where he carried on farming for two years. In 1907 he arrived in Fort Collins and
continued to make his home in the town until 1915, when he became a resident of
Loveland, Colorado, where he lived with a daughter until his death, which occurred
in May. 1917, when he had reached the venerable age of eighty-four years. His wife died
in July, 1917, at the age of seventy-nine.
S. C. Taylor was reared and educated in Boulder and Larimer counties and
remained with his parents until he reached the age of thirty-one years, when he pur-
chased a place and began farming independently. He afterward sold that tract, how-
ever, and he and his father farmed together near Ault. In 1907 he removed to Lari-
mer county, where he was employed at farm labor until 1917, when he accepted the
position of manager of the Inverness ranch, belonging to Charles Evans, of Fort Col-
lins. The place comprises two hundred and forty acres a mile from Fort Collins and
he now farms the entire tract, making a business of feeding cattle and sheep.
On the 27th of September, 1902, Mr. Taylor was married to Miss Ella Smith, and
to them have been born seven children, Willard, Alice, Frank, Howard, James, Ken-
elseif (getClientWidth() > 430)
neth and Gertrude. Mr. Taylor is a member of Homesteaders Lodge and in politics
is a socialist.
EDWARD A. GORMLEY.
Edward A. Gormley is the efficient sheriff of Adams county, to which position
he was elected in 1918 as the candidate of the republican party, of which he has long
been a stalwart and aggressive champion. Mr. Gormley is one of Colorado's native
sons and was born and reared in the county in which he is now capably serving as an
oiBcial. His birth occurred upon the home farm near Eastlake, Adams county, Octo-
ber 26, 1883, his parents being Edward L. and Margaret (Chamley) Gormley, who
were early residents of that section.
In the acquirement of his education Edward A. Gormley attended the public schools,
after which he entered the University of Denver. He started out in the business world
when about nineteen years of age. buying and selling horses, buying, feeding and sell-
ing cattle and qualified as an expert judge of live stock. He conducted an extensive
business along that line until 1903, when he went to California and became connected
with the Baker Iron Works of Los Angeles.
The following year, however, Mr. Gormley returned to Denver and accepted a posi-
tion with the Weicker Transfer Company, with which he remained for several years.
He then removed to Beloit, Kansas, and through the succeeding two years was manager
of the Alfalfa Stock Farm in that locality. Again returning to Denver, he established
a transfer business, organizing the Independent Transfer Company, of Which he re-
EDWARD A. GORMLEY
592 HISTORY OF COLORADO
mained the president and general manager until he sold out the business in 1910. The
following year he spent in the employ ot the Pullman Company as a relief conductor,
serving their interests in various parts of the country. He then resumed agricultural
pursuits, locating upon and conducting the old Oliver ranch in Adams county, doing
an extensive business in buying, feeding and selling horses and cattle. He has Justly
been accounted one of the foremost stockmen of his section of the state and few are
better qualified to pass judgment upon the value of farm animals.
In 1913 Mr. Gormley was united in marriage to Miss Ruth Oliver, a daughter of
George W. and Lucelia (Taggart) Oliver, who were early settlers of Adams county.
Her father was a native of North Carolina and came to Colorado in 1871. The mother
was born in Massachusetts and removed to Colorado in 1S69. They were married in
this state on the 14th of October, 1877, and soon thereafter located upon the ranch in
Adams, then Arapahoe county, at which time the district was practically a wilderness.
They had live children, of whom three are living: Elsie, now the wife of Eli Sager, of
Cresco, Iowa; Ruth, now Mrs. Gormley; and Bertha Alice, who married Harry Coursey
and resides near Denver. Mr. Oliver died in 1903 at the age of fifty-three years, but
Mrs. Oliver is still active, with vivid memory of the early days and the pioneer times
of Colorado. To Mr. and Mrs. Gormley have been born two children, Margaret and
Mr. Gormley has long held membership with the Grange and is also identified with
the Masonic fraternity and the Independent Order of Foresters. Since age conferred
upon him the right of franchise he has given stalwart allegiance to the republican party
and has been active in political affairs though never an oflSce seeker. In the campaign
of 1918, however, he was made the choice of his party and induced to accept the nomi-
nation for sheriff, to which position he was elected with a substantial majority, and
is now filling the office with credit to himself and satisfaction to his constituents. He
has qualities which make for popularity and for friendship among those who know him
and the circle of his friends is constantly growing as the circle of his acquaintance
THOMAS J. TYNAN.
What Colorado owes to Thomas J. Tynan can scarcely be put into words. He
combines business principles with a humanitarian spirit. Ideals with practical methods
and keen foresight with enterprise. These qualities have made him a state penitentiary
warden whose work is known throughout the length and breadth of the land. He has
accomplished results not only in the business management of the institution of which
he is at the head but in the making of honorable men from convicts— results that
have been of the greatest benefit to the state. His own life story, now so closely inter-
woven with the lives of many others, had its beginning at Niles, Michigan. He was
born January 15, 1874, a son of Patrick and Margaret (Crawford) Tynan. He acquired
his education in the public schools of his native state and afterward became associated
with A. F. Sheldon, of the Sheldon School of Chicago, in the book publishing business
in 1902. Later he was house manager for Armour & Company at Pueblo and subse-
quently a traveling salesman. In each position he made good. He went out after
results and achieved them by methods that would bear the closest Investigation and
scrutiny, and it was from his position as a traveling salesman on the road that he
was called to take charge of the state penitentiary at Canon City as its warden.
In the meantime Mr. Tynan was married on the 9th of July, 1908, to Miss Florence
E. Scott, of Las Animas, Colorado. On the 7th of April of the following year he
was appointed warden of the state penitentiary, which position he still occupies. In
1918 he had become so prominently known throughout the state and his ability was so
widely recognized that the democratic party nominated him at the primaries for the
oflRce of governor, defeating Julius C. Gunter. the recent governor of Colorado by a
heavy vote. However, he met defeat at the following election in the republican land-
slide. His work in the penitentiary, however, has made Thomas J. Tynan a national
figure in connection with prison reform measures. He had no experience along that
line and probably no theories when he was called to his present position. He had
proven his worth as a business man, however, and he saw before him the business of
wisely managing an institution for the public. But he saw more than that — the
opportunity to make men of criminals. It is said that during the first week after
his arrival at Canon City he spent his time in investigation "into every crack and
corner, going over vouchers, conning price lists, studying deputies and keepers, talking
HISTORY OF COLORADO 593
with prisoners in dungeons, cell and yard, eating food out of the prison kitchen, finger-
ing garments in the tailor shop and generally familiarizing himself with the institu-
tion Just as a merchant would look into a business that he was taking over." This
week suflBced to make him familiar with conditions in the institution and resulted in
the discharge of many drunken guards and brutal keepers. In so doing he thought
nothing of politics or pull and he enunciated his doctrine as that of the "square deal" —
a policy that must govern every individual in the institution from the lowest criminal
to the highest official. He countenanced no graft in purchases but bought where he
could buy most advantageously. He was paid a salary of two hundred and eight dollars
a month and on coal alone he soon made a change that saved to the state five hundred
dollars a month. This was his initial step. He had been in office little more than a
year when it was written of him: "Notwithstanding the trebled cost of living, he has
practically rebuilt the penitentiary, provided better food and clothes, made a hundred
and one improvements, and at the end of his term will have sixty thousand dollars
left out of his appropriation to turn back into the state's treasury." The financial
side, however, is but a meager thing in comparison with what he has done for the
men. Again we quote from a published article: "He found an atmosphere of evil
and despair. Of the seven hundred and odd inmates of the penitentiary, more than
half are now working out in the open, away from prison walls and without armed
guards. Many of these men he found in dark cells, cursing, raving, willing to give
up the wretched remnant of their lives for some small chance of revenge. He created
an atmosphere of hope and honor, and made it clear to every convict, no matter what
his crime, that they still had a chance to 'make good.' * * « After doing away
with brutality and dishonesty, and convincing every prisoner that he would be treated
fairly, he looked about for a chance to employ the men to the best possible advantage
for the institution but most of all for their own good. The men know that he is
humane, honest, and always on the square, and they also know that he can't be fooled,
and that his hand can fall heavy as lead when the occasion demands. And all around
them they see proofs of his interest in them, his friendship for the man that wants
to make good. * * * It is his custom every Sunday to hold audiences for the con-
victs. Every convict, the worst along with the best, gets his weekly chance to prefer
request or grievance. * * * Stripes are only worn by the disobedient and unre-
pentant; others wear blue. And Mr. Tynan is now preparing to clothe his road and
farm men in olive-colored khaki." Fully one-half of the men are working on high-
ways. Over two thousand miles of Colorado's splendid highways, which are unsur-
passed in the country, have been built through prison labor. These men are sent out
in camps under supervisors and not under guards. They work in the open under the
blue sky and have a clean, cool place in which to sleep, where good thoughts are made
possible. Some of the road camps where the men work are as far as three hundred
miles from the prison proper, each, camp under the direction of three supervisors.
The men work eight hours a day and have their Sundays for recreation. Faithfulness
wins them a reduction of ten days a month in their prison term. It is the hope of
the men to get into some of these camps, which are modern, sanitary and with no
sign of the physical restraint usually associated with prison life. When a man obtains
his parole Mr. Tynan endeavors to place him in a position where he can earn his liv-
ing. Many of the men have worked upon the thousand-acre farm connected with the
institution. They have learned modern and scientific methods of agriculture, of dairy-
ing and poultry raising and along any of these lines they are able to provide tor their
own support. Mr. Tynan has found opportunity to place many of his men on ranches
and he is continually receiving letters of good report. A feature of the institution of
which Mr. Tynan is justly proud is a magnificent new hospital, modern in every
respect. There is a perfect operating room, water closets in every cell, a separate
ward for consumptives and sun porches. This building was erected at a cost of fifteen
thousand dollars as compared with seventy-five thousand dollars usually spent for
such buildings in the average prison. Mr. Tynan has also regarded the influence of
beauty upon the men in his charge. "Just as he turned odd bits of lumber into a
sun porch, so did he use paint scrapings to turn plain windows into stained glass
and have artistic grills made out of stray bits of wood. Grass grows where once were
barren stretches of dirt from which every wind blew dust clouds, and on every hand
are flower beds and climbing vines." Something of the efficiency methods of Mr.
Tynan is found in the fact that he removed all of the penitentiary floors and pave-
ments that were made of flagstones and put in concrete because it is "cleaner, bet-
ter and more sanitary." Then he used the old flagstones to make feeding platforms
in the pig pens, and when he saw alfalfa being cut and hauled in as food for the
Vol. rv— 38
594 HISTORY OF COLORADO
pigs, he said: "Let the pigs do their o-wn cutting." In other words, he had a strong
fence put around an alfalfa field and turned the pigs into that, thus saving the labor
of men and teams. From a business point the penitentiary has certainly been a suc-
cess, but there is nothing of which Mr. Tynan and the state are so justly proud as the
fact that many of the inmates have returned to lives of usefulness, contributing to
the material development of the state through their business activity— no longer a
liability but an asset.
CALVIN EMMETT BROMLEY.
Calvin Emmett Bromley, a well known ranchman who since 1906 has occupied and
managed the old homestead property near Brighton, was born about six miles north
of Denver on the ISth of June, 1881. His parents are Martin and Grace (Clodtfelter)
Bromley, who were early residents of eastern Colorado. The father was born in Peru,
Clinton county, New York, and came to this state in 1878, turning his attention to the
cattle business after taking up a claim of one hundred and sixty acres on Sand Creek.
In 1S86 he purchased one hundred and twenty acres from the Union Pacific Railroad
Company and has since owned and improved the property, actively carrying on farm-
ing for many years. He was the first sheriff of Adams county and has been closely
identified with pioneer progress and development as well as with the advancement
that has been made in more recent years. In Denver, on the 2d of September, 1880,
he married Grace Clodtfelter, who was brought to Colorado in 1861, during her infancy.
Her grandfather was the Rev. Keeler, who built the first brick house in Denver and was
one of the first ministers of the Episcopal church of the city. He had a brother.
Jack Keeler. who was the first sheriff of Arapahoe territory, having come to Colorado
in. 1858. Martin and Grace (Clodtfelter) Bromley became the parents of nine children,
of whom Calvin E. is the eldest, the others being: Daniel, now living in California;
Martin V., who is at Barr, Colorado; Thomas, a resident of Brighton; Maude; Har-
rick H.; Donald, living in Denver; David; and Grace.
Calvin E. Bromley was educated in district schools of Adams county and worked
with his father upon the home farm for a few years after his textbooks were put
aside. He then turned his attention to mining, in which pursuit he engaged for a few
years but in 1906 returned to the old home place and has sinc.e given his attention
to agricultural pursuits there, leasing the farm at the present time from his father.
He has added to its development and to its improvement and is accounted one of the
progressive agriculturists of his section of the state.
On the 4th of August, 1909, in Denver, Mr. Bromley was married to Miss Pearl
L. Duncan, a daughter of William and Amanda Melvina (Horton) Duncan. Mrs. Bromley
was born in Kansas. Mr. Bromley is actuated in all that he does by a spirit of enter-
prise and his labors are productive of splendid results in the attainment of agricul-
JOHN OTTO MILLER.
John Otto Miller, acceptably filling the office of postmaster at Boulder, to which
position he was called by presidential appointment in June, 1916. was bom ,upon a
farm in Johnson county, Missouri. October 17, 1869. His father. John D. Miller, was
a native of Kentucky, his birth having occurred in Cumberland county, that state, on
the 6th of August, 1826. He removed to Missouri and on the 11th of November, 1854,
was there married to Miss Margaret M. Crutchfield, whose birth occurred in Ran-
dolph county, that state, April 18, 1835. They came to Colorado in the early "60s,
locating in Canon City, where they , resided until 1868, when they returned to Mis-
souri. Both spent their remaining days in that state, the father passing away Decem-
ber 15, 1907, while the mother was called to her final rest on the 10th of March, 1897.
John 0. Miller was reared upon the old homestead farm in his native county to
the age of fourteen years, when the family removed to Holden, Missouri, where he
supplemented his early education, acquired in the district schools, by advanced study
in the graded schools of the town. He continued to make his home in Holden until
1892, when at the age of twenty-three years he removed westward, believing that
he might have better business opportunities in this new and rapidly growing section
of the country.. Arriving in Boulder in 1892, he became identified with commercial
JOHN 0. MILLER
596 HISTORY OF COLORADO
interests as clerk In a hardware and grocery store. In 1901 he removed to Salina,
Colorado, where he opened a general merchandise business on his own account, re-
maining a factor in the trade of that place until 1915, when he sold out and returned
to Boulder. While a resident of Salina he was the democratic candidate for the office
of county commissioner at a time when that party was greatly in the minority and
yet he lost the election by only a few votes. In Salina precinct he carried every
vote with the exception of four or five, a fact indicative of his personal popularity
and the confidence and trust reposed in him. In June, 1916, he was appointed to
the position of postmaster of Boulder, in which capacity he is now serving. This is
not his initial experience, however, in a position of this character, for he had previ-
ously served as postmaster at Salina, Colorado. He has thoroughly systematized the
work of the oflice and gives satisfaction to its patrons by reason of his close atten-
tion to his business and his uniform courtesy.
On the 5th of August, 1891, in Holden, Missouri, Mr. Miller was united in mar-
riage to Miss Sallie Maud Whitsett, who was born April 22. 1871, a daughter of James
A. Whitsett, who served as a soldier in the Confederate army during the Civil war.
On July 4, 1S67. he wedded Miss Henrietta Jane Newton, of Lexington, Missouri.
Mr. and Mrs. Miller have become the parents of four children: Art F., who was born
July 8. 1893, and is now with the United States army in France; Edgar Gordon, who
was born August 25, 1898, and died on the 22d of January. 1901; LeRoy Herbert,
whose birth occurred March 5, 1902; and Vera Jean, whose natal day was August 24,
The religious faith of the family is that of the Presbyterian church and Mr. Miller
is identified also through membership relations with the Benevolent Protective Order
of Elks. His political allegiance has always been given to the democratic party since
age conferred upon him the right of franchise and he is a firm believer in its prin-
ciples. He stands for progress and improvement in all that pertains to the general
welfare and he is thoroughly in sympathy with the wholesome and purifying reforms
which have been growing up in both parties and which constitute the most hopeful
political sign of the period. His fellow townsmen speak of him in terms of warm
regard and the consensus of public opinion names him as one of the representative
citizens of Boulder.
JOHN W. CARSON.
John W. Carson, a farmer and stock raiser of Adams county, was born at Beaver
Creek, Maryland, on the 19th of May, 1862, a son of George T. and Lena (Bishop) Car-
son. The father was born in Franklin county, Pennsylvania, and the mother was also
a native of the Keystone state. They afterward removed to Maryland and both have
now passed away. They had a family of six children, four of whom are living.
John W. Carson, spending his boyhood and youth in his native state, pursued his
education in its public schools and on his removal westward established his home in
Benton county, Iowa, where he lived for seven years. In 1883 he came to Colorado,
where he took up mining, and followed that pursuit for a number of years, after which
he turned his attention to farming in Adams county. He now operates one hundred
and forty-five acres of excellent land, which is a part of the home ranch. He makes
a specialty of farming and stock raising and both branches of his business are proving
profitable. He works persistently and indefatigably and his fields produce large and
abundant crops. He also exercises great care in his stock raising interests and has
upon his place a high grade of cattle and hogs.
In 1896 Mr. Carson was united in marriage to Miss Edith Mitchell, a native of
Colorado and a daughter of William and Fannie (Rosencrans) Mitchell, who were
natives of the Empire state and came to Colorado at an early period in its development.
The father passed away here but the mother is living at the age of seventy-three years.
William Mitchell was a native of St. Johns Parish, Cornwall, England, and came to
America when a youth of twenty-one years. Shortly afterwards he became a student
in Oberlin College, at Oberlin, Ohio, and there he first met Fannie Rosencrans. whom
he later married, and who also was a student there. She is directly descended from
illustrious families closely connected with our nation's military history, and numbering
among their representatives, both General Herkimer of Revolutionary fame, and Gen-
eral Rosecrans of the Civil war.
Mr. and Mrs. Carson have become the parents of six children. George Edgar, who
sustained the military traditions of his progenitors by enlisting in the United States
598 HISTORY OF COLORADO
navy, in October, 1917, was among the first to volunteer from Colorado. He was sent
to the Naval Training Station at Brooklyn, New York, and in July, 1918, was assigned
to active duty, with the grade of third petty officer. He was later promoted to second
officer and is now on the staff of Admiral Dunn, on active service in the Azores. The
other children are: Florence K., now a student at Fort Collins; J. Earl; Gladys M.;
Iris N. ; and Theodore Lederer.
Mr. Carson votes with the democratic party, which he has supported since reach-
ing adult age, but he has never been an office seeker as he finds that his business affairs
make constant demand upon his time and attention. He had no special advantages
at the outset of his career but has worked steadily and persistently as the years have
gone by and whatever prosperity has come to him has been the direct outcome of his
labors and enterprise.
GEORGE FERRIS McRAY.
George Ferris McKay was one of the prominent pioneer people of Canon City
and mine operators of the Cripple Creek district. He was born in Stamford. Connecti-
cut, January 1, 1834, and pursued his education in the schools of that state and of
Michigan, the family having removed to the latter state during his boyhood days.
His early identification with the west came through freighting operations from Ne-
braska to Denver and Salt Lake City, in which work he continued until the early
'60s. In 1865 he returned to Michigan and was there married in Orangeville in 1867,
to Miss Sarah A. Clark, a native of Oswego county. New York, born July 9, 1844.
For seven years thereafter he engaged in the cultivation of the farm which he had
purchased from his father and then came with his family direct to Canon City,
Reaching his destination, Mr. McRay purchased the site of the home still occu-
pied by the family in South Canon. Mr. McRay and two brothers were among the
big operators in the Cripple Creek district. They discovered valuable mining property
which was consolidated with the Ajax Mining and Milling Company, and in which
the family still retains a substantial interest. They also discovered other valuable
properties in the Cripple Creek district and for many years Mr. McRay was a promi-
nent operator in the mining regions of the state, winning notable success as the result
of his sound judgment and enterprise. He died at San Diego, California, June 27,