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LIFE



OF



GEORGE WASHINGTON




Original in Possession of O.WFTustis.Es




LIFE



OF



GEORGE WASHINGTON



BY

WASHINGTON IE YIN G



IN FIVE VOLS.

VOL. II.

NEW YORK: G. P. PUTNAM

1860.



Entered according; to Act of Congress, in the year 1S55.

EY 01 Pi PUTNAM &! CO.,

in tho Cl eric s Office of tLe District Court of tha LTiiited States for the Southern
District of New York.



JOHN F. TROW,
Printer, Stereotyper, and Electrotyper,

46, 48 & 50 Greene Street,
Between Grand A Broome, New York.



CONTENTS OF VOL. II.



CHAPTER I.

PAGB

Washington takes command of the Armies Sketch of General Lee Characters of the
British Commanders, Howe, Clint6n, and Burgoyne Survey of the Camps from
Prospect Hill The Camps contrasted Description of the Revolutionary Army-
Rhode Island Troops Character of General. Greene Washington represents the
Deficiencies of the Army His Apology for the Massachusetts Troops Governor
Trumbull Cragie House, Washington s Head-Quarters. 1



Questions of Military Rank Popularity of Putnam Arrangements at Head-Quarters
Colonel Mifflin and John Trumbull, Aides-de Camp Joseph Reed, Washington s
Secretary and confidential friend Gates as Adjutant-General Hazardous Situation
of the Army Strengthening of the Defences Efficiency of Putnam Rapid Changes
New Distribution of the Forces Rigid Discipline Lee and his cane His Idea
as to Strong Battalions Arrival of Rifle Companies Daniel Morgan and his Sharp
Shooters Washington declines to detach Troops to distant points for their Protec
tion His Reasons for so doing



CHAPTER III.

Washington s Object in distressing Boston Scarcity and Sickness in the Town A
Startling Discovery Scarcity of Powder in the Camp Its Perilous Situation-
Economy of Ammunition Correspondence between Lee and Burgoyne Corres
pondence between Washington and Gage The Dignity of the Patriot Army
asserted 22



CHAPTER IV.

Dangers in the Interior Machinations of the Johnson Family Rivalry of Ethan
Allen and Benedict Arnold Government Perplexities about tho Ticonderoga Cap
tureMeasures to secure the Prize Allen and Arnold ambitious of further Laurels



264397



Yl CONTENTS.



PAGE

Projects for the Invasion of Canada Ethan Allen and Soth "Warner honored by
Congress Arnold displaced by a Committee of Inquiry His Indignation News
from Canada The Eevolution to be extended into that Province Enlistment of
Green Mountain Boys Schuyler at Ticonderoga State of Affairs there Election
for Officers of the Green Mountain Boys Ethan Allen dismounted Joins the
Army as a Volunteer Preparations for the Invasion of Canada General Mont
gomeryIndian Chiefs at Cambridge Council Fire Plan for an Expedition
against Quebec Departure of Troops from Ticonderoga Arrival at Isle aux Noix, 32



CHAPTER V.

A Challenge declined A Blow meditated A cautious Council of War Preparations
for the Quebec Expedition Benedict Arnold the Leader Advice and Instructions
Departure General Schuyler on the Sorel Reconnoitres St. Johns Camp at
Isle aux Noix Illness of Schuyler Returns to Ticonderoga Expedition of Mont
gomery against St. Johns Letter of Ethan Allen His Dash against Montreal Its
Catastrophe A Hero in Irons Correspondence of Washington with Schuyler and
Arnold His Anxiety about them - m 49



CHAPTER VI.

British in Boston send out Cruisers Depredations of Captain Wallace along the Coast
Treason in the Camp Arrest of Dr. Church His Trial and Fate Conflagration
of Falmouth Irritation throughout the Country Fitting out of Vessels of War
Embarkation of General Gage for England Committee from Congress Conferences
with Washington Resolutions of Congress to carry on the War Return of Secre
tary Reed to Philadelphia 67



CHAPTER VII.

Measures of General Howe Desecration of Churches Three Proclamations Seizure
of Tories W T ant of Artillery Henry Knox, the Artillerist His Mission to Ticon
deroga Re-enlistment of Troops Lack of Public Spirit Comments of General
Greene



CHAPTER VIII.

Affairs in Canada Capture of Fort Chamblee Siege of St. Johns Maclean and his
Highlanders Montgomery on the Treatment of Ethan Allen Repulse of Carleton
Capitulation of the Garrison of St. Johns Generous Conduct of Montgomery-
Maclean re-embarks for Quebec Weary Struggle of Arnold through the Wilderness
Defection of Colonel Enos Arnold in the Valley of the Chaudiere His Arrival
opposite Quebec Surrender of Montreal Escape of Carleton Home sickness of
the American. Troops.



CONTENTS. Vll

CHAPTER IX.

PACK

Wellington s anticipations of Success at Quebec His Eulogium of Arnold Schuyler
and Montgomery talk of resigning Expostulations of Washington Their Etl ect
Schuy ler s Conduct to a Captive Foe 05

CHAPTER X.

Difficulties in filling up the Army The Connecticut Troops persist in going Home
Their reception there Timely Arrival of Spoils in the Camp Putnam and the
Prize Mortar A Maraud by Americans Rebuked by Washington Correspond
ence of Washington with General Howe about the treatment of Ethan Allen-
Fraternal zeal of Levi Allen Treatment of General Prescott Preparations to Bom
bard Boston Battery at Lechmeru s Point -Prayer of Putnam for Powder. . .-. . . 100

CHAPTER XL

Mount Yernon in Danger Mrs. Washington invited to the Camp Lund Washington,
the General s Agent Terms on which he serves Instructed to keep up the Hos
pitality of the House Journey of Mrs. Washington to Camp Her Equipage and
Liveries Arrival at Camp Domestic Affairs at Head- Quarters Gay eties in Camp
A Brawl between Round- Jackets and Rifle-Shirts 110

CHAPTER XII.

Affairs in Canada Arnold at Point Lcvi- Quebec reinforced Crossing of the St. Law
renceLanding in Wolfe s Cove Arnold on the Heights of Abraham Cautious
Counsel Quebec aroused The Invaders baffled Withdraw to Point aux Trembles
Booming of Cannon Carleton at Quebec Letter of Washington to Arnold 118

CHAPTER XIII.

Lord Dunmore His Plans of harassing Virginia Lee s Policy respecting Tory Gover
nors and Placemen Rhode Island harassed by Wallace and his Cruisers, and in
fested by Tories Lee sent to its Relief His Vigorous Measures The Army dis
bandingWashington s Perplexities Sympathy of General Greene His Loyalty
in time of Trouble The Crisis Cheering News from Canada Gloomy Opening of
the New Year News from Colonel Knox 124



CHAPTER XIV.

Military Preparations in Boston A Secret Expedition Its Object Lee s Plan for the
Security of New York Opinion of Adams on the Subject Instructions to Lee
Transactors of Lee in Connecticut Lee s Policy in regard to the Tories Uneasi
ness in New York Letter of the Committee of Safety to Lee His Reply His
Opinion of the People of Connecticut Of the Hysterical Letter from the New York
Congress



yiii CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XV.

PAGE

Montgomery before Quebec His Plan of Operations A Summons to Surrender A
Flag Insulted The Town Besieged Plan of an Escalade Attack of the Lower
Town Montgomery in the Advance His Death Ketreat of Colonel Campbell-
Attack by Arnold Defence of the Lower Town Arnold wounded Retreat of the
Americans Gallant Eesolve of Arnold 141

CHAPTER XVI.

Correspondence of Washington and Schuyler on the disasters in Canada Reinforce
ments required from New England Dangers in the Interior of New York John
son Hall Beleaguered Sir John Capitulates Generous Conduct of Schuyler Gov
ernor Tryon and the Tories Tory Machinations Lee at New York Sir Henry
Clinton in the Harbor Menaces of Lee The City and River fortified Lee s Treat
ment of the Tories His Plans of Fortification Ordered to the Command in Canada
His Speculations on Titles of Dignity 153

CHAPTER XVII.

Monotonous State of Affairs before Boston Washington anxious for Action Exploit
of Putnam Its Dramatic Consequences The Farce of the Blockade of Boston
An Alarming Interruption Distresses of the Besieged Washington s Irksome
Predicament His Bold Proposition Demur of the Council of War Arrival of
Knox with Artillery Dorchester Heights to be seized and fortified Preparations
for the Attempt 16*

CHAPTER XVIII.

The affair of Dorchester Heights American and English Letters respecting it A Labo
rious Night Revelations at Daybreak Howe in a Perplexity A Night Attack
meditated Stormy Weather The Town to be evacuated Negotiations and Ar
rangements Preparations to Embark Excesses of the Troops Boston Evacuated
Speech of the Duke of Manchester on the subject A Medal voted by Congress.. 171

CHAPTER XIX.

Destination of the Fleet Commission of the two Howes Character of Lord Howe
The Colonies divided into Departments Lee assigned to the Southern Department
General Thomas to Canada Character of Lee, by Washington Letters of Lee
from the South A Dog in a Dancing School Committee of Safety in Virginia-
Lee s Grenadiers Putnam in Command at New York State of Affairs there
Arrival of Washington New Arrangements Perplexities with respect to Canada
England subsidizes Hessian Troops 186

CHAPTER XX.

Arnold blockades Quebec His Difficulties Arrival of General Wooster Of General
Thomas Abortive Attempt on Quebec Preparations for Retreat Sortie of Carle-



CONTENTS. IX



PAGE

ton Retreat of the Americans Halt at Point Deschambeault Alarm in the Colo
nies at the Retreat of the Army Popular Clamor against Schuyler Slanders
refuted -. 198



CHAPTER XXI.

Gates sent to Philadelphia with the Canada Despatches Promoted to the rank of
Major-General Washington Summoned to Philadelphia Putnam loft in Com
mand Conference with Congress Army Arrangements A Board of War insti
tuted The Clintons of New York Mrs. Washington Inoculated Eeed made Ad
jutant-General 200



CHAPTER XXII.

Affairs in Canada Disaster at the Cedars Hostile Designs of the Johnsons A Bloody
Summer expected Forts in the Highlands Colonel James Clinton in Command
Fortifications at King s Bridge and on Long Island 212



CHAPTER XXIII.

Eetreat of General Thomas His Death General Sullivan in Command Scene on tie
Sorcl Sanguine Expectations of Sullivan Washington s Opinion of Sullivan s
Character Gates appointed to the Command in Canada Reinforcements of the
Enemy Reverses Thompson Captured Retreat of Sullivan Close of the Inva
sion of Canada. . . . . 220



CHAPTER XXIV.

Designs of the Enemy against New York and the Hudson Plot of Tryon and the
Tories Arrival of a Fleet Alarm Posts Treachery up the Hudson Fresh Arri
valsGeneral Howe at Staten Island Washington s Preparations. 228



CHAPTER XXV.

First Appearance of Alexander Hamilton His luirly Days General Hugh Mercer in
command of the Flying Camp Declaration of Independence Announced to the
Army Downfall of the King s Statue 237



CHAPTER XXVI.

Arrivnl of more Ships Movements of the Phoenix and the- Rose Panic in the City
Hostile Ships up the Hudson Stir of War along the River General George Clin
ton, and the Militia of Ulster County Fresh Agitation of New York Arrival of
Lord Howe... .. 244



X CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XXVII.

PAGE

Precautions against Tories Secret Committees Declaration of Lord Howe His Let
ter to the Colonial Governors His Letter to Washington rejected Interview be
tween the British Ailjutant-General and Colonel Reed Keception of the Adjutant-
General by AVashinston The Phoenix and Rose in the Tappan Sea, and Haver-
straw Bay Arming of the Eiver Yeomanry George Clinton at the Gates of the
Highlands 250

CHAPTER XXVIII.

Question of Command between Gates and Schuyler Condition of the Army at Crown
Point Discontent and Departure of Sullivan Fortifications at Ticonderoga The
Question of Command adjusted Secret Discontents Sectional Jealousies in the
Army Southern Troops Smallwood s Macaroni Battalion Connecticut Light-
Horse 260

CHAPTER XXIX.

Southern Cruise of Sir Henry Clinton Fortifications at Charleston Arrival there of
General Lee Battle at Sullivan s Island Washington Announces the result to the
Army 272

CHAPTER XXX.

Putnam s Military Projects Chevaux-de-frise at Fort Washington Meditated Attack
on Staten Island Arrival of Ships Hessian Reinforcements Scotch Highlanders
Sir Henry Clinton and Lord Cornwallis Putnam s Obstructions of the Hudson
The Phcenix and Eose Attacked by Row Galleys at Tarrytown General Order
of Washington on the subject of Sectional Jealousies Profane Swearing prohibited
in the Camp Preparations against Attack Levies of Yeomanry George Clinton
in Command of the Levies along the Hudson Alarms of the People of New York
Benevolent Sympathy of Washington The Phoenix Grappled by a Fire-Ship
The Ships Evacuate the Hudson - - 279

CHAPTER XXXI.
The Battle of Long Island 291

CHAPTER XXXII.
The Retreat from Long Island 81

CHAPTER XXXIII.

Long Island in Possession of the Enemy Distressed Situation of the American Army
at New York Question of Abandoning the City Letters from either Camp-
Enemy s Ships in the Sound Removal of Women and Children from the City-
Yearning for Home among the Militia Tolerant Ideas of Washington and Greene
Fort Constitution Conference of Lord Howe with a Committee from Congress. 313



CONTENTS. XI

CHAPTER XXXIV.

PAGE

Movements of the Enemy Councils of War Question of the Abandonment of the City
Distribution of the Army Ships in the East River The Enemy at Ilell Gate-
Skirmish at Turtle Bay Panic of the Connecticut Militia Eage and Personal Peril
of Washington Putnam s Perilous Eetreat from the City British Eegale at
Murray Hill 323

CHAPTER XXXV.

Fortified Camp at King s Bridge American and British Lines The Morris House-
Alexander Hamilton The Enemy Advance Successful Skirmish Death of
Knowlton Great Fire in New York Eeorganization of the Army Exchange of
Prisoners Daniel Morgan Eegaincd Do Lanccy s Tory Brigade Eobert Eogers,
the Partisan His Eangers The Roebuck, Phoenix, and Tartar in the Hudson-
Military Movements by Land and Water Letter of John Jay 337

CHAPTER XXXVI.

Lee expected in Camp His Letter of Advice to the President of Congress The Enemy
at Throg s Neck Washington s Arrangements Rides to Throg s Neck The
Enemy brought to a Stand Military Movements Arrival of Lee A Command
assigned to Him Criticises the Conduct of Congress and the Army Council of
War The Army to move to the Mainland Fort Washington to be kept up. 354

CHAPTER XXXVII.

Army Arrangements Washington at White Plains The Enemy at Throg s Point
Skirmish of Colonel Glover Attempt to Surprise Rogers, the Renegade Troopers
in a rough country Alarms at White Plains Cannonading of Ships at Fort Wash
ington March of Lee Fortified Camp at White Plains Reconnoitring The Affair
at Chatterton Hill Relative Situation of the Armies Change of Position Contrast
of the Appearance of the Troops George Clinton s Idea of Strategy Movement of
the British Army Incendiaries at W T hite Plains 302

CHAPTER XXXVIII.

Conjectures as to the Intentions of the Enemy Consequent Precautions Correspond
ence with Greene respecting Fort Washington Distribution of the Army Lee left
in Command at Northcastle Instructions to Him Washington at Peekskill
Visits to the Posts in the Highlands 3T6

CHAPTER XXXIX.

Affairs on Lake Champlain Gates at Ticonderoga Arnold s Flotilla Military Pre
parations of Sir Guy Carleton at St. John s Nautical Encounters Gallant Conduct
of Arnold and Waterbury Carleton in Possession of Crown Point His return to
Canada and Winter Quarters 3S4

CHAPTER XL.

Washington Crosses the Hudson Arrives at Fort Lee Afl airs at Fort Washington
Question about its Abandonment Movements of Howe The Fort summoned to
Surrender Refusal of Colonel McGaw The Fort Attacked Capture of the Fort
and Garrison Comments of Washington on the State of Affairs 392



x ii CONTENTS.

CHAPTEE XLI.

PAUB

The Enemy Cross the Hudson Eetrcat of the Garrison from Fort Lee The Crossing
of the Hackensack Lee Ordered to Move to the West side of the Eiver Eeed a
Letter to Him Second Move of the Army Beyond the Passaic Assistance sought
from various quarters Correspondence and Schemes of Lee Heath stanch to his
Instructions- Anxiety of George Clinton for the Safety of the Hudson Critical
Situation of the Army Disparaging Correspondence between Lee and Eeed
Washington Eetreats across the Earitan Arrives at Trenton Eemoves his Bag
gage across the Delaware Dismay and Despondency of the Country Proclama
tion of Lord Howe Exultation of the Enemy Washington s Eesolve in case of
Extremity 403

CHAPTEE XLII.

Lee at Peekskill Stanch Adherence of Heath to Orders Lee Crosses the Hudson-
Washington at Trenton Lee at the heels of tho Enemy His Speculations on
Military Greatness Forced March of Cornwallis Washington Crosses the Dela
warePutnam in Command at Philadelphia Baffling Letters of Lee Hopes to
Eeconquer the Jerseys Gates on the March Lee Quartered at Baskingridge
Surprised and Captured Speculations on his Conduct - 422

CIIAPTEE XLIII.

Washington Clothed with Additional Powers Recruitment of the Army Increased
p a y_Colonel John Cadwalader Arrival of Sullivan Gates Wilkinson A Coup
de Main Meditated Posture of Affairs at Trenton Gates Declines to take a Part

Uis Comments on Washington s Plans Preparations for the Coup de Main

Crossing of the Delaware Attack on the Enemy s Forces at Trenton Death of
Eahl His Character. 433

CHAPTER XLIV.

Treatment of the Hessian Prisoners Their Interviews with Washington Their Recep
tion by the People 4M

CHAPTER XLY.

Episode Colonel Griffin in the Jerseys Donop Decoyed Inroad of Cadwalader and
Reed Retreat and Confusion of the Enemy s Outposts Washington Eecrosses the
Delaware with his Troops The Game Reversed The Hessians Hunted back
through the Country Washington made Military Dictator 403

CHAPTEE XLYI.

Howe hears of the Affair at Trenton Cornwallis sent back to the Jerseys Recon
noitring Expedition of Eeed His Exploits Washington in Peril at Trenton Re
inforced by Troops under Cadwalader and Mifflin Position of his Men Corn
wallis at Trenton Repulsed at the Assunpink The American Camp Menaced
Night March of Washington Affair at Princeton Death of Mercer Rout of
British Troops Pursued by Washington Cornwallis at Princeton Baffled and
Perplexed Washington at Morristown His System of Annoyance The Tables
Turned upon the Enemy 47



ILLUSTRATIONS.

IRVING S WASHINGTON. VOLUME SECOND.



SIR WILLIAM JOHNSON, 31

SIR GUY CARLETON, 76

GENERAL GAGE, 99

GENERAL JOSEPH EEED, 197

RICHMOND HILL HOUSE, 205

GEN. THOMAS MIFFLIN, 2M

COL. WILLIAM MOULTRIE, 271

VIEW FROM FORT WASHINGTON, 301

COL. ROGER MORRIS HOUSE, 375

Gov. JONATHAN TRUMEULL, 42 1

STEEL PLATES.

WASHINGTON AT 40, PEALE, . . Frontispiece.

MOUNT VEENON, . . . Title Pasrc.



LIFE OF WASHINGTON.



CHAPTER I.



WASHINGTON TAKES COMMAND OF THE ARMIES SKETCH OF GENERAL LHE

CHARACTERS OF THE BRITISH COMMANDERS, HOWE, CLINTON, AND BUR-
GOYNE SURVEY OF THE CAMPS FROM PROSPECT HILL THE CAMPS CON
TRASTED DESCRIPTION OF THE REVOLUTIONARY ARMY RHODE ISLAND

TROOPS CHARACTER OF GENERAL GREENE WASHINGTON REPRESENTS THE

DEFICIENCIES OF THE ARMY HIS APOLOGY FO3 THE MASSACHUSETTS

TROOPS GOVERNOR TRUMBULL CRAGIE HOUSE, WASHINGTON S HEAD
QUARTERS.



ON the 3d of July, the morning after his arrival at Cambridge,
Washington took formal command of the army. It was drawn
up on the Common about half a mile from head-quarters. A
multitude had assembled there, for as yet military spectacles
were novelties, and the camp was full of visitors, men, women,
and children, from all parts of the country, who had relatives
among the yeoman soldiery.

An ancient elm is still pointed out, under which Washington,

as he arrived from head-quarters accompanied by General Lee and

VOL. u. 1



LIFE OF WASHINGTON. [1775.

a numerous suite, wheeled his horse, and drew his sword as
commander-in-chief of the armies. We have cited the poetical
description of him furnished by the pen of Mrs. Adams; we
give her sketch of his military compeer less poetical, but no
less graphic.

"General Lee looks like a careless, hardy veteran; and by
his appearance brought to my mind his namesake, Charles XII.
of Sweden. The elegance of his pen far exceeds that of his
person." *

Accompanied by this veteran campaigner, on whose military
judgment he had great reliance, Washington visited the different
American posts, and rode to the heights, commanding views over
Boston and its environs, being anxious to make himself acquaint
ed with the strength and relative position of both armies: and
here we will give a few particulars concerning the distinguished
commanders with whom he was brought immediately in compe
tition.

Congress, speaking of them reproachfully, observed, " Three
of England s most experienced generals are sent to wage war
with their fellow-subjects." The first here alluded to was the
Honorable William Howe, next in command to Gage. He was
a man of a fine presence, six feet high, well proportioned, and of
graceful deportment. He is said to have been not unlike Wash
ington in appearance, though wanting his energy and activity.
He lacked also his air of authority; but affability of manners,
and a generous disposition, made him popular with both officers
and soldiers.

There was a sentiment in his favor even among Americans at
the time when he arrived at Boston. It was remembered that

* Mrs. Adams to John Adams, 1775.



1775.] HOWE CLINTON BURGOYNE. 3

he was brother to the gallant and generous youth, Lord Howe,
who fell in the flower of his days, on the banks of Lake George,
and whose untimely death had been lamented throughout the
colonies. It was remembered that the general himself had won
reputation in the same campaign, commanding the light infantry
under Wolfe, on the famous plains of Abraham. A mournful
feeling had therefore gone through the country, when General
Howe was cited as one of the British commanders who had most
distinguished themselves in the bloody battle of Bunker s Hill.
Congress spoke of it with generous sensibility, in their address
to the people of Ireland already quoted. u America is amazed,"
said they, " to find the name of Howe on the catalogue of her
enemies she loved his brother ! "

General Henry Clinton, the next in command, was grandson
of the Earl of Lincoln, and son of George Clinton, who had been
Governor of the province of New York for ten years, from 1743.
The general had seen service on the continent in the Seven
Years War. He was of short stature, and inclined to corpu
lency ; with a full face and prominent nose. His manners were
reserved, and altogether he was in strong contrast with Howe,
and by no means so popular.

Burgoync, the other British general of note, was natural son
of Lord Bingley, and had entered the army at an early age.
While yet a subaltern, he had made a runaway match with a
daughter of the Earl of Derby, who threatened never to admit
the offenders to his presence. In 1758, Burgoyne was a lieu
tenant-colonel of light dragoons. In 1761, he was sent with a
force to aid the Portuguese against the Spaniards, joined the
army commanded by the Count de la Lippc, and signalized him
self by surprising and capturing the town of Alcantara. He



4 LIFE OF WASHINGTON.

had since been elected to Parliament for the borough of Middle
sex, and displayed considerable parliamentary talents. In 1772,
he was made a major-general. His taste, wit, and intelligence,
and his aptness at devising and promoting elegant amusements,
made him for a time a leader in the gay world ; though Junius
accuses him of unfair practices at the gaming table. His repu
tation for talents and services had gradually mollified the heart
of his father-in-law, the Earl of Derby. In 1774, he gave celeb
rity to the marriage of a son of the Earl with Lady Betty Hamil
ton, by producing an elegant dramatic trifle, entitled, " The Maid
of the Oaks," afterwards performed at Drury Lane, and honored
with a biting sarcasm by Horace Walpole. "There is a new
puppet-show at Drury Lane," writes the wit, "as fine as the
scenes can make it, and as dull as the author could not help
making it."*

It is but justice to Burgoyne s memory to add, that in after
years he produced a dramatic work, " The Heiress," which ex
torted even Walpole s approbation, who pronounced it the gen-
teelest comedy in the English language.

Such were the three British commanders at Boston, who were
considered especially formidable ; and they had with them eleven
thousand veteran troops, well appointed and well disciplined.

In visiting the different posts, Washington halted for a time
at Prospect Hill, which, as its name denotes, commanded a wide
view over Boston and the surrounding country. Here Putnam
had taken his position after the battle of Bunker s Hill, fortify
ing himself with works which he deemed impregnable ; and hero
the veteran was enabled to point out to the commander-in-chief,



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