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In 1918 the E\ans Courier-Messenger is the property of J. C. Downes.
The Platteville Herald is owned by E. S. Bayers. At Fort Lupton the Press
is owned by H. R. Waring. The New Raymer Enterprise is published by C.
R. Graves. The Windsor Poudre Valley is the property of Roy Ray. J. A.
Digerness owns the Hudson Headlight. D. H. Williams owns and edits the
Pawnee Press at Grover. The Ault Advertiser is owned by G. A. Hill; the
Briggsdale Banner is owned by W. F. Shelton; the Eaton Herald, by H. E.
Hogue ; the Kersey News is owned by B. F. and L. C. McMillen; the La Salle
Optimist is owned by J. C. Downes ; the Nunn News is owned by U. E. Mad-
den ; thePierce Leader is owned by C. H. Reed.

The first paper established at Evans was the Journal, which was conducted
by James Torrens. It was founded in 1878.

In 1890 the Evans Courier was started by S. J. McAfee. In 1888 the
Progress at Platteville was conducted by A. N. Elliott and McConley Brothers
ran the Record. In this period the Cyclone was started at Fort Lupton by
John H. Farrar. At Erie Jones Brothers had established the Independent.
At Raymer, Shirley, Abbott & Shoemaker ran the Herald. z\t Windsor McCauley
Brothers owned the weekly Windsor Star.

By 1900 there had been many changes. The Eaton Herald was issued by
H. E. Hogue. C. C. Huf¥sniith was publishing the Courier at Evans, the only
paper there at that time, and J. A. Cheeley was printing the Platte Valley Post
at Fort Lupton. Most of the others in existence in 1890 had been discontinued.

In 191 1 the Ault Advertiser was published by E. P. Hubbell ; the Eaton
Herald by Hogue & Snook ; the Evans Courier by E. P. Shaf¥ner ; the Fort
Lupton Press by R. F. Davis; the Grover Tri-City Press by D. H. Williamson;
the Hudson Headlight by J. A. Digerness ; the Hudson Herald by L. C. Grove ;
the Kersey Enterprise by Alarshall E. De Wolfe; the La Salle Observer by S.
R. and P. E. Smith ; the New Raymer Enterprise by S. P. Majors ; the Nunn
News by U. E. Madden; the Pierce Record by H. R. Waring; the Platteville
Herald by H. F. Bedford; the Platteville News by M. B. Royer; the Windsor
Poudre Valley by Roy Ray ; the Windsor Optimist by James Donovan.



F. C. Brobst founded the Yuma Pioneer Christmas day, 1886. Later he
established the Sun, which he sold to W. J. Goodspeed in 1888. Later owners
changed the name to Republican, but on July 12, 1890. the two papers were
consolidated and published as the Yuma Pioneer by Jesse A. Williams. In
1900 E. J. Pickard was editor and owner of the Pioneer, the only paper of the
town at that time. In 191 1 A. Burt Jessop was publisher of the Pioneer.

In 1918 the Pioneer is published by T. H. Woodbury, with H. J. Woodbury



812 HISTORY OF COLORADO

as editor. B. R. Coffman is publishing the Yuma County Times, a recently
established paper. The Eckiey Record is the property of C. E. McKimson.



The Wray Rattler was founded by B. C. C. Condon early in the '80s.
Later the Wray Republican was established by J. E. Pettingill, who sold it to
W. C. Emmons. John Griffin later moved it to Eckiey. In 1900 the Wray
Rattler was alone in its field, and was conducted by J. N. Counter.

In 191 1 Simon S. Dow was pubhshing the Gazette and C. L. Will, the Wray
Rattler. In 1918 the Gazette is pubHshed by C. E. McKimson, and the Rattler
by W. M. Scott.

CRIPPLE CREEK

The Cripple Creek Times and Victor Daily Record, 'known as the Times-
Record, is published every morning except Monday, by the Cripple Creek Times
Company, and is the only paper published at this date in Teller County. The
Cripple Creek Times Company owns the Associated Press franchise.

The Times-Record was originally published as the Morning Times in 1892
by Thomas M. Howell, publisher and editor. A weekly edition was first pub-
lished in 1896, and its publication has been maintained to this date. In the
year of the Cripple Creek fire the files were destroyed (1896). T. M. Howell
continued in charge until 1897 when the Morning Times was sold to the Morn-
ing Times Publishing Company, G. S. Hoag nianager, F. J. Arkins, editor. In
1900 the name was changed to the Morning Times-Citizen, the Citizen, an
afternoon paper, having passed into the possession of the Morning Times
Publishing Company. In 1902, on April ist, the paper was sold to John S.
Irby, and on April ist made its appearance as the Cripple Creek Times, with
W. H. Griffith as manager and editor. On April 4, 1903, the paper again
changed ownership, passing to the Cripple Creek Times Publishing Company,
with George W. Shepherd as manager, C. V. Woodard as editor. It remained
under this management until 1908, when the Times was purchased by the late
George E. Kyner. J. P. Hughes was editor under the Kyner management in
191 1, and on November g, 1912, Percy Kyner was named general manager,
during the illness of his brother. On April i, 1913, the \'ictor Record passed
into possession of the Cripple Creek Times Company, and the paper appeared
on that date under the name of the Cripple Creek Times and Victor Daily
Record. Huse Taylor was manager of the publication from April, 1913, until
January i, 1914, with A. F. Francis as editor, the latter remaining with the
paper until his death late that year. On January i, 1914, William A. Kyner
became general manager, and still holds that position. The present editor is
G. J. Tipton. The pohtics of the paper has varied with the management,
passing from democratic to republican. Teller Silver republican, and independent.
At present it is an independent publication.

HINSDALE COUNTY

In all the mining camps of the state the newspaper press came with the
first rush of prospectors. In Hinsdale County the old Silver World, established



HISTORY OF COLORADO 813

by Harry Woods and Clark L. Peyton in 1875, began with three subscribers.
The material had been hauled over from Saguache, and was delayed in arrival.
The circulation of the Silver World covered a route of no miles to subscribers
and to the nearest postoffice at Saguache. It changed hands in 1876, again
in 1878, again in 1885, and then it quietly passed away as The Sentinel. Its
last editor was F. E. Dacon. The San Juan Crescent started in 1877 by Harry
Woods, the Phonograph, established by Walter Mendenhall, and the Lake
City Mining Register, owned by J. F. Downey, had short existences.



The Lake City Times, now owned by William C. Blair, was established
January 15, 1891, by D. S. Hoflfman and A. R. Arbuckle.

GARFIELD COUNTY

The leading papers of Garfield County in 1918 are the Avalanche-Echo, a
weekly, and, the Daily Avalanche, of Glenvvood Springs, H. J. Holmes, one of
the oldest and most influential of western slope newspaper men, owner and
editor; and the weekly Glenwood Post, A. J. Dickson, publisher and editor;
the Rifle Telegram-Reveille, Clarkson & Swartz, publishers; the Carbondale
Item, V. A. Moore, editor; and the Grand Valley News, Elmer E. Wheatley,
editor.

J. S. Swan and W'. J. Reid were the pioneer newspaper men of the county,
with the famous Ute Chief which they started in the fall of 1885. B. Clark
Wheeler, who had made a big stake at Aspen, was the backer of James L.
Riland in the publication of the Glenwood Echo in 1888. H. J. Holmes had,
however, come into the county in 1887, and at once pre-empted the daily field
with the Daily News of which the first copy was printed in December of that
year. The Ute Chief followed his example, and its daily appeared early in
1888. By fall both had enough of competition and joined issues in the Daily
Ute Chief-News. In the next two years the paper changed hands four times,
and names twice, being known as The New Empire and then as the Glenwood
Springs Republican. In 1891 it was discontinued as a daily, and in 1892 it
became the People's Herald. This after many further vicissitudes is now the
Avalanche and in able editorial hands.

CARBONDALE

The Avalanche was started at Carbondale by Frank P. Bestin, a blind editor
from Red Cliflf, in 1888, and soon after became the property of H. J. Holmes,
who in 1891 brought it to Glenwood Springs, where within a month he began
publishing it as a daily. Later he absorbed the Echo, and changed the name of
his weekly issue to the Avalanche-Echo, which it still retains.

In 1889 Mr. Holmes saw an opening at Rifle, and started the Reveille. This
he sold in 1890 to H. B. Swartz and J. W. Armstrong, who later absorbed the
Telegram, another short-lived venture. It is to-day published as the Telegram-
Reveille. New Castle has no paper to-day, but in 1888 George West, of the



814 HISTORY OF COLORADO

Golden Transcript, started the Nonpareil. This was later the Cactus and then
the News, under which name it is now published at Grand Valley by Elmer
E. Wheatiey.

DELTA COUNTY

The newspapers of Delta County comprise to-day one of the most influential
groups in the state. These include the Delta County Tribune, E. E. Watts,
publisher and editor; the Delta Independent, A. M. Anderson, publisher; the
West Slope, of Cedaredge, George O. Blake, editor; and the Surface Creek
Champion, of Cedaredge, C. W. Brewer, publisher; the Hotchkiss Herald,
Arthur L. Perry, owner; and the Hotchkiss North Fork Times, Thomas L.
Blackwell, editor; and the Paonian, Arthur L. Craig, publisher.

Of these the oldest is -the Independent, which was founded as the Delta
Chief, March 7, 1883, by Robert D. Blair. Later the Delta County Advertiser
was established by Charles W. Russell, both papers being consolidated into the
Independent by C. G. Downing. On November 22, 1887, Harry Wilson and
J. H. Woodgate owned it, later selling it to J. A. Curtis. The Laborer, founded
in 1890 by R. J. Coffey and C. M. Snyder, had but a brief existence.

CUSTER COUNTY

Custer County in the days of its mining boom had both weeklies and dailies.
In 1918 only the memory of these publications at Rosita and Silver Cliff is
left, but over at Westcliffe the old Wet Mountain Tribune, first published at
Rosita, still thrives and is a power for good in the able hands of Philip Doyle.
In 1890 while at Rosita it was the property of Alex H. Lacy. In September,
1874, Charles Baker, a Colorado Springs newspaper man, and Ben L. Posey
began to publish the Index at Rosita. In 1879 Charles F. Johnson bought it
and called it the Sierra Journal. The Silver Cliff Prospect, started in 1879,
blossomed out as a daily in June of that year. On April i, 1880, Dr. G. W. B.
Lewis started the Silver Cliff' Weekly Republican, and in November 1886 C. E.
Hunter and H. W. Comstock began publishing the Mining Gazette. All have
gone to the limbo of "things-that-were." In 1878 W. L. Stevens began the
Miner at Silver Cliff.

In 1882 Will C. Ferril, C. W. Bony and S. B. Coates began the Daily Herald,
which lived nearly a year.

GUNNISON

In the spring of 1880 Root & Olney, printers, brought a new printing press
to Gunnison. The first paper, however, in Gunnison County, had been estab-
lished in May, TS79, ^^ Hillerton by Henry C. Olney. Its existence was brief.
The Gunnison Review, Root & C)lney's paper, began publication on May 15,
1880, and the first issue off the press sold for $100 at a public auction on the day
of publication. On October 11, 1881, it appeared as a daily. The Free Press,
which in the meantime had been started as a competitor, was merged with the
Review, which after August S, 1882, became the Review-Press. On November



HISTORY OF COLORADO 815

22, 1886, with Henry C. Olney as publisher, it became a tri-weekly, and in 1889
was again published as a weekly.

H. F. Lake bought out the three papers : The Gunnison News in December,
1900; the People's Champion in January, 1901 ; and the Tribune in July, 1904,
and combined them to make the News-Champion. On November i, 191 1, C.
F. Roehrig bought the News-Champion and published it fourteen months,
when he sold it to Judge Clifford H. Stone; on July 14, 1914, the paper was
purchased by the News-Champion Printing and Publishing Company, and H.
F. Lake, Jr., became editor and manager of the paper.

The Gunnison News was the initial journalistic effort in Gunnison. The
first issue appeared April 17, 1880, about a month before the Review, with the
name of Col. W. H. F. Hall heading the editorial column. Colonel Hall dis-
posed of a three-fourths interest in the paper to J. H. Haverly, C. H. Boutcher,
formerly editor of a paper in Pennsylvania ; and E. A. Buck, editor of the
New York Spirit of the Times. In August, 1880, Frank McMaster and Frank
T. Southerland launched the Gunnison Democrat. In June, 18S1, Mr. Buck
consolidated the two papers into what was known as the News-Democrat. In
the fall of the same year, the paper became a daily, and remained so until the
decline in the fortunes of the town. Mr. N. P. Babcock was the first editor
and Frank P. Tanner the business manager. Joseph Heiner was a later editor.
In 1891, the paper was sold to the Gunnison News Publishing and Printing
Company, and Mr. C. T. Rawalt was one of the editors.

During the "hard times" of 1893, ^"d the violent financial and political dis-
turbances that accompanied them, the People's Champion, a weekly paper,
was started in Gunnison by George C. Rhode, one of the populist leaders, and for
seven years it flourished as the stormy petrel of newspaperdom on the Western
Slope. Mr. Rawalt was also among its editors.

The Gunnison Republican was started in 1900 by C. T. Sills, and is strongly
of the republican persuasion.

The Pitkin Miner, now owned by W. J. Williamson, is another of the
old-time Gunnison County publications.



CHAPTER XL
STATE INSTITUTIONS— CORRECTIONAL AND ELEEMOSYNARY

THE COLORADO STATE PENITENTIARY MODERN METHODS ROAD BUILDING — BOARD

OF PARDONS THE COLORADO STATE HOSPITAL AT PUEBLO THE COLORADO

SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF AND THE BLIND HOW IT HAS DEVELOPED INTO A

NATIONALLY-FAMED INSTITUTION ^THE COLORADO SOLDIERS* AND SAILORS'

HOME AT MONTE VISTA COLORADO STATE REFORMATORY' THE STATE HOME

CARING FOR DEPENDENT AND NEGLECTED CHILDREN STATE INDUSTRIAL

SCHOOL FOR BOYS STATE INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL FOR GIRLS — INDUSTRIAL WORK-
SHOP FOR THE BLIND SCHOOL FOR MENTAL DEFECTIVES — MOTHERS' COMPEN-
SATION ACT.

The State Home, formerly known as the State Home for Dependent and
Neglected Children, the Soldiers' and Sailors' Home, the Industrial Workshop
for the Blind, the Colorado Insane Asylum, now known as the Colorado State
Hospital, the State Home and Training School for Mental Defectives, the Colo-
rado State Reformatory and the Colorado State Penitentiary comprise the list
of State institutions under the jurisdiction of the State Board of Charities and
Correction.

THE COLORADO ST.\TE PENITENTIARY

The Territorial Legislature, on January 7, 1868, established a penitentiary
at Canon City. The Federal authorities built the first cell house on a twenty-
five acre site selected for this purpose and donated by Anson Rudd. The first
building contained forty-two cells, entirely inadequate under the frontier con-
ditions of that period. This first eel! house was opened June i, 1871, with Mark
A. Shaffenberg, U. S. Marshal for Colorado, in charge and in April, 1874, was
officially transferred to the territorial authorities. The General Assembly, on
March 15, 1877. provided for its enlargement and maintenance. The enabling
act had also set aside a land grant from which the institution has, by leasing and
sale, derived a constantly growing income'. Improvement and enlargements were
made from year to year, until 1900, when three cell houses with a total of 444
cells for men and a separate prison for women comprised the prison buildings.

The following table covers the expenditures, maintenance and earnings for
biennial periods, January i. 1883, to 1900.

Total expended Maintenance Earnings

1 883- 1 884 $223,154.89 $167,464.23 $50,405.83

1885-1886 226,486.44 175,456.70 70,067.28

816




VIEW OF CANON CITY SHOWING THE EXTENT OF THE CITY IN THE

SPRING OF 1879

State Penitentiary in the ieft foreground.

(Eeproduoed from a photographic enlargement of a wood engraving.)




CANON CITY ABOUT 1885

State Penitentiary iu foreground.

(Reproduced from an enlargement of a photographic view.)



818 HISTORY OF COLORADO

Total expended Maintenance Earnings

1887-1888 219,841.48 171,653.14 80,676.17

1889-1890 235,847.87 166,098.84 53.836.61

1891-1892 232,810.44 168,880.60 59,238.47

1893-1894 267,823.05 179,892.30 36,724-62

1895-1896 196,192.53 169,578.14 22,982.39

1897-1898 > 192,354.45 165,193-57 16,378.91

1899-1900 221,798.89 158,157-45 27,362.89

The total expenditure for the biennial period 1907-8 was $254,943.99. The
earnings were $54,943.99, bringing it up to the old figures. But to this should
now be added the money saved the state in road building, which brings actual
earnings for these first periods up to nearly if not in every case more than the
amount of the entire maintenance expense.

In 191 1 and 1912 the institution earned in cash $33,1/^4.24, and in ranch and
garden products $21,017.23. Two new buildings were constructed by the convicts
and with improvements to existing buildings this amounted to $76,320.36. The
road work done during this period amounted to $223,479.56. So that the total
earnings were $353,961.39, and the appropriation from the state was $237,000,
practically no increase over previous years.

In 1915-16 the value of this road work done by the prisoners is placed at
$465,000, while the maintenance expense was kept at practically the same figures
as in the period of 1913-14, $207,000.

In the earlier years the prisoners were employed in the quarries, in dressing
stone, making brick and lime, building walls, repairing prison buildings, and in
farm and garden work. In the biennial period of 1899-1900 about 2,200,000
pounds of farm produce raised by prisoners was weighed in at the prison sides.

In August, 1899, the indeterminate sentence and parole law went into effect.
Under this prisoners can now by good behavior and by work on the highways cut
their terms nearly in half. With life prisoners also there has now come into ef-
fect a policy of commuting the sentence to a term of years, if the conduct of the
prisoner warrants. There is also now a policy of adjusting sentences by means
of commutations. For instance, in one district a prisoner found guilty of ore
thefts will be given a very short sentence. On the other hand his companion for
a similar crime in another district will be given an unusually severe sentence. The
power of commutation is now justly used to adjust these irregularities in penal-
ties.

In 1900 the General Assembly began to encourage the use of prisoners in the
construction of state highways. In that year about seventy miles of road was
thus improved under legislative enactment between Pueblo and Leadville. Under
the methods first adopted the prisoners were turned over to a road superintendent
and there was constant dissension between the latter and the prison authorities.
Finally the work was placed in direct charge of the prison officials and the results
were in every way satisfactory.

In 1903 the three cell houses were entirely inadequate and cells were in many
instances occupied by two prisoners. In 1904 a new cell house provided quarters
for an additional hundred prisoners. In 1907 the hospital and insane ward and



HISTORY OF COLORADO 819

the new bakery plant were constructed, the labor coming nearly altogether from
prisoners.

In 1906 the Legislature appropriated funds for the construction of a north
and south highway across the state, beginning at Trinidad. This work was done
largely by prison labor, and is one of the best constructed highways in the state.
Under what was known as the Lewis law much work was done by convicts on
county roads.

In 1910 Thomas J. Tynan, the present warden, made his first biennial re-
port, and two paragraphs taken from this give some conception of the reforms
introduced by him: "The present system of handling prisoners is an incentive
to the preservation of self-respect. Instead of sending broken revengeful men
back into the world — in no wise reformed but simply trained to greater cunning
— there are being restored mended men, eager and willing to be made of such
use as society will permit. By removing the continual threat of arms, by elimi-
nating oppression and brutalities, by establishing a system of graded rewards for
cheerfulness and industry, the penitentiary has been given a wholesome, helpful
atmosphere. Beginning with the first of the year, 191 1, no striped clothing is to
be in use in this prison, the present system permitting the change from 'stripes'
to blue after a probationary period of ninety days."

The prisoners on parole December i, 1908, numbered 676; paroled in 1909
and 1910, 544; of this total number only sixty-two were returned either for vio-
lation of parole or for crimes committed while on parole.

It is now estimated that 80 per cent of those placed on parole are making
good.

In the biennial period, 191 1 and 1912, the daily average of prisoners contained
in the penitentiary was 768, compared with 724 in 1909-1910. Of these 334, or
52 per cent, were daily employed on trust and honor. The prisoners built in this
period 157 miles of road. In 1914-15 this mileage was 149. In 1915-16 the
institution worked 1,085 prisoners on road and farm work.

In 1907-8 there were 1,243 individual prisoners handled; in 1909-10 this fig-
ure grew to 1,402; in 1911-12 this figure was 1,462: in 1913-14, it was 1,603.
Appropriations for these periods were: 1907-8, $216,000; 1909-10, $240,000;
1911-12, $237,000; 1913-14, $208,000; 1915-16, $207,000.

The new administration building, the appropriation for which was rriade from
earnings of land owned by the institution, was completed and is now occupied.
The old administration building has been razed. During this and the previous
biennial period the cell houses were enlarged and made thoroughly sanitary. The
Colorado penitentiary is today considered one of the model institutions of its
kind in the country.

The State Board of Corrections, which has supervision of the state peni-
tentiary, consisted January i, 1918, of E. B. Wicks, of Pueblo, president ; L. C.
Paddock, of Boulder; and I. B. Allen, of Denver, secretary. Thomas J. Tynan
continues as warden. The last Board of Penitentiary Commissioners consisted
of Joseph H. Maupin, of Carion City, president; E. W. McDaniel, of La Junta;
and Mrs. Helen L. Grenfell, of Denver, secretary.

The work of Thomas J. Tynan is thus epitomized by a newspaper student of
his methods : "Fifteen life-termers are among the 300 convicts who in khaki-clad
gangs of about sixty are blasting out good roads through the Rockies. They



820 HISTORY OF COLORADO

work under unarmed overseers, with no stockades, no barbed wire, no ball and
chain, no growl of guns. Nine o'clock at night sees a roll-call at each road camp.
Then the gang climbs into its tented bunks and the camp's solitary rifle is shoul-
dered by the night guard-convict, who keeps a keen lookout for coyotes. Less
than one-half of one per cent of the convicts so trusted have escaped since Colo-
rado's first road camp was pitched, May 12, 1908. Special legislation gives in ad-
dition to a liberal good-behavior allowance a ten-day reduction of term for every
thirty days in a road camp. Thus a Colorado convict sentenced to between ten
and twenty years is enabled to earn his release in four years and three months.
When the State Board of Pardons met, December, 1912, at Denver, Bud Parrott,
murderer and life term convict and who had been one of the most desperate
characters in the state, in answer to a telegram from his warden, left the road
camp alone and in citizen clothes, boarded a train at Fort Collins, rode alone
seventy-seven miles to Denver, talked unattended to Governor Shafroth, pleaded
his own case before the board, and then quietly returned to camp. He was par-
doned in 1913. When the famous Sky Line Drive, at Canon City, the road to
the top of the Royal Gorge, was completed, the 700 convicts who had built it
were the reception committee along the drive to welcome the governor and
staff. Convicts built this famous highway for $6,400. When Air. Tynan was
appointed in March, 1909, he found 500 idle convicts, seventeen of whom were
insane. There were guards who swore at convicts, spies who peeped into cells
at night, whips for flogging men, a final substitute for the paddle which was used
for years, and unsanitary conditions generally. He changed all that. This is
what the convicts did in 1909 and 1910, exclusive of road building: Built for
$16,059.45 a modem $75,000 hospital building, measuring 138x48 ft., contain-



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