William Adam.

Third report on the state of education in Bengal;+ including some account of the state of education in Behar, and a consideration of the means adapted to the improvement and extension of public instruction in both provinces online

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adnameh on the conjugation of verbs ; the formal reading of the Koran ;
Tutinameh or tales of a parrot; Ruqaat-i-Alamgir, the correspondence
ofAlamgir; Insha-i-Yusafi, forms of epistolary correspondence ; Mula-
tafa, a collection of letters exhibiting different styles of penmanship ;
Toghra, an account of Cashmir ; and the poems of Zahir ; of Nasir
Ali ; and of Sayib.

The only additional work in Arabic employed as a school-book in this
district is the Munshdab on Arabic conjugations.

District of Burdwan.

In this district there are 3 schools in which nothing more than the
formal reading of the Koran is taught as described in the Second Report
p. 2729 ; 93 Persian schools ; and 8 Arabic schools.

[ 67 ]

Seven of these schools are found in one village and three in another ;
six villages contain two each and eighty-two villages contain one each.

There are three Musalman teachers to the three schools for the formal
reading of the Koran, and twelve Musalman teachers to the eight
schools of Arabic learning ; two of these schools having each three
teachers, of whom one teaches Arabic, the second Persian, and the third
watches over the manners and general conduct of the pupils. The
ninety-three Persian schools have the same number of teachers of whom
eighty-six are Musalmans and seven Hindus. Of the latter four are
kayasthas, two brahmans, and one a gandhabanik. The average age of
all the teachers is 39.5 years.

Twenty-two teachers instruct gratuitously and of that number six also
support and clothe the whole or a part of their scholars. I have not found
any instance in which Hindu students receive from a Musalman teacher
or patron any thing beyond gratuitous instruction. Thus in one instance
a maulavi gratuitously instructs seven Hindu scholars, but in addition to
gratuitous instruction he gives also food and clothing to eleven Musal-
man students ; in another, a maulavi gratuitously instructs two Hindu and
six Musalman students, and he gives also food and clothing to five other
Musalman students ; and in a third case, a maulavi has thirteen Musal-
man students, all of whom he both instructs and supports. The rule
appears to be that those students, whether Hindus or Musalmans, who
are natives of the village in which the school is situated receive gratuit-
ous instruction only, while those Musalman students who are natives of
other villages and have come from a distance for the sake of instruction
receive also food and clothing. On the other hand when a Hindu is the
patron as in the case of the Raja of Burdwan who supports two Persian
schools, Musalman and Hindu scholars enjoy equal advantages al-
though the number of the former is less. Thus in one of the Raja's
schools 13 Hindus and 2 Musalmans and in the other 13 Hindus and
1 Musalman receive instruction and food for four years after which they
may continue to study, but without receiving food. Some of the patrons
and gratuitous teachers are men of great wealth or high character, and
others without possessing either of these are holders of land by the
tenure of Ayma which was apparently regarded in several instances as
involving an obligation to give gratuitous instruction. This is more
apparent in one case from the fact that the holder of the land, after long

[ 68 ]

neglecting this obligation, lately sent three or four scholars to the
neighbouring schools whom he supports at his own expense. The
remuneration of the paid teachers is as follows :

11 teachers receive monthly wages, Rs. 156

14 receive fees, 70 8

1 ,, receives only his daily food, 200

10 receive monthly wages and uncooked food, 61 11

1 receives monthly wages and subsistence money, 25

29 ,, receive fees and uncooked food, 151 3

2 ,, receive monthly wages and annual presents, 11

6 ,, receive fees and annual presents, 20 3

1 receives weekly and annual presents, 2 14

11 receive fees, uncooked food, and annual presents, 67 4

Thus 86 paid teachers receive in all Rs. 573-11, averaging to each
Its. 6-10-8 per month.

Out-houses, baithak-khanas, chandi mandaps, and kachharis are em-
ployed as school-houses here as elsewhere, the place occupied generally
belonging to the principal supporter of the school and sometimes to the
teacher himself. In one instance, one of the scholars in a Persian
school in payment of the instruction he receives supplies the teacher
with a school-house rent-free. Of the Persian schools about a dozen
have school-houses expressly built for that purpose, and varying in the
estimated cost of erection from six rupees to two hundred. Three of
the Arabic schools have buildings estimated to have cost 50, 200, and
250 rupees respectively. Another has a school-house with a dwelling-
house attached in the upper story of which the teacher lives, while the
scholars are lodged below. Two of them have large endowments with
buildings estimated to cost, in one instance 15,000 and in the other
50,000 rupees. Each endowment is applied to the support not only of
a school, but of a hospital, a mosque, and a sacred relic.

In 104 schools there are 971 scholars averaging 9.3 to each school.
Of the total number 17 are engaged in the formal reading of the Koran,
899 in the perusal of Persian works, and 55 in the study of Arabic
learning. All the Koran-readers are Musalmans ; of the Persian
scholars, 451 are Musalmans and 44-8 are Hindus; and of the Arabic
students 51 are Musalmans and 4 are Hindus. Of the four Hindu
students of Arabic, two are of the aguri caste, one is a kayastha, and

one a teli. The following are the castes and numbers of the 448 HinJus
who are Persian scholars :

Kayastha, 172

Brahman, ........ 153

Sadgop, 50

Aguri, 42

Suvarnabanik, .... 8
Vaidya, 4

The following are the average ages of the scholars at the three periods
formerly mentioned :

















Koran readers, .
Persian scholars,
Arabic students,

8.7 ...

10.03 ...



The following works, in addition to some mentioned under the preced-
ing heads, are read in the schools of this district :

In Persian, Tis Takhti, a spelling-book; Farsi Nameh or Sirab
Dhokay a vocabulary ; Insha-i-Herkern, forms of correspondence ; Nal
Daman, translation from Sanscrit of a love-story ; the poems of Urfi, of
Hafiz, of Wahshati, of Ghani, of Badr, and of Khakani, the last in-
cluding both the Tahfut-ul~Irdkin and Kasaid-i-KJiakani ; Waqaia
Nyamat Khan Alt, an account of the campaigns of Aurungzebe ; Hadi-
kat-ul-Balaghat, a grammar of rhetoric ; Shah Nameh, Firdusi's
national poem ; and Kuliyat-i-Khosro, the works of Khosro.

In Arabic, Sarf Mir and Hidayat-us-Sarf on the etymology of the
Arabic ; Miat Amil, Jummul, Tatamma, Hidayat un-Nahv, Misba,
Zawa, Kajia, and Sharh-i-Mulla on syntax, Zawa being a commentary
on Misba, and Sharh-i-Mulla on Kafia ; Mizan-i-Mantik, Tahzib, Mir
Zahid, Kutbiy Mir, and Mulla Jala/on logic, Kutbi and Mulla Jalal being
commentaries on Mir Zahid, and Mir a glossary to Kutbi ; Sharh-i-
Waqaia, on the circumstantials of Islam, as the ceremonies of religion
and the law of inheritance ; Nurulanwar, on the fundamentals of Islam,
as the unity of God and the mission of Mohammad; Sirajiya, com-
pendium of Mohammadan law ; Hidaya, on the law of inheritance ;
Miscat-ul-Misabih, on Mohammadan observances ; Shams-i-Bazigha
and Sadra, treatises on natural philosophy; Sharh-i-Chaghmani, a

[ 70 ]

treatise on astronomy according to the Ptolemaic system ; and Tauji,
Talbi, and Faragh, treatises on metaphysics.

District of South Behar.

This district contains 291 schools of which 279 are Persian and 12

One town contains nineteen, another eleven, a third seven, a fourth
six, and a fifth five schools. Five villages contain three each ; twenty-
four, two each ; and a hundred and eighty, one each.

The number of teachers is the same as the number of schools and
their average age is 34?.2 years.

One of the Persian teachers is a Hindu of the writer-caste, and all the
other teachers, both Persian and Arabic, are Musalmans.

Two of the teachers instruct gratuitously, and two others give both
food and instruction to their pupils. The remaining teachers are re-
munerated as follows :

1 teacher receives monthly wages and clothes and food for himself

and scholars, Rs. 46 8

1 monthly wages, food for himself and scholars,

and the proceeds of an endowment of land, .. 165 5 4

2 receive monthly wages, 300

2 ., fees, 770

5 monthly wages and uncooked food,. ......... ,. .. 16 8

14 ,, fees and uncooked food, 49 6

2 monthly wages and subsistence money, 880

22 fees and subsistence money, 75 11

2 fees and weekly presents, 8 10

3 monthly wages and annual presents, 510

10 fees and annual presents, 27 3 9

6 monthly wages, uncooked food, and annual presents 8015 3

57 fees, uncooked food, and annual presents, 243 11 3

29 monthly wages, subsistence money, and annual

presents, - 101 8 9

95 fees, subsistence money, and annual presents,.... 454 7 3
1 ,, fees, subsistence money, and weekly presents,..., 700
1 monthly wages, weekly presents, and annual

presents, 3 2 3

[ 71 ]

1 teacher receives fees, uncooked food, weekly presents, and annual

presents, Rs. 4 6

10 monthly wages, subsistence money, weekly presents,

and annual presents, 47 5

22 fees, subsistence money, weekly presents, and

annual presents, 110 80

1 w fees, uncooked food, subsistence money, weekly

presents, and annual presents, ... 5 6 9

Thus 287 teachers receive in all Rs. 1472-3-7, averaging to each
Rs. 5-2 per month.

There is another source of gain to the teachers of Persian schools in
this district called Shurudti or a payment made by every scholar at the
commencement of a new book. This is so uncertain that it cannot
strictly be regarded either as a monthly or an annual gain. In 579
instances in which I ascertained that this payment had been made, the
total amount was Rs. 138-9-6 which averages only three annas and
about ten pie in each case ; and as it is seldom that a school-book is
changed oftener than once a year, and the average number of scholars
to each school is about five, this will give each teacher an additional
sum of Rupee 1-3-2 per annum or about an anna and a half monthly.

Two maulavis in this district are highly distinguished for learning
and they are both authors.

Maulavi Gholam Hossein, dwelling at Sahebgunge in the thana of
that name, has written in Persian a compilation called Jam-i-Bahadur
Khani, from various Arabic works on arithmetic, geometry, astronomy,
and the natural sciences with additions of his own. This work has been
printed and contains 720 pages. He is now engaged in the prepara-
tion of astronomical tables to be entitled Zij Bahadur Khani. The
names of both works are intended as a compliment to his patron Bahadur
Khan, one of the sons of Mitrajit Singh, the Raja of Tikari.

Maulavi Mohiyuddin, dwelling at Erki in the thana of Jehanabad, has
composed in Persian Sharh-i- Abdul Rasul, a commentary on the work of
Abdul Rasul on Arabic syntax, consisting of 288 pages in manuscript ;
and Jawab Chabbis Musciir, a treatise on Mohammadan observances
containing 12 pages, also in manuscript. In Arabic he has written
Majmua Taqrir Mantiq Amani, explanatory of Majmua, a work on
logic, and consisting of 32 pages in manuscript,

[ 72 ]

Raja Mitrajit Singh also put into my hands a pamphlet on the agri-
culture of the district, written in Persian and printed, of which he stated
himself to be the author. On examination I have found it to be the same
in substance as the Short Essay on Husbandry translated by Mr. Lewis
Dacosta and appended to his translation of the Dewan Pusund.

There are only two Persian and two Arabic schools that have appro-
priate buildings or school-houses, the pupils of the remaining schools
finding or making accommodations for themselves chiefly in the thresholds
or verandas of the private dwelling-houses occupied by the patrons or

In 291 schools there are 1,486 scholars averaging 5.1 to each school.
There are 1,424 Persian scholars and 62 Arabic students. Of the Arabic
students two are Hindus of the writer-caste and sixty are Musalmans ;
and of the Persian scholars 865 are Hindus and 559 are Musalmans.
The following are the subdivisions of the Hindus who are Persian
scholars :

Kayastha, 711

M agadha, 55

Rajput, 30

Kshatriya, 13

Brahman, 11

Gandhabauik, .... 11

Kairi, 10

Teli, 4

Swarnakar, 4

Bundela, 3

Mahuri, * 3

Vuishnava, 2

Sum i, , 2







Of the total number of Hindu scholars eight were absent and of the
Musalman scholars three were absent at the time the schools were
visited, the remaining number of each class being present. The average
ages of the Persian and Arabic scholars at the three periods formerly-
mentioned are as follows :

Persian scholars, 7.8 .... 11,1 .... 21.5

Arabic students, 12.3 .... 16.0 .... 24.2

The following works were found in use in the Persian schools :
Mamaqima, an elementary work; Nisab-us- Subyan, a vocabulary;
Sawal Jawab, dialogues ; Bhagaivan Das, a grammar ; Insha-i-Madho
Ram, Insha-i-Musallas, Mukhtasar-ul-Ibarat, Insha-i-Khurd, Mufid-
ul-Insha, Insha-i-Munir, Insha-i- Brahman, and Murad-i-Hasil, forms
of correspondence ; Alqab Nameh, on modes of address ; the poems of

[ 73 ]

Hilali and Kalim ; Zahuri, an account of one of the kings of the
Deccan ; Kushaish Nameh and Kisseh Sultan, tales ; Nam-i-Haq
names and attributes of God; Gauhar-i-Murad, on the doctrines of
Islam; Kiranus Saadin, a poem by Khosro; and Mizan-ut-Tib and
Tiba-i-Akber, on medicine.

In the Arabic schools the following text-books were employed : Fasul
Akberi, on inflection ; Nahv-i-Mir and Zariri, on syntax ; Sharh-i-
Tahzib, commentary on Tahzib, a treatise on logic ; Mukhtasar-ul-Mani t
a treatise on rhetoric ; Maibadi, on natural philosophy ; the elements
of Euclid ; Sharh-i- Tazkira, on astronomy ; Sharafiya, on the law
of inheritance ; Dair on the doctrines of Islam ; and Almijasti,
astronomy of Ptolemy (Svvraie Meyi<n/).

District of Tirhoot.

This district contains 238 schools of which 234? are Persian and 4>

Of these one town contains twenty-seven, another twelve, and a third
eleven. Two villages contain four each ; six three each ; twenty-thre e
two each ; and one hundred and sixteen one each.

The number of Persian teachers is the same as the number of Persian
schools. The number of Arabic teachers is six, one of the Arabic
schools having three teachers. The average age of all the teachers is
33.9 years.

One of the Persian teachers is a Hindu of the writer-caste, and all
the other teachers both of Persian and Arabic schools are Musalmans.

One teacher instructs gratuitously and five teachers give gratuitous
instruction to all their scholars and food to twenty-two of them. The
others are remunerated as follows :

1 teacher gives subsistence money to 14 scholars and receives month-

ly wages from a patron,... Rs. 853

11 receive monthly wages, 27 2

1 ,i ,, fees, ., 160

4 ), subsistence money, 7 8

14 monthly wages and subsistence money, ,. 42 4


C 74 ]

8 teachers receive fees and subsistence money, ......< 11 14

4 ty monthly wages and annual presents, 17 3 6

4 fees and annual presents, 19 6 9

1 fees, uncooked food, and annual presents, 5 3 3

2 monthly wages, subsistence money, and weekly

presents, 312

74 } monthly wages, subsistence money, and annual pre-
sents, 221 9 9

37 w J} fees, subsistence money, and annual presents, .... 95 8 3

3 fees, subsistence money, and weekly presents, .... 11 12

1 fees and weekly and annual presents, 4 4 9

3 monthly wages, subsistence money, uncooked food,

and annual presents, 911

54 monthly wages, subsistence money, and weekly and

annual presents, ....*........ 183 14 3

12 fees, subsistence money, and weekly and annual

presents, 31 8 9

Thus 234 teachers receive in all Rs. 702-5-6 averaging to each about
Rs. 3 per month. In 237 instances which were individually ascertained
the sum of Rs. 84-13 was received by the teachers as Shuriiati which,
giving two scholars and a half to each school and a year to each school-
book, makes an average addition of one anna and two pie to the monthly
income of each teacher.

Mohammad Imam Shah and Bahram Shah two of the three teachers of
an Arabic school at Darbhanga in the thana of that name, possess consi-
derable property personal or endowed, and are men of high character,
great intelligence, and extensive learning. They are brothers and are
both authors.

Maulavi Mohammad Imam Shah, the elder brother, has written in
Persian Sharh-i-Kholasat-ul-Hisab, a commentary of 640 pages on
Kholasat-ul-Hisab, a treatise on arithmetic ; and Daira-o-Jadwal-i-
Najum, a pamphlet of 8 pages on astronomy. In Arabic he has written
Nashya Sharh-i-Suttam, notes extending to 240 pages on Hamidullah's
commentary on Sullam, a work on logic; Sharh-i-Kasideh Amali,
a commentary of 34 pages on Kasideh Amali, a work on the doc-
trines of religion ; Risaleh Rafaa Yadain, a pamphlet of 36 pages on the
sayings of Mohammad ; Mabahisseh Imamiya> miscellaneous essays
extending to 160 pages ; Durar-i-Mohammadi, a treatise of 40 pages on
theology ; and Siraj-ul-Kalub, a tract of 18 pages on Sufeeism.

[ 75 ]

Maulavi Bahrain Shah, the younger brother, has written in Persian
Risaleh Tauzih-ul-Biyan, a pamphlet of 48 pages on the doctrines of
Islam, and Durur-ul- Islam one of 44 pages on the law of inheritance. In
Arabic he lias written Risaleh Ramzul Hidayat, a tract of 8 pages on
the doctrines of Islam ; and Risaleh Ashaar-ul-Mahjub, another of the
same size on the law of inheritance.

There are in all twenty-three school-houses averaging in the estimated
cost of erection from twelve annas to a hundred rupees. Those schools
that have no school-houses are accommodated in mosques, imambarahs,
dwelling-houses, verandas, kachhris, and out-houses belonging to the
patrons or teachers.

In 238 schools there are 598 scholars averaging 2.5 to each school.
All were present at the time the different schools were visited. Of the
whole number 569 are Persian scholars and 29 Arabic students. Of
the Arabic students two are Hindus of whom one is a brahman and the
other a kayastha, and the remaining twenty-seven are Musalmans. Of
the Persian scholars 126 are Musalmans and 443 Hindus, and the sub-
divisions of the latter are as follows :

Kalal, 4

Swarnakar, .. .. 1

Goala, 1

Gandhabanik, .. 1

The average ages of the Persian and Arabic scholars at the three
periods formerly mentioned are as follows :

Persian scholars, 6.8 10.8 19.3

Arabic students, 12.1 17.5 25.4

The following works were found in use in the Persian and Arabic
schools, exclusive of others previously mentioned.

In the Persian schools Mahmud Nameh, an elementary work ; Khush-
hal-us- Subyan, a vocabulary; Nisab-i-Musallas, a dictionary; Mahzuf-
ul-fTaruf, Jawahir-ut- Tarkib, and Dastur-ul-Mubtadi, on grammar;
Mufid-ul-Insha, Fyz Baksh, Mubarik Nameh, and Amanullah Hossein,
forms of correspondence ; the poems of Fahmi ; and Ruqaat-i-Abulfazl,
the letters of Abulfazl.

Kayastha, ..

.. 349

Kshatriya, .. ..


Brahman, ..

.. 30

Aguri, .. ..



.. 22

Barnawar, . .


Magadha, , .

.. 20

[ 76 ]

In the Arabic schools, Mir Zahid Risaleh, on logic ; Akaideh Nisfi,
on the doctrines of Islam ; Kanz-ud-Dakiiik, on the sayings of Moham-
mad ; and Kalamullah fllajid, the sacred word of God (the Koran).

SECTION X. General Remarks on the State of Persian and Arabic


First : The Hindustani or Urdu is the current spoken language of the
educated Musalmans of Bengal and Behar, and it is a remarkable feature
in the constitution of Mohammadan society in these provinces, and I infer
throughout India, that the vernacular language of that class is never
employed in the schools as the medium or instrument of written in-
struction. Bengali school-books are employed by the Hindus of Bengal
and Hindi school-books by the Hindus of Behar, but, although Urdu is
more copious and expressive, more cultivated and refined than either,
and possesses a richer and more comprehensive literature, Urdu school-
books are wholly unknown. It is the language of conversation in the
daily intercourse of life and in the business of the world, and it is the
language also of oral instruction for the explanation of Persian and Ara-
bic, but it is never taught or learned for its own sake or for what it con-
tains. It is acquired in a written form only indirectly and at second hand
through the medium of the Persian whose character it has adopted and
from which it has derived almost all its vocables, and it is employed
as a written language chiefly in popular poetry and tales and in fe-
male correspondence and often also in the pulpit. The absence
of Urdu schools for the Musalman population, corresponding with
the Bengali and Hindi schools for the Hindus, may explain in some
measure the greater degradation and ignorance of the lower classes of
Musalmans when compared with the corresponding classes of the Hindu
population ; and the first step to their improvement must be to supply
this defect.

Second : Except in those cases in which the Musalmans resort to Ben-
gali and Hindi schools, Persian instruction is the only substitute for verna-
cular instruction. Those Musalmans and Hindus who have received a Per-
sian education have nearly the same command of the Persian as a written
language that educated Englishmen have of their mother tongue. They
acquire it in their earliest years at school ; in after life they continue to

[ 77 ]

read the works it contains for instruction or amusement ; they can con-
verse in it, although it is not so employed in general society ; and they
employ it as the means of communication in the private correspondence
of friendship and in the written transactions of business. It is occasional-
ly the language of the pulpit in the celebrations of the moharram ; it is
the language of the long established manuscript Akhbars or Intelligencers
of the native courts, and of the printed newspapers of modern times
addressed to the educated classes of society ; and the employment of a less
worthy medium in composition is generally considered inconsistent with
the dignity of literature and science, philosophy and religion more as the
relaxation than the exercise of an instructed mind. The Persian lan-
guage therefore must be pronounced to have a strong hold on native

Third : There is no connection between the Bengali and Sanscrit
schools of Bengal or between the Hindi and Sanscrit schools of Behar :
the teachers, scholars, and instruction of the common schools are totally
different from those of the schools of learning, the teachers and scholars
being drawn from different classes of society and the instruction directed
to different objects. But this remark does not apply to the Persian and
Arabic schools which are intimately connected and which almost im-
perceptibly pass into each other. The Arabic teacher teaches Persian
also in the same school and to the same pupils ; and an Arabic school is
sometimes known from a Persian school only by having a single Arabic
scholar studying the most elementary Arabic work while all the other scho-
lars read Persian. The same scholars who are now studying Arabic
formerly read or may still be reading Persian in the same school and
under the same teacher ; and the scholars in an Arabic school who are
now reading Persian only will probably in the same school and under
the same teacher advance to the study of Arabic. The only distinction
that can be drawn is that while there is no Arabic teacher who does
not or may not teach Persian, there are many Persian teachers who do
not and cannot teach Arabic. But the class for which both Persian and
Arabic schools exist is the same, and that is the upper class of native socie-
ty, whether Hindus or Musalmans are the scholars and whether Persian or
Arabic is the language taught. Both languages are foreign, and both
classes of schools are inaccessible, to the body of the people.

Fourth : It is a question to what extent Persian and Arabic instruc-
tion is directed and sought by Hindus and Musalmans respectively ;

and the following table affords some means of estimating their relative
proportion by exhibiting the actual number of teachers and scholars
belonging to each class :