Washington Gardner.

History of Calhoun county, Michigan : a narrative account of its historical progress, its people, and its principle interests (Volume 1) online

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The sanitarium contains extensive facilities for the application of
vibration, several vibratory treatments having been devised here, such
as the vibrating chair, vibrating bars, etc. Mechanical massage is also
much used, the treatment rooms containing several apparatus for ap-
plying rolling movements to the back, abdomen and other parts of the
body. Other ingenuous devices in the mechanic-therapy rooms are ma-
chines which reproduce with great accuracy the movements of horse-back
and camel riding. Th« gymnasium and the facilities which it affords for
exercise are described elsewhere.

The sanitarium has gained a world-wide reputation for the perfection



380 HISTORY OP CALHOUN COUNTY

of its dietary system, based upon the fact that the poisons which the
system absorbs and which, entering the circulation, are carried to every
part of the body and cripple the functions of the liver and other vital
organs, are for the most part derived from the putrefaction of protein,
or nitrogenous substances, in the alimentary canal; inasmuch as meats
are rich in protein, flesh foods of all kinds are eliminated, and their
place taken bj' various foods which have been devised at the sanitarium.

The elaborate method of examination employed at the sanitarium
makes it possible to prescribe for any patient the amount of food Mhich
he should eat and the proportion of the various food elements which
his food should contain. An important feature of the sanitarium menu,
therefore, is the statement beside each dish of the number of units of
the food elements which the dish contains, whether it be proteins, fats
or carbohydrates. This enables the patient so to order his meals that he
shall eat precisel.y the amount of food his examination indicates, and also
to approximate very closely the proper proportion of the various food
elements. The figures in the case of each food are based upon experi-
ments made by the Federal Department of Agriculture and by the sanita-
rium laboratories.

The sanitarium equipment contains'one of the best appointed surgical
wards in tlie United States. Every precaution possible is taken to elimi-
nate germs and to make every detail connected with the operation aseptic.
A large number of operations are performed each week, many of them
of an extremely critical nature, but with a very high avei-age of success.

A special ward is maintained for obstetrical work, in which the same
care is taken to prevent infection of any kind and to eliminate every
possible source of danger.

The system of examinations which makes the accurate application of
this number of treatments possible is unequalled in its completeness, giv-
ing a complete inventoiy of the patient's vital assets: the patient gives
his attending physician not only a complete history of his case, but in
addition his blood is tested for pressure, rate, visco.sity and hemoglobin;
every means is employed to ascertain the condition of the heart, kidneys,
liver and other ^^tal organs; the gastric juice is analyzed and careful
note taken of the extent to which the various digestive ferments are
present ; by means of an ingenius device, known as the dynamometer,
careful measurement is made of the strength of the several sets of muscles
in the entire body, and the records compared from time to time to as-
certain wlii'ther the liody strength is gaining or decreasing, while com-
pletely eiiuipped dental, nose and throat departments examine patients
when necessary and give thorough treatments.

A University of Health

The ideal that the sanitarium management has kept before it from
the first has been an educational ideal. A prominent part of the daily
program are the lectures on various subjects relating to health, hygiene,
sanitation, etc., so that the patient who makes the most of his opportuni-
ties is able when he returns home to continue many of the curative meas-



HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY



381



ures that benefitted him at the sanitarium. Doctor Kellogg "s Monday
night question-box lecture has been one of the most popular features of
the sanitarium program for many years ; at this lecture Doctor Kellogg
opens a box to which patients during the week have contributed ([ucs-
tions on various subjects relating to health and hygiene, and answers
them. On Thursday night Doctor Kellogg again lectures, taking for
his subject a question of current interest and illustrating his remarks
by the use of stereopticon, moving pictures and charts made especially
for the occasion. On Wednesday night some member of the sanitarium
medical staff, delivers a lecture relating to a certain phase of hygiene.
Several evenings of each week are occu])ied by concerts, and by lectures




B.\TTLE Creek Sanitarium ix ISfiH



and addrt'sse-s by iiotetl guests at the siiniliirium, jjeople wlio h.ive won
distinction in various lines of human activity; these gladly place them-
selves at the disposal of the other guests aud give addresses that are not
only entertaining but inspiring and instructive.

Among the pei-sons of international fame who often visit the sani-
tarium, aud whose addresses never fail to draw lai-ge sanitarium audi-
ences, are Sir Horace Plunkett, the leading spirit of the Irish back-to-
the-land movement, Irving Fisher, Ph. D., Professor of Political Econ-
omy at Yale, Mr. Horace Fletcher, Mr. S. S. McClure, Editor of Mc-
Clure's ilagaziue, Mr. Gilford Piuehot, former head of the federal
Forestry Bureau.

A school of health is held at five o'clock in the afternoon at which
lectures are given by the sanitarium dietitian and other experts on the



382 HISTORY OF CALIIOILN COUNTY

subject of nutrition. These lectures attempt to give expert iustniction
ui the science of food so that the principles underlying the sanitarium
system of dietetics may be applied in an ordinary kitchen and in various
lines of health culture.

The gynniasium is open at all hours, and several classes in gym-
nastics and physical culture are daily conducted by experts in this line
of work. Here the patient is taught to sit, walk and stand correctly,
with the chest held high, the chin drawn in, the lips held back, and the
abdominal muscles tense. In this position he takes various exercises
with the arms, limbs and trunk, until the muscles of the back are so
strengthened, that they are al)le to hold the body in correct jiosition.




Outdoor Swimming Tourn.ument

For those in whom the muscles are so weak that the desired result can
not be accomplished by gymnastic exercises, manual Swedish move-
ments and the sinusoidal electrical current are called upon to accom-
plish the first stages of the cure. Nothing is left uncertain, and no pre-
scription for exercise is made until the patient's strength has been
thoroughly tested and a strength graphic has been prepared. With the
chart before him, the physical director gives work suited to each case.
The exercises taken in general classes are of such a character as to be
suited to nearly all cases.

Individual work is given, that is depended upon chiefly for cor-
rective development. They are special exercise classes for feeble pa-
tients, and the very feeblest convalescents of the surgical ward are



HISTORY OF OALIIOrX COrXTY 383

visited several times daily and directed iu taking various deep-breatliing
movements, which are especially adapted to their individual eases. The
gymnasium work of the day is concluded at (5 :45 by a drill and grand
march, in which several hundred patients take part.

Swimming also occupies an important part of the educational work
of the Sanitarium. In addition to the indoor gymnasium there are two
enormous outdoor gymnasiums, one for ladies and one for men. These
contain each a fine swimming-pool, while nearby are iieaps of clean white
sand, where one may lounge in the sun ; horizontal I)ars, ladders, swing-
ing rings, a running track and various appliances for gymnastic games;
in one corner is an old-fashioned woodyard with logs, crosscut saws,
sawbucks, wood-saws and sharp axes. Besides the two swimming pools
in the outdoor gymnasiums, each of the two bathrooms contains a capa-
cious pool, thus giving unlimited facilities for water exercises. For
those who can not swim, competent instructors are afforded.

The educational feature of the sanitarium work does not end here.
From the very first, owing to the wide range of the curative methods
employed, need was felt for especially trained physicians and nurses.
This was necessarily true in view of the fact that many of the treat-
ments originated at the sanitarium and so could not be included in the
work of the ordinary medical school, while on the other hand many of
the methods were brought from Europe, and outside of the sanitarium
were unknown in this countrj'. Accordingly schools in nursing and
medicine were organized.

Tr.\.ining School for Nurses

First came the Battle Creek Sanitarium and Hospital Training
School for Nurses, organized in 1883. This school is not only one of the
oldest, but also one of the largest and most thoroughly equipped of any
similar institution in the United States. The school has a faculty of
thirty teachers, and a curriculum that covers not only all the ground
ordinarily required, but, in addition, the subjects of hydrotherapy, elec-
trotherapy, medical dietetics, and other features peculiar to the sanita-
rium system. Training is carried forward during the entire year, so
that the amount of actual in.struction received by the students of this
school is more than double that given in most other training-schools.
The school gives a post-graduate course of six mouths' instruction in
physiologic methods, while there is a two years' course in nursing for
men, the diploma entitling the possessor to registration as a trained
nurse. ;More than one thousand young men and women have received
their training in this school.

Americ.\n Medical Mission.\ry College

A few years later came the organization of the American ^Medical
Missionary College, incorporated July 3, 1893, under the laws of the
State of Illinois. The organization of this college was an expression of
the religious ideals which have characterized the sanitarium work from
the first, and had for its purpose the attempt to meet the increasing



384 HISTOKY OP CALHOUN COUNTY

demand for medical missionaries. Experience had proved that the
highest type of medical training demands a broad education, that can
not, in the very nature of the ease, be given in the ordinary college.
It often happens too, that in many cases young men and women were
anxious to devote their lives to medical missionary work, but lacked the
necessary means for carrying out their ideals. Ample provision was
made whereby cases of tliis kind could sustain themselves throughout
the course. Part of the college work was done at the College Dispens-
ary in Chicago, and an able faculty and every facility were maintained
for acquiring clinical and practical experiences, the dispensary being
located in the stockyards district, wliere hospital assistance is in much
demand.

The work of the college was of the very highest character. Battle
Creek graduates have received honors in post-graduate work in many
of the foremost American and European universities, and today much
of this talent may be found in every part of the world, many graduates
being at the head of sanitariums and hospitals, based upon the principles
and ideals of the Battle Creek Sanitarium.

Owing to the extremely rapid growth of the sanitarium itself, how-
ever, and the rapid development of several new branches of natural ther-
apeutics, it seemed necessary to concentrate the energies of the institu-
tion upon strictly curative work, and accordingly in the year, 1908, the
college was merged with the University of Illinois.

School of Home Economics

The necessity for training a large number of cooks, dietitians, and
expert hygienic housekeepers for the work of the sanitarium, and to
meet the calls, which are constantly being made for dietitians especially
trained in the sanitarium methods, led the management to establish the
Battle Creek Sanitarium School of Health and Household Economics
This school presents in its curriculum all the branches usually taught
in the best schools of domestic and household science, besides giving at-
tention to the dietetic features which have rendered the sanitarium fam-
ous throughout the world in the treatment of digestive and other dis-
orders. The school offers a comprehensive one-year's course for matrons
and housekeepers of institutions; and a two years' course for dietitians
and in addition to these courses the Sanitarium conducts a cooking-school
for the beneiit of the sanitarium nurses and cooks. These schools are all
the outgi'owth of a practical cooking school and "experimental kitchen,"
organized by Mrs. J. H. Kellogg, in the year 1883, upon the researches
and findings of which the diet system of the Battle Creek Sanitarium
is largely based.

The Noemal School op Physical Education

The sanitarium has unrivalled facilities for the scientific study of
exercises and physical culture, and a Normal School of Physical Educa-
tion was organized to make these facilities available to students desiring
to carry out a definite course of instruction. The school gives a two-year



IIISTOKY OF CALIIOrX t'OrXTY 385

course, and its curriculum not only includes every phase of physical
education and related sciences, but embraces as well a large group of
cultural subjects. The faculty represents the best talent obtainable, and
its splendid opportunities for practical gymnasium work makes it one
of the most thorough and best equipped schools of this kind in the
country.

Post Gr.\duate Courses

Besides the schools wliich have been enumerated, a number of post-
graduate courses are offered. Graduate nui-ses receive post-graduate
instruction in hydrotherapy, electrotherapy and other branches of physio-
therapy. A second post-graduate course is offered graduates in domestic
science, or home economics. This course gives special attention to di-
etetics, a subject which has been carried farther in its development in
this institution tlian in any other place. The course includes an oppor-
tunity for actual practical experience as assistants to the regidar dieti-
tians who are daily required to arrange hundreds of balanced bills of
fare or diet prescriptions.

The Health and Efficiency League, Chautauqua Courses, Etc.

Other featiu-es of the sanitarium educational campaign are the
Healtteand Efficiency League, and correspondence courses in health and
hygiene. This campaign is not confined to Chautauqua platforms,
but includes as well the organization of health clubs and health schools
by sanitarium experts. The Health and Efficiency League, organized
at Chautauqua, New York, includes among its vice-presidents and mem-
bers of its central committees, a considerable number of men and women
who are well known on both sides of the Atlantic, among others Judge
Ben Lindsey, Mrs. Mary F. Henderson, of Washington, Dr. J. N. Hurty,
Secretary of the State Board of Health of Indiana, -Commandant Ni-
black, of the United States Navy, Ex-Governor Van Sant of Minnesota,
Gifford Pinchot, Horace Plunket, and others of equal prominence. The
correspondence course embraces a series of prepared courses on food
and diet, health exercises, home nursing and other topics of hygiene,
home economics, etc., supplemented by suggestions and questions for home
study. In addition to securing individual students, an organized effort
is made to form health clubs in every community, the members of whicli
are to study in groups, and listen to lectures, demonstrations, etc., afforded
by the department.

Even the press has l)een brought into service in behalf of the sanita-
rium educational work, and books, tracts, pamphlets and periodicals,
representing the principles upheld by the sanitarium, are mailed to
every part of the world. x\.mong the periodicals are (innd Ilealtli, the
Medical Mis.sionarij. and the Baffle Creek Idea, (lexid Health, recognized
everywhere as the leading health journal in the woi'ld. is issued every
month, and is the oldest health magazine in the world. It was, as we
have learned, the first product of the Battle Creek health movement,
being established several months before the sanitarium itself, and called
the Healfh licformer. Dr. J. II. Kellogg, the superintendent of the



386



HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY



sanitarium, has been its editor for more tlian thirty-nine years. It is an
attractively written and practical monthly, and has a large popular
circulation. The Medical Missionary is a monthly, devoted particularly
to the spread of the medical missionary movement backed by the sani-
tarium. It is the organ of the Medical Missionary Conference, held at
the sanitarium in Januai-y of each year. The Battle Creek Idea is a
bi-monthly health newspaper, the news organ of the Battle Creek Sani-
tarium and its allied interests. It is intended particularly for past and
present patients of the sanitarium, and all who wish to keep informed of
the progress of the work of the institution.

A Purely Philanthropic Institution

The sanitarium is, by virtue of its constitution and the large number
of charities which it conducts, a purely philanthropic institution. Benev-




A CoRNEK IN One op the Greenhouses



oleut work has, indeed, been kept to the front from the very first year
of its organization. A reorganization in 1898 incorporated the institu-
tion as a philanthropic and charitable institution under the provisions
of Act No. 242, of the Public Acts of the State of Michigan. In ac-
cordance with the law, and its recognized character as a charity, the
sanitarium is exempt from taxation. In a test case brought before the
supreme court of the state of Michigan for the purpose of determining
the status of the sanitarium and whether it should be required to pay
taxes, the decision of the court was in favor of .the institution. A still
stronger test came immediately after the fire of 1902, when a committee
of Battle Creek citizens investigated the books of the sanitarium to de-



lllSTOin' OF CALllorX COINTY 387

Irniiine whctli.T its \V(irk was a surii



Online LibraryWashington GardnerHistory of Calhoun county, Michigan : a narrative account of its historical progress, its people, and its principle interests (Volume 1) → online text (page 47 of 74)