Whitman Peck.

A practical business arithmetic, for common schools and academies. Including a great variety of promiscuous examples online

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.

ARITHMETIC









M AN






^












LIBRARY

OF THE

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA.



GIFT OF






Class




Pacific Theological Seminary,





PRACTICAL



BUSINESS ARITHMETIC,



COMMON SCHOOLS AND ACADEMIES.



INCLUDING A GBEAT VARIETY OF



PKOMISCUOUS EXAMPLES.



BY

WHITMAN PECK, A.M.,

ItFTHOR OF THE PROMISCUOUS EXERCISES IK ANDREW'S LATIN LESSONS
(REVISED EDITION.)




NEW YOEK:

J. W. SCHEEMEEHOEN & CO., PUBLISHEES,

14 BOND STEEET.

1868.



V?



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1868, by
W. PECK,

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, for the
Southern District of New York.



H. C. STOOTHOFF,

STEAM BOOK AND JOB PBINTER,

39 and 41 Centre St., N. T.



PREFACE.



THE distinguishing feature of this Arithmetic, that which has
chiefly led to its publication, is its containing, in addition to the ex-
amples under each rule, a large number of " Promiscuous Examples "
under several different rules. No two of these together being alike,
pupils need to think how each one is to be done independently of
another, instead of only doing all like one already done in the book,
or by their teacher. They can often do page after page of examples
as commonly arranged under their respective rules, though they
eould not do much simpler examples as they are apt to occur in prac-
tical business. Hence men often say, that their knowledge of Arith-
metic, when they commenced business, consisted in little more than
knowing how to add, subtract, multiply and divide, when directed to
do so in an arithmetic, or by their teacher. This defect, it is be-
lieved, will be remedied by the repeated use of the promiscuous ex-
amples in this book. They are so classified and arranged that each
"Exercise" requires the application of what has been previously
studied in some portion of the book. The author having found
such exercises almost indispensable in teaching arithmetic, has
thought it would be a great convenience to teachers, to have an
arithmetic containing a large number of promiscuous examples.
Many experienced teachers, also, all with whom he has consulted,
have confirmed him in this opinion. Hence, though there is per-
haps too great a variety of arithmetics already in use, this is offered
to the public.

It is believed, too, that this arithmetic contains in one book, all the
most important matter usually found in an arithmetical series, in
which much the same matter is repeated in different books, thus
greatly increasing the expense, without any real advantage. The
first part, including the Fundamental Rules, is adapted to children
beginning to study arithmetic after having received a little oral in-
struction; and they are advanced so gradually, that they will be apt
to learn this part thoroughly before they reach Compound Numbers
and Fractious

111900



PREFACE.

Most of the examples in this arithmetic are designedly short, that
less time may be consumed in the operations, and more be devoted
to learning the principles and their applications. They are, also, so
simple that most pupils may be expected to do them, witla a little as-
sistance in some cases, without requiring too much of the teacher's
time in explaining what they seldom understand or remember. Some
more difficult examples, designed for advanced pupils, will be found
at the end of the book, and it is designed to publish in another book
many more such examples, and some principles of Higher Arith-
metic omitted in this, which, however, is sufficient to fit persons for
the practical business of life.

The author, also, thinks that he has greatly simplified the study
of arithmetic by reducing the number of its rules. He applies the
Bules for Reduction of Compound Numbers to Reduction of Frac-
tional Compound Numbers (common and decimal,) and the rules of
Percentage to all its various applications, such as Commission,
Brokerage, Stocks, Profit and Loss, etc., etc.

Suggestions to Teachers.

Pupils should be required to explain fully the examples in arith-
metic, at least enough of them to show that they thoroughly under-
stand them. At first, they will need to use the blackboard or then-
slates, but they should also learn to give the explanations mentally,
omitting the numbers if too large to be thus calculated, but naming
them at each step as they proceed. If they can do this beforehand,
they need not be required to perform operations with which they are
already perfectly familiar. In this way they will study mental as
well as written arithmetic.

Though the Promiscuous Examples are numerous, some pupils
may need to do them repeatedly, in order to become as familiar as
they ought to be with the practical application of what they have
previously studied. Others may not need to do them all. One or
two exercises at a time may be sufficient. After a few days, give
them one or two more similar exercises, and continue to do this
from time to time till the principles and rules are permanently fixed
in their minds.

The rules are designed to aid pupils in making their own rules,
rather than to be verbally committed to memory. They should learn
to perform all arithmetical operations, and explain them, inde-
pendently of the rules in books.



CONTENTS.



NUMBER

NOTATION (Roman) . .
Arabic

NUMERATION

FUNDAMENTAL RULES



PAGE

, 7

, 7

8

10
14



ADDITION 15

SUBTRACTION 22

MULTIPLICATION 27

By Composite

Numbers 35

DIVISION 38

Short 39

Long 45

By Composite Numbers 47

General Principles 49

PROMISCUOUS EXAMPLES in Ad-
dition, Subtraction, Multi-
plication and Division 50

UNITED STATES MONET 56

Table Aliquot Parts 57

Promiscuous Examples. . 68

Bills ' 74

COMPOUND NUMBERS 77

MONEY English or Sterling 77

WEIGHTS Troy, Table 77

Avoirdupois, Table 78

Apothecaries, Table 78

Miscellane's, Table 78

MEASURES Cloth, Table 78

Long, Table 79

Surveyor's, Table 79



PAGE

MEASURES Square, Table ... 79
Cubic, Table ... 80
Wine, Table.... 81
Beer, Table .... 82

Dry, Table 82

Time, Table ... 82
Circular, Table . 84
Miscellaneous Table of

Units, &c., Paper, Books 84
REDUCTION of Compound

Numbers 85

Examples 8895

Promiscuous Examples 95105
Addition of Compound

Numbers 105

Subtraction of Compound

Numbers 106

Multiplication of Com-
pound Numbers 108

Division of Compound

Numbers 109

Longitude and Time 110

Promiscuous Examples. . . 112

Cancellation 115

Prime and Composite Num-
bers 116

Greatest Common Divisor 118
Least Common Multiple . . 119

FRACTIONS 121

Common 122

Reduction of . . . 125



CONTENTS.



Addition of 131

Subtraction of 132

Multiplication of 134

Division of 136

Pronrscuous Examples

139146

DECIMAL FEACTIONS 146

Addition of 148

Subtraction of 150

Multiplication of 151

Division of 153

Promiscuous Examples . . . 156
Beduction of Common

Fractions to Decimals . . 159
Beduction of Decimal Frac-
tions to Common 160

Fractional Compound Num-
bers 161

Promiscuous Examples . . . 164
Promiscuous Examples in
Common and Decimal

Fractions 166

DUODECIMALS 177

ANALYSIS 180

PEECENTAGE 184

Commission 190

Brokerage 191

Stocks 191

Gold 192

Insurance 192

Profit and Loss 1

Interest 198

Partial Payments 203



PAGE

Compound Interest 209

Discount 211

Bank 213

Taxes 215

Duties 217

Exchange 218

Partnership 223

Promiscuous Examples in
the various applications

of Percentage 226236

EQUATION OF PAYMENTS 236

KEDUCTION OF CUBBENCIES . . 241

EATIO 244

PROPOETION

Compound 2

Conjoined 250

ALLIGATION 251

INVOLUTION 2

EVOLUTION

Square Koot 255

Cube Boot

PEOGBESSION Arithmetical.. 264
Geometrical . . 256

MENSUEATION 267

PEOMISCUOUS EXAMPLES
U. S. Money and Com-
pound Numbers 271

Fractions, Common and

Decimal 274

Percentage and its applica-
tions 279

Miscellaneous Eules 284




ARITHMETIC



Article 1. Arithmetic is the science of numbers. It
teaches their nature and use.

Number is one or more things, or Units ; as one, two,
three ; the number of pupils in a class is four, five, &c.

Abstract numbers are numbers not applied to any par-
ticular thing ; as one, two, five, &c. Concrete numbers
are numbers applied to particular things ; as five men,
ten cents.



NOTATION.

Art 2. Notation is the method of writing numbers.

There are two methods, the Roman, introduced by the
ancient Romans, and the Arabic, introduced by the
Arabians, which is chiefly used in Arithmetic.

Art. 3* The Roman method uses letters for numbers ;
as, I, one; V, five; X, ten; L, fifty; C, one hundred; D,
five hundred; M, one thousand.

These seven letters repeated or united express all other
numbers.

If a letter is repeated, its value is multiplied as many
times ; as, II, (two times one,) two; XX, twenty; XXX,
thirty.



8 NOTATION.

If a letter is written before another of greater value,
its value is subtracted from that of the greater ; but if
written after another of greater value it is added; as, IV,
four; VI, six; IX, nine; XI, eleven.

A small line ( ) over a letter multiplies its value a
thousand times ; as, V, five thousand.

TABLE OF ROMAN LETTERS USED FOB NUMBERS.

I. One. IX. Nine. LXXX. Eighty.

IE. Two. X. Ten. XG. Ninety.

m. Three. XX. Twenty. C. One hundred.

IV. Four. XXX. Thirty. CO. Two hundred.

V. Five. XL. Forty. D. Five hundred.

VI. Six. L. Fifty. M. One thousand

VII. Seven. LX. Sixty. V. Five thousand.

VIH. Eight. LXX. Seventy.

Art. 4. The Arabic Notation uses the following ten
figures for numbers :

(Written] O. /. 2. 3. 6. 5. 6. /. (9. #.

Naught or o;Qe ^ Q three, four. five. six. seven, eight, nine.
Cipher.

(Printed) 0. 1. 2. 3. 4 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

These figures, except the cipher, are called Digits*
A figure written alone, or on the right hand of a
number, has only its simple value; as, 1, one; 2, two; 5,
five, &c.

A figure written before another has ten times its simple
value; also when prefixed to two others it has one hun-
dred times its simple value. Hence figures increase in
value ten fold from right to left.



NOTATION. 9

10 (ten and naught) ten. 20 (two tens) twenty.

11 (ten and one) eleven. 21 (2 tens and 1) twenty-one.

12 (ten and two) twelve. 30 (three tens) thirty. &c.

13 (ten and three) thirteen. 40 (four tens) forty, &c.

14 (ten and four) fourteen. 50 (five tens) fifty, &c.

15 (ten and five) fifteen. 60 (six tens) sixty, &c.

16 (ten and six) sixteen. 70 (seven tens) seventy, &c.

17 (ten and seven) seventeen. 80 (eight tens) eighty, &c.

18 (ten and eight) eighteen. 90 (nine tens) ninety, &c.

19 (ten and nine) nineteen. 100 ( ten tens) one hundred, &c.

In all the numbers from 10 19 the figure 1 is used for ten. In the
number 11 the figure 1 is used for ten and one ; and in 111 it is used
for one hundred, ten and one.

Next to hundreds are thousands, tens of thousands,
hundreds of thousands, millions, &c., as in the following
French method, which is chiefly used.

FRENCH NOTATION AND NUMERATION TABLE.




Next to trillions are quadrillions, quintillions, sextillions, sept.il-
lions, octillions, nonillions, decillions, &c.

In this table numbers are divided into periods of three
figures each, beginning at the right hand, the 1st units,
the 2d thousands, the 3d millions, &c.



10 NUMEBATION.



ENGLISH NOTATION AND NUMERATION TABLE.



11

CM
O O

rj QQ

5 H H fi H
20987 65432




Periods.



RULE FOR NOTATION. Leaving space enough on the right
for as many periods, of three figures each, as the number
will contain, begin at the left hand, and write the number
belonging to' each period, filling the vacant places with
ciphers.

EXAMPLE. Write two millions, seventy-five thousand,
three hundred and five.

There will be two periods on the right of millions. Write 2 in the
millions' period, 075 in the thousands' period, and 305 in the last or
units' period ; thus, 2,075,305.



NUMERATION.

Art, 5. Numeration is reading numbers.

Small numbers are easily read by repeating the name
of each figure as it is written. In reading a large num-
ber observe the following

RULE. Consider the number as divided into periods of
three figures each, beginning at the right hand ; then, begin-



NUMERATION.



11



ning at the left hand, read each period as if it stood alone,
adding its name, except that of the last ; thus,

The number 1,230,987,654,321, is read one trillion, two hundred
and thirty billions, nine hundred and eighty-seven millions, six hun-
dred and fifty-four thousand, three hundred and twenty-one.



EXEKCISES IN NUMERATION.



Bead the following numbers down and across the page. It
will be best for pupils to write them first, if they have not
learned to do so readily and plainly.



10


28


30


48


13


25


33


45


16


22


36


42


19


27


39


47


11


24


31


44


14


21


34


41


17


29


37


49


12


26


32


46


15


23


35


43



50


61


72


80


91


56


68


76


88


98


59


65


73


85


95


51


62


79


82


92


54


67


70


87


97


57


64


74


84


94


52


60


77


81


99


55


69


75


89


96


58


66


78


86


93



18 20 38



40



53 63 71 83



90



210

228
234
389
465



328
333

456
598
55C



430


550


- 672


761


891


445


678


789


890


901


543


785


876


983


779


671


872


963


753


861


655


741


833


922


766



990
985

742
888



1000
1234

2345
3456
4567
5678



10000
23456
34567
45678
56789
67890



100000
345678
456789
567890
678901
789012



1000000
4567890
5678901
6789012
7890123
8901234



10000000

123456789

2345678901

34567890123



1000000000

12345678901

345678901234

4567890123456



12,345,678,908,765,432,102,468.



12 EXERCISES IN NOTATION.



IN NOTATION.

Write all the numbers from
Ten to twenty-five. Fifty to seventy-five.

Twenty-five to fifty. Seventy-five to one hundred.

Write

One hundred and ten. Five hundred and sixty-seven.

Two hundred and eleven. Six hundred and seventy-eight.

Three hundred and one. Seven hundred and eighty-nine.

Four hundred and twenty. Eight hundred and eight.
Five hundred and sixty-seven. Nine hundred and ninety.
Six hundred and seventy-nine. Ten hundred and twenty.
Eight hundred and ninety. Twelve hundred and eleven.
Nine hundred and thirty-four. Sixteen hundred and seventeen.
Ten hundred and eleven. Eighteen hundred and ninety.

Eleven hundred and twenty. Nine hundred and seventy-five.
Twelve hundred and fifty-five. Eight hundred and sixty-four.
Fifteen hundred and sixty-two. Seven hundred and fifty-three.
Nine hundred and eighty -six. Six hundred and forty-two.
Six hundred and fifty-four. Five hundred and thirty one.
Three hundred and twenty-one. Four hundred and twenty.
One hundred and twenty-three. Three hundred and one.
Four hundred and fifty-six. Two hundred and three.
Seven hundred and eight. Three hundred and fourteen.
Nine hundred and ten. Four hundred and twenty-four.

Two hundred and eleven. Five hundred and fifteen.
Three hundred and forty-five. Six hundred and ten.
Four hundred and fifty-six. Seven hundred and twelve.

One hundred.

Two thousand.

Thirty thousand.

Four hundred thousand.

Five millions.

Six hundred and six.

Seven thousand eight hundred and nine.



NOTATION. 18

Eighty thousand and ninety.
Nine hundred thousand and one hundred.
Ten million, eleven thousand and twelve.
Thirteen hundred and fourteen.
Fifteen thousand, one hundred and two.
Three hundred thousand and four.
Sixty million, seventy thousand and eight hundred.
One hundred and ten millions, two hundred and thirty-four
thousand, four hundred and five.

Two hundred and thirty-four.

Five thousand, six hundred and seventy-eight.

Ninety thousand and seventeen.

Three hundred thousand, five hundred and seven.

Eleven millions, one hundred and five thousand.

Five hundred millions, seven thousand and eighty-one.

Seventy-five thousand, three hundred and forty.

Eight hundred thousand, two hundred and five.

Nine thousand, seven hundred and fifty-three.

Three millions, four hundred and thirty-two.

Twelve millions, eleven thousand and nine hundred.

One hundred and twenty millions, seventeen thousand, six
hundred and seven.

Six thousand, seven hundred and thirty-one.

Seven hundred and forty-eight.

Sixty-eight thousand, four hundred and fifty-one.

Thirty-nine millions, nine hundred and twelve thousand,
three hundred and ninety-six.

Seven hundred and fifty thousand, five hundred and sixty-
three.

Forty-six thousand, five hundred and four.

Twelve hundred and ninety-seven.

Two thousand, five hundred and sixty-six.

Four millions, five hundred and four thousand, three hun-
dred and twenty-two.

Twenty-five thousand, seven hundred and thirty-eight.

One thousand, four hundred and thirty-three.



FUNDAMENTAL RULES.

Five millions, three hundred and one thousand, seven hun-
dred and ninety-five.

The following are not designed for very young pupils.
Write

One billion, two hundred and thirty-four millions, five thou-
sand and seven hundred.

Three trillions, twenty-five billions, three hundred and four
millions, forty-five thousand, six hundred and seventy-four.

Twenty billions, four hundred and twelve millions, sixty-
five thousand and thirty-two.

Four hundred trillions, seventy- seven billions, seven hun-
dred and seven millions, nine thousand, five hundred and
sixty-three.

Four quadrillions and five hundred trillions.

Five quintillions and sixty-eight trillions.

Six sextillions and five hundred quintillions.

Seventy billions.

Eighty trillions.

Ninety quadrillions.

One hundred quintillions, two hundred and ten quadrillions,
thirty-five trillions, seven hundred billions and sixty-four
millions.

Fifteen sextillions, five hundred and sixty quintillions, four
hundred and twenty-five trillions.



FUNDAMENTAL RULES.

Art. 6. Arithmetic teaches the use of numbers in four
principal ways, viz : Addition, Subtraction, Multiplica-
tion, and Division, called the Fundamental Rules of

Arithmetic.



ADDITION. 15



ADDITION.

j^rt. 7. Addition is uniting two or more numbers in
one. The number thus found, or the answer, is called
the Sum or Amount.

Simple Addition is uniting like numbers, or numbers of
the same name, in one ; as, 3 apples added to 4 apples
are 7 apples.

Unlike numbers cannot be added ; as 3 apples and 4 pears are
neither 7 apples nor 7 pears.

Addition is often expressed by the sign (-J-) Plus,
placed between numbers to be added.

[The sign (=) of equality placed between numbers, shows that
they are equal. ]

ILLUSTRATION. The sum or amount of 2 added to 3 is equal to 5 ;
2+3=5.

ADDITION TABLE.

[This table is promiscuously arranged. The answers are not given,
because it is better that pupils should learn them by thinking for
themselves, and not have them for reference. They should be able
to recite them perfectly and promptly.]



H! i i.S !



2120323
2203130
Sums 1 2

133042414344
323414340424

052545153550
515350525456

626461636566
163656267606

173757727476
727476773577



16 ADDITION OF UNITS.

Add



J 2


8


4


8


6


8


8


8


8


5


8


7


1 8


3


8


5


8


7


8


8


4


8


6


8


3


9


5


9


7


9


9


4


9


6


9


8


9


4


9


6


9


8


9


9


5


9


7


9



ADDITION OF UNITS.

MENTAL EXERCISES.

How many boys are 2 boys and 1 more ? 1+2 ? 2+2 ?,
3+1 ? 2+3 ? 3+4 ? 4+2 ? 3+3 ? 4+3 ? 4+4 ?

How many girls are 5 girls and 2 more ? 2+5 ? 3+5 ?
5+4? 5+3? 5+5? 6+3? 4+6? 6+5? 6+6?

How many men are 7 men and 3 more ? 3+7 ? 7+4 ?
5+7 ? 7+6 ? 7+7 ? 8+3 ? 4+9 ? 5+8 ? 9+5 ? 6+8 ?
8+8? 7+9? 9+9?

How many women are 8 women and 2 more ? 3+8 ? 9+4 ?
8+5? 6+9? 8+7? 9+6?

EXAMPLES FOE THE SLATE OE BLACKBOARD.

4

EXAMPLE 1. Add 4, 3, 2, 3, 5, and 2.

1 Process. 2 and 5 are 7, and 3 are 10, and 2 are

12, and 3 are 15, and 4 are 19 . Name only the result K

of each addition ; as 7, 10, 12, 15, 19.

^ Ans. 19

EULE. Write the numbers under one another; draw a
line underneath^ and under it write the sum or amount.

EXAMPLES.

(2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13)



2


3


4


5


4


3


2


4


5


4


2


3


3


4


5


1


3


3


2


4


5


5


3


4


4


3


3


5


1


3


2


4


5


3


4


3


3


4


4


2


2


3


2


4


5


4


4


2


4


2


2


5


3


3


2


4


5


5


3


3


2


1


4


3


4


3


2


4


5


3


2


4


3


1


1


5


4


2


3


5


5


4


3


5



ADDITION. 17

<14) (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) (20) (21) (22) (23) (24) (25)



4


5


1


2


3


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


3


1


5


4


4


2


3


2


1


1


1


2


4


5


1


2


5


3


4


3


4


5


6


7


2


2


4


3


2


4


5


4


2


2


2


1


4


5


1


2


2


5


6


3


4


5


6


7


1


3


3


4


1


6


7


5


3


3


3


3


4


5


5


4


5


7


8


3


4


5


6


7












6


7


7


4


4


4


5


(26)


(27)


(28)


(29)


(30)


(31)


(32)


(33)


(34)


(35)


(36)


(37)


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


1


2


3


7


1


7


6


4


4


6


6


6


2


3


7


7


2


2


3


5


5


7


6


7


3


4


5


7


3


7


6


6


5


5


6


6


4


4


3


7


4


3


4


7


6


6


6


7


5


6


7


7


5


7


6


6


6


7


6


6


6


7


3


7


6


4


5


4


5


4


6


7


7





6


7


7


7


7


2


5


3


6


6


4


6


7


7


8


(38)


(39)


(40)


(41)


(42) (-


43) (44


) (4


>) (46;


1 (47)


(48)


(49)


(50)


2


3


4


5


6


7 8


9


7


8


9


6


5


3


4


5


4


7


8 9





8


6


4


3


8


4


5


6


6


8


9


8


9


4


8


9


3


5


6


7


8


9


8


1


7


7


3


6


7


6


7


8


9





7 9


9





3


5


3


9


7


8


9





2


8 1


8


6


2


7


9


8


8








8


3


9 8


2


4


6


8


6





9


9


8


7


4


7 9


8


9


8


7


3


8



ADDITION OF UNITS, TENS, HUNDREDS, &o.

MENTAJJ EXEECISES.

How many lambs are 10 lambs and 1 more ? 10+3 ?

10+5 ? 10+7 ? 10+9 ? 10+2 ? 10+4 ? 10+6 ? 10+8 ?

11+1? 11+2? 11+4? 11+6? 11+8? 11+3? 11+5?
11+7 ? 11+9 ?

How many sheep are 12 sheep and 1 more ? 12+3 ? 12+5 ?

12+7? 12+9? 12+2? 12+4? 12+6? 12+8-? 13+3?
13+4? 13+6? 13+8? 13+5? 13+7? 13+9?



18 KULE OF ADDITION.

How many horses are 14 horses and 2 more ? 14+4 ?

14+6? 14+8? 14+3? 14+5? 14+7? 14+9? 15+2?

15+4? 15+6? 15+8? 15+3? 15+5? 15+7? 15+9?
16+2 ? 16+5 ? 16+8 ?

How many cows are 17 cows and 3 more ? 17+5 ? 17+7 ?

17+9? 17+4? 17+6? 17+8? 18+4? 18+6? 18+8?

18+9? 18+7? 13+5? 19+3? 19+5? 19+7? 19+9?
19+6 ? 19+8 ?

EXAMPLES FOR THE SLATE.

EXAMPLE 51. Add 123, 234, 345, and 456.

Process. Write the numbers thus,



Ans. 1158

Add the right hand column 6+5+4+3=18 units, or 1 ten and 8
units. Write 8 under units and add 1 to the tens. Add the second
column 1+5+4+3+2=15 tens, 1 hundred and 5 tens. Write 5
under tens and add 1 to hundreds. Thus proceed.

RULE. Write the numbers under one another, so that all
the right-hand figures shall be in the same column, and the
others in proper order, tens next to units, &e.

Beginning at the right hand, add each column separately.
If the sum consists of only one figure, write it under the
column ; but if it consists of two or more, write only the
right hand figure and carry or add the others to the next
column if there is any; otherwise write both figures.

PROOF. Add the same columns downward.

Figures of different local value cannot be added ; 2 tens and 3 units
are neither 5 tens (50) r*or 5, but 23.

EXAMPLES.

(52) (53) (54) (55) (56) (57) (58) (59) (60) (61) (62) (63) (64)

23 34 45 50 01 12 23 32 45 33 44 55 34

34 51 01 12 23 45 44 34 54 44 44 55 53

45 02 23 34 34 30 54 22 45 55 44 55 45

23 34 45 51 50 44 32 10 54 22 44 55 34

34 51 04 23 12 32 45 54 45 11 44 55 53



ADDITION. 19

(65) (66) (67) (68) (69) (70) (71) (72) (73) (74) (75) (76) .(77) (78)

12 23 34 45 56 67 78 89 90 66 77 88 99 89

34 45 56 67 78 89 90 01 12 66 77 88 99 98

56 67 78 89 90 01 12 23 34 66 77 88 99 79


1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Online LibraryWhitman PeckA practical business arithmetic, for common schools and academies. Including a great variety of promiscuous examples → online text (page 1 of 19)