briefly, at
least, and furnished an incentive for the organization of others. The idea
of preparing food from the kernels of nuts then was capitalized, the
Sanitas Nut Food Company, Ltd., being authorized to begin operation
January 25, 1899. Directing the destinies of this company were W. K.
Kellogg, "Wilfred C. Kellogg, L. E. D. Lawson and others.



IlISTOKY OF CALHOUN COrXTY 367

Many other similai- compauies were organized along the same general
lines, all producing cereal foods and drinks.

On August 12, 1901, the Korn Krisp Company was organized with
a capital of $300,000 and began the manufacture and sale of flake food
in commercial quantities in Battle Creek. The success of tliis venture,
temporarily, was very marked. The light, palatable flaked corn proved
verj' salable and many new companies subsequently undertook the manu-
facture of other varieties of flake foods.

P"'rom 1901 to 1905 new companies were formed over night. There
were at one time thirty-two food manufacturing concerns in operation
in Battle Creek. Records of incorporation do not include all of the com-
panies that were launched. Many were never incorporated. Families
invested savings in cereal manufacturing machinery and set up manu-
facturing plants in sheds and even in tents. The market at the begin-
ning clamored for new foods, but in a short time the inevitable reaction
came, leaving intact the original food factories, whose successes the imi-
tators have sought to follow.

The present large food factories in Battle Creek supply many million
dollars' worth of food and beverages to the world at large, the products
going into every corner of the globe.

These food factories are notably clean and their products pure and
manufactured on scientific principles.

The largest plant is that of the Postum Cereal Co., Ltd., which is
owned by C. W. Post and his daughter, Mrs. E. B. Close.

This business was conducted for a time without being incorporated
and previous to its incorporation ilr. Post joined in another small cor-
poration for the purpose of marketing some other products.

This \vill account for the fact that his name appears as one of the
organizers of the Battle Creek Health Food Company in December 6,
1895 — whereas the Postum Cereal Company, Ltd., was organized October
26, 1896.

The sanitarium, under Dr. Kellogg, produces a great variety of dif-
ferent kinds of healthful foods, which are served on the sanitarium
tables and shipped to customers from the sanitarium food factories.

It is safe to say that every prepared food made in Battle Creek is
not only made in a cleanly manner, but is healthful and nourishing.

This is a well-known fact, and can be proven by a visit to any of the
factories. Visitors are given a cordial welcome and in some of the
factories — notably the Postum Cereal Company, Ltd., large numbers of
visitors are in attendance daily being shown every niche and corner of the
works.



CHAPTER XXI

THE SANITARIUM AND MEMORIAL HOSPITAL

Birth op Battle Creek Sanitarium — Enter Dr. J. H. Kellogg —
Change of Name — First Sanitarium Buildings — Fire op 1902 —
New Main Structure — Courses and Means op Treatment — Train-
ing School for Nurses — Educational Work — A Purely Philan-
thropic Institution — Haskell Home for Orphans and Destitute
Children — Nichols Memorial Hospital and Charitable Union.

This chapter is worthily devoted to the histoiy and description of two
institutions of which Battle Creek is justly proud— the Battle Creek Sani-
tarium and the Nichols Memorial Hospital.

Birth op Battle Creek Sanit.vrium

The Battle Creek Sanitarium, as hefits an American institution that
has attained phenomenal success, began in a humble way. It was not
born in a log cabin, it is true, but what was almost as modest, it began
in a frame farm house, in the environs of what was then the village of
Battle Creek.

The Western Health Reform Institute — the original name of the
institution — was organized in the autumn of 1866, with a physician and
assistants in charge. The following winter the legislature enacted a law,
making provision for the incorporation of health institutions, and May
17, 1867, the institute entered upon its corporate existence, stock to the
extent of $26,100 having been sold.

The points of "reform" on which the founders laid emphasis were
chiefly diet, dress, and the substitution of water treatment for drugs.
To supplement its work the institute issued a monthlj^ journal, called
The Health Reformer. The Reformer was a small sixteen-page sheet,
and was edited by the physician in charge.

Enter Dr. J. H. Kellogg

Nine years later, Dr. J. H. Kellogg having become associated with the
institute in the capacity of physician-in-chief, plans were laid for a more
commodious building, the growing patronage tilling the original structure
and necessitating the renting of rooms in the neighborhood to aeeom-



370 HISTORY OP CALHOUN COUNTY

modate the patients. Work was soon begun on a building one hundred
and forty-six feet long, four stories and basement, situated on the site
occupied by the present main building. This structure was completed
and dedicated April 10, 1878. A large number of prominent men and
women from various parts of the United States were present at the dedi-
cation, and the building was declared to be the "largest and most per-
fectly constructed edifice of its kind in America, and the only one of note,
especially built for, and adapted to, the purpose of a hygienic hospital and
home for the sick ; ' ' but the renting of rooms in nearby residences again
became necessary.

Coincident with the increase in patronage under the new manage-
ment was the growing recognition by physicians and scientists throughout
the country of the importance of the scientific principles upon which
the work of the Sanitarium was based. Institutions of healing were not
unknown ; there were hospitals which represented each some new thera-
peutic agent that in most cases was regarded as a panacea for human ills
and that was thus exploited to the neglect of other measures etpially
valuable. This was true of the so-called "water cures" that were so
numerous both in this country and Europe about the middle of the last
century, and of the electrical establishments, movement institutes, diet
cures, and other institutions. The new management of the sanitarium
was early impressed \vith the need of an establishment where patients
could have the advantages of all the natural methods of cure — scientifie
feeding, massage, applications of electricity, baths and other like meas-
ures. The idea was to add to the advantages of the ordinary hospital
all the recently developed resources of physiological medicine and to
make provision for the practical application of the discoveries of Voit,
Pettenkofer and others in diet and scentific nutrition.

Change op Name

In view of this larger conception of a sanitarium and its work, the
name W(sf( ni IlialUi Reform Institnte was felt to be inadequate, and
so the word '"sanitarium" was coined to meet the case by modifying the
word ' ' sanatorium, ' ' which was then defined by Webster 's dictionary as
"in England a health resort for invalid soldiers." This was the first use
of the word "sanitarium."

The unique character of the sanitarium came to the recognized by
physicians in every part of the world, and the institution rapidly
acquired a reputation for the diversity, thoroughness and scientific accu-
racy of its treatments. The result was that the sanitarium soon con-
tained patients from every state in the Union — extremely difScult cases,
many of them, sent by physicians who wished them to benefit by certain
kinds of treatment whose administration the institution had carried to
approximate perfection, or of a combination of treatments. Thus as early
as 1877 a report showed the treatment of 493 patients without a single
death.

In 1884 the need of more room had become urgent, so urgent, indeed,
that the new gymnasium recently erected, forty-five by eighty-five feet in



IlISTOKY OF CALIIOrX COl'XTY ;!71

size, was pressed into service as a diuini; room: the diuiii-;' nidiii in ilie
older structure. \)vmg iiuule(|iia1e for the iiiei'eased patronage, was con-
verted into offices and laboratories. A six-story addition was accoi'dinjrl.v
erected at the south end of the main building, devoted, the first floor to
a beautiful dining room that accommodated tive hundred guests, and the
remaining floors to patients" rooms.

First S.vnitarium Building.s

Including this new addition the sanitarium now measured lour hun-
dred and seventy-flve feet, including a rear extension of one hundred
feet that had been built, with a width of from forty to fifty-four feet.
The south extension practically doubled the capacity of the building, but
it was not long before the need of more room was again felt.



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In 1888, accordingly, a hospital building, five stories high, was erected
just north of the main structure, across what was known a.s Barbour
street. Here were aceominodated charity patients, of which the sani-
tarium has always cared for a large number, together with a surgical ward
and operating room.

So rapid was the growth of the sanitarium patronage, however, that
even these extensions did not afford sufifieient capacity, and in 18f)0 there
was added to the north end of the main building a six-stor>' addition,
uniform in general style with the south addition built in 1884. The main
building at the same time was raised one story, giving the sanitarium
a total capacity of five hundred patients.



372 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY

Room still remained at a premium, however, and a large number of
rooms continued to be hired in neighborhood houses, although the insti-
tution had purchased and erected a considerable number of cottages,
while during the summer months several patients were accommodated in
a commodious villa built at Lake Goguac in 1867, and which still stands.

With the rapid growth in patronage the housing of the large army
of employees became a pressing problem. Thus far these had been roomed,
for the most part, in cottages, but in the year 1894 a large building, five
stories and basement, was erected on a site a hundred yards back of the
main building. This structure, which became known as East Hall, still
stands, but since the fire has been used for patients.

In the year 1897 a beautiful chapel was added to the gymnasium,
being connected with the latter by sliding partitions, the two being com-
bined for the holding of lectures and other meetings, affording a seating
capacity of a thousand persons.

Fire of 1902

In the early morniug of February 18. 1902, the main building and
hospital, together with the "annex," the original building, were com-
pletely destroyed by fire, the patients (about four hundred in number)
and helpers providentially escaping without loss of life. Homes in the
immediate vicinity of the sanitarium were very generously thrown open
for the reception of patients until permanent quarters could be arranged
for ; East Hall was hastily fitted up for the use of patients, as were also
South and West Halls, dormitories of the Battle Creek College, while
many of the rooms in the college building itself were made over for guest
rooms. lu this way, and by economizing in the accommodations afforded
by the numerous cottages, the patients were soon comfortably housed.
Treatment rooms were fitted up in East Hall and in the college building,
and dining facilities in East Hall, so that, save for the slight inconve-
nience to the guests iu getting to their treatments and meals, sanitarium
life proceeded very much as before.

New ilAiN Structure

The management turned its attention without delay to the construc-
tion of a new building; on the lltli of May following, the Corner stone
was laid amid impressive ceremonies, and a j'ear later, on May 31, 1903,
the new main building was dedicated. Invitations were sent out by state
officials, and Governor Bliss, though unable at the last moment to be
present, sent a representative in the person of his private secretary,
Major H. E. Johnson. President Roosevelt, Attorney-General KJiox and
Secretary Root sent messages of cougratulaton, and regretted that they
were unable to be present. Governors Toole, of Montana, Cummins, of
Iowa, Durbin, of Indiana, Smith, of Maryland, Pennypacker, of Pennsyl-
vania, Bates, of Massachusetts, White, of Dakota, Dockery, of Missouri,
and Mickey, of Nebraska, also acknowledged their personal interest in the
occasion in appropriate terms. And Hon. Perry F. Powers, who presided



374 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY

over the exei'cises, remarked in his opening address: "There has come
into our national and individual lives a realization of the fact that he
gains most for himself who gives out most, from whose life comes the
greatest benefits to those about him. We are celebrating today a gloriovis
victory, the dedication of an institution that will make life' better and
the term, 'a citizen of Michigan' a prouder title than ever." In a special
article to the press, in which he called public attention to the work of the
sanitarium, Mr. Powers pointed' out that "the Battle Creek Sanitarium
is not a state institution, so far as state control and state appropriations
are concerned. It adds nothing to the burden of state taxation, and
requires from no citizen payments of rates or taxes to provide for its
helpful existence ; but it is a worthy and most desirable state institution
from every other point of view. It has assisted in spreading the name
and fame of Michigan throughout the civilized sections of the globe; and
in far-off South Africa and Austi*alia and New Zealand, in all the great
commercial centers of Europe, and in the islands of the sea, iMichigan is
known, and the ac(|uaintance will be increased through the establishment
of institutions similar to the greater and older establishment at Battle
Creek. An important public purpose fulfilled by the Battle Creek
Sanitarium, and one which gives it especial value to Michigan and our
neighboring states, is the service it has rendered as a training-school for
physicians and nurses. Michigan is proud of its great university at
Ann Arlior, and the hundreds of thousands of dollars annually required
to meet the expenses of that great educational institution are* cheerfully
paid from the pockets of the people in order that its great work may be
continued and its pi-ogi-ess encouraged. Yet it can hardly be said that
less value has come to our state from an institution such as the Battle
Creek Sanitarium, which has sent out over one thousand nurses and
physicians (now more than 2,200), trained and equipped not only through
demonstrations of the laboratory and discussions in the class-room, but
by anxious days and nights of careful and conscientious service in the
practical battle against death and disease."

Professor M. V. O'Shea, of the University of Wisconsin, in the course
of an address, remarked, of the ideals for which the new institution
stands : ' ' This magnificent institution which we dedicate today is a grand
and glorious exponent of rational methods in therapeutics and hygiene.
It is the leader in the great movement to adopt natural methods in the
cure of disease and in the conduct of daily life. In its laboratories it is
striving ever to add to the sum of human knowledge regarding the way
in which the human body is constructed and the manner in which every
member thereof serves the whole most effe^ctively. And then it seeks to
discover what alterations occur in the work of any organ in cases of
disease; and finally it aims to discover by observation and experi-
mentation how members that have fallen out of tune, as it were, may
be brought back into harmony with other organs. This institution
has developed a great system of rational hygiene, and its influence
is spreading to every corner of the earth. Go where one may in
this or other lands and you mil find those who are loud in their praises
of Battle Creek, for it has taught them how to live so that they mav



HISTORY OF CALHOUN C'orXTY 375

not only have health and strength, but also that they may through
rational living feel in tune with the infinite. "

The new building is six stories high, five luuulred fifty feet long and
from fifty to sixty feet deep, built in a niodiiied Kenaissanee style. The
front elevation is marked by a beautiful series of six lonie pillars, super-
imposed upon massive arches and flanked by a series of arehes that extend
in either direction to the wings, forming beautiful loggias. The north
and south elevations of the building bear similar porticoes with four
columns each. At the rear of the sanitarium a semi-circular space con-
tains a palm garden, in which are to be found a beautiful rockery and a
splendid growth of tropical plants such as the banana, orange, palms, etc.
Radiating from the palm garden, like the spokes of a wheel, and con-
nected by a semi-circular corridor, are three wings which contain, that to
the right and left treatment i-ooms for ladies and for gentlemen, respec-
tively, and the center a large gymnasium.

Physicians' offices and a commodious parlor occupy the first floor of
the main building. The second, third, fourth and fifth floors are given
up to patients' rooms, the north half of the fifth floor being devoted to
surgical cases. The operating rooms are at the extreme north entl of the
sixth floor.

Courses and Means op Treatment

In the treatment rooms are to be found every facility and device
known to modern therapeutics for the cure of disease. Besides the large
number of treatments which have originated at the sanitai-ium, the great
medical centers of Europe have been frequently visited and the methods
in use in the great clinics and hospitals have been adapted to sanitarium
use wherever practicable, with the result that no institution in the world
is so fully equipped and able to treat so w'ide a variety of disorders as the
Battle Creek Sanitarium ; or, as a visitor from the old world, prominent
in social and business life of the great cities of the Continent, once said,:

"I have visited all the great scientific laboratories of Europe. I am
familiar with all the tabulated work that has been done in nearly all the
great hospitals of Europe, and I am surprised, I am amazed, I am almost
confounded, to find that in the Battle Creek Sanitarium laboratory, in
its analytical work, in its chemical M'ork, and in other work done by the
Battle Creek corps of physicians and chemists, they have far exceeded
anything that I have ever known in Europe. They are not only far ahead
as to things that they have actually discovered, but they have taken the
data which has been furnished them elsewhere, and they have carried
their application far beyond those of any other medical soientists in the
world. ' '

We may at this point summarize the various methods of cure as per-
fected at the sanitarium and employed at the present time, in pursuance
of the avowed purposes of the management : "To put into actual, effective
and systematic use. every practical method which modern medical sci-
ence has provided for the accurate determination of deviations from the
normal standard of health in structure or function, and for the estima-
tion of the amount of such variation, so far as possible expressing these



HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY



;]77



variations by means of co-efficients, so as to make exact comparison possi-
ble, to make available in most approved form every rational curative
means known to medical science, so that the same may be brought to
bear in any individual case, giving special prominence to physical
therapy, or so called physiologic therapeutics. ' '

Chief among the treatment is the system of hydrotherapeutic appli-
cations, of which there are more than two hundred, including among
others, the follo^\^ng: cold, cool, neutral, warm, hot, alternate, percus-
sion, and vapor douches; cold, cool, tonic, neutral and hot graduated
douchrs: hot, tepid, and cool luilf-hatlis; cool and tepid shallow baths;




Battle Creek Sanitarium in 1876



hot, cold, shallow, running Mini revulsive fiioi -baths ; Wiu-iii. hot, revul-
sive, and walking leg baths; general, trunk, hip. leg, chest, throat and al-
ternate packs; hot, tepid, cool alternate, saline and alcohol sponging;
oil, dry, alcohol, witch hazel, dry shampoo, wet mitten, towel, half sheet,
and salt ruJjs; fomentations; compresses; sinusoidal and galvanic clcc-
tro-hydric t)aths; air, hot air, Russian, and vapor baths.

Many of these water applications originated at the sanitarium, while
others were devised in Europe and were proved of worth by long yeai-s of
practice before being adopted at the sanitarium : Hot and cold water ac-
complish a wide variety of results, in single or in a large number of com-
plications — effects both stimulant and quieting, not only upon the skin.



378 IliSTORY OP CALHOUN COUNTY

with which the applications are brought into direct contact, but upon
every organ and function of the body. Wonderful effects are produced
by proper applications upon the heart and circulation, the absorption of
oxygen by the lungs, heat production and elimination, absorption of food-
stuffs, liver action, kidney activity, stomach and intestinal secretion and
movement and general vital resistance. By suitable applications, either
hot or cold, or hot and cold in alternation, reflex effects may be produced
which exert a powerful influence upon the circulation and in this way
excite or depress the activity of the heart, the brain and the spinal cord,
the stomach, the intestines, the bladder, the kidneys, or any organ the
work of which it may be desirable to influence.

Along with water, light has been found of immense value, both the
arc and the incandescent lights being applied in a large variety of ways
and in a large nundjer of diseases. Many of the light treatments were
devised at the sanitarium, notably the electric light bath, which is now
employed in all parts of the world.

The electric current is also used with success, the sanitarium being
the flrst institution to use what has become knowTi as the " sinusoidal "^
current, and the application of which, like the electric light bath, is found
not only in America but in Europe as well. Besides the sinusoidal cur-
rent the sanitarium employs in a large number of cases the galvanic,
faradic, static and high frequency currents.

Another instrument that has recently been brought from Europe
further employs the electric current as a means of applying heat to
any point of the interior of the body. The treatment is known as
"diathermy," or "thermo-penetration," and is especially effective in the
relief of pain.

A radium department has also been recently added, one of the most
complete radium departments in the world, by means of which radium
is applied in Battle Creek quite as effectively as in Joachimsthal and
other places in Europe.

The X-ray has proved of immense value not only in the treatment
of disease, but in diagnosis as well. One of the latest additions to the
sanitarium equipment is what is known as the X-ray cinematograph.
This instrument not only photographs the internal organs, but repro-
duces their movements on a moving-picture film. This is especially
valuable in the diagnosis of cases in which the action of the stomach and
alimentary canal is faulty, as it enables the physician to give these pro-
longed study and to discover the precise point of derangement.



Online LibraryWashington GardnerHistory of Calhoun county, Michigan : a narrative account of its historical progress, its people, and its principle interests (Volume 1) → online text (page 46 of 74)