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50, pp. 243-245.


time the diverting of that proportion of the crop each year from the
ordinary channels of commerce doubtless has, in some seasons at least,
a material effect upon the market price received for the exported

Currant grapes were apparently introduced into some of the Vinif-
era districts of California as early as 1861, l but they have not yet
attained commercial importance there. Imports into the United
States in 1910 totaled more than 33,000,000 pounds of currants,
having an approximate value of $1,178,750. The imports of cur-
rants during that year from all other, countries were less than 250,000
pounds. 2


The history of the Panariti grape in the United States dates from
the receipt from Panariti, Greece, through Mr. David Fairchild,
agricultural explorer of this department, of a shipment of cuttings
which reached Washington May 9, 1901. Concerning this grape Mr.
Fairchild states: 3

The variety of grapes producing the currants or corinths of commerce.
These cuttings were purchased in the village of Panariti, which lies among the
mountains back of Xyloncastron. This village is noted for producing some of
the finest corinths in Greece.

Several varieties of currant grapes are grown in Greece, though
the crop differences are not distinguished in that country by varietal
names, but by the name of the regions in which they are produced ;
thus, Panariti grapes are grapes grown in the vicinity of the village
of Panariti.

Soon after the importation of cuttings was received at the depart-
ment they were distributed among grape growers in representative
Vinifera grape-growing districts in California, Arizona, and south-
ern Nevada. More recently the variety has been more widely dis-
seminated in connection with the viticultural investigations of the
Bureau of Plant Industrv.

Bunch very long, almost cylindrical but tapering, with quite an
enlargement toward end of bunch, often shouldered, straggling, loose ;
stem 1 J to 2 inches long, of medium size, soft and fleshy ; berry round,
very small, not averaging much over one-fourth of an inch in diam-
eter; surface smooth; color amber with whitish bloom; skin rather

1 Eisen, Gustav. The Raisin Industry, 1890, p. 38.

2 Bulletin 90, Bureau of Statistics, entitled " Imports of Farm and Forest Products,
1908-1910," p. 42.

3 Bulletin 66, Bureau cf Plant Industry, entitled " Seeds and Plants Imported during
the Period from September, 1900, to December, 1903, Inventory No. 10." p. 84, Xo. 6429.

* Description furnished by Mr. George C. Husmann, Pomologist in Charge of ViticultnraT
Investigations, Bureau of Plant Industry.


thin ; flesh white, soft, fairly juicy ; flavor sweet with the character-
istic flavor strongly developed. Season early August at Fresno. Its
chief value will doubtless be for drying. Wood light brownish green,
somewhat striped, with internodes 3 to 4 inches in length; rather
slender. In the first crop, which is the only one of real value, the
berries are seedless, but the second and third crop grapes contain
some seeds.

The question of the most suitable resistant stocks for this grape,
as well as the methods of pruning, training, and other cultural oper-
ations, is being investigated at the cooperative experiment vineyard
maintained by the Bureau of Plant Industry at Fresno, Cal. Indica-
tions at present suggest that the matter of stocks may be of much

Cultural methods also call for careful consideration in any de-
velopment of the currant industry that may occur in this country.
For instance, in Greece it is a common though not universal prac-
tice to girdle the vines to increase productiveness. It is understood
that in Australia girdling is the usual practice, as light crops are
habitual unless this is done. Whether this method or some modified
form of it can be effectively or advantageously adopted in this country
is as yet undetermined.

The adaptability of this variety to successful culture, in at least
some of the Vinifera grape districts of California, appears to have
been demonstrated. Some of the grape growers are already becom-
ing interested in it and it seems probable that in the near future the
production of it will become of considerable commercial importance
in the Vinifera grape districts in this country.

Ripening early, as it does, before most other varieties mature, the
fruit can be handled advantageously with the same vineyard crews
that are required later for harvesting the wine and table grapes. As
the ripening time in California is during the rainless period, when
the climatic conditions are the most favorable for drying fhe fruit,
there is everything to encourage its planting by those desirous of
producing currants.

The cluster illustrated in Plate LV was grown at the cooperative
experiment vineyard, Fresno, Fresno County, Cal.


SYNONYMS: Thomson's Navel, Thomson's Improved Navel, Thompson, Thomp-
son Improved, Thompson's Improved NaveL


One of the remarkable features of the orange industry of Califor-
nia is the fact that it has been built up so largely on a single variety,
the Washington Navel * or " Bahia," which was introduced into that

1 For a concise history of this variety, see Bulletin 123, Bureau of Plant Industry, enti-
tled " The Decay of Oranges while in Transit from California," p. 0.



State from Brazil by the United States Department of Agriculture
less than 40 years ago. The shipments of oranges from California
for the crop year 1910-11 amounted approximately to 39,500 cars.
Of these three-fourths are estimated to have been of the Washington
Xavel variety.

In view of the large production of this variety and the high esteem
in which it has been held for 30 years or more, it appears strange
that no seedlings of it have yet attained the distinction of commer-
cial introduction in our orange districts. This is doubtless in large
part due to the rarity of seeds in its fruit when grown under ordinary
orchard conditions. In recent years there have appeared in the Cali-
fornia orange districts several well-authenticated bud sports or
variations, one or two of which have been planted commercially to
some extent, the Golden Buckeye being an example.

Of less certain origin but more important commercially than the
above-named variety is the Thomson, which was disseminated by the
late A. C. Thomson, of Duarte, Los Angeles County, Cal., about
1891. 1 The published accounts of the origin of the variety are
conflicting. The first statement 2 was to the effect that it was an
improvement on the Washington Xavel accomplished by budding
that variety on a St. Michael stock, then budding from this tree on a
Mediterranean Sweet stock, thus securing the cumulative effect of
the two stocks upon the Washington Xavel. The statement was re-
ceived with much incredulity by the horticultural public and three
years later the introducer published in the Pacific Rural Press 3 an
account in which it was implied that the variety was produced by
;; split-bud " propagation but without details as to what varieties had
been used as the parents. At the same time he submitted to the editor
specimen buds prepared to illustrate the method which he had

The inadequacy of the evidence submitted and the well-known
tendency of the Washington Xavel orange to produce bud sports has
resulted in a firm conviction in the minds of many orange growers
that the Thomson in fact originated as a bud sport rather than
through any special process or expert manipulation of buds.

The exceptional beauty and attractiveness of the fruit aroused
much interest among growers, which was accentuated by the award
of a first premium to the variety when it was exhibited at the
Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893. Considerable plantings
of it are now found throughout southern California and some in
\ other orange-growing sections. As a dessert fruit it is not equal to
the parent variety, lacking in juiciness and sprightliness of flavor.

1 California Fruit Grower and Fruit Trade Review, vol. 8, No. '14, Apr. 4, 1891, p. 211,
and No. 19, May 9, 1891, p. 290.

2 Azusa Pomotropic. Mar. 19. 1S91. p. 7.

3 Pacific Rural Press, vol. 47, no. 23, June 9, 1894, p. 433.



Form slightly oblong; size above medium to large; cavity small,
furrowed; apex, navel markings either small or quite prominent;
surface smooth or slightly undulating; sometimes very shallow,
longitudinal furrows; stem slender; color pale orange yellow, red-
dening somewhat after picking, but usually not as richly colored as
the Washington Navel; oil cells numerous, small, indented or even
with surface ; rind relatively smooth, rather closely adherent, usually
thin and rather tender ; segments 10 to 12, irregular in size with open
center; flesh, rich yellow to deep orange in color, translucent, moder-
ately tender; cells small, regular, enveloping tissue thin; juice trans-
lucent, not very abundant; seedless; flavor sweet, sprightly, pleasant;
quality good, but not equal to the Washington Navel when the latter
is well grown. Its shipping season is about the same as that of the
Washington Navel, but it reaches full maturity about one month
earlier than that variety. The satiny surface and bright color give
the variety special popularity for certain trade in the large cities,
where appearance rather than quality determines demand and value.
The tree characteristics of the Thomson are quite similar to the
Washington Navel. It is reported by Shamel * to be quite subject to
" sporting," numerous branches on Thomson trees yielding fairly
typical Washington Navel fruits. It is reported to succeed w r ell in
Arizona and has recently been reported 2 as doing well in Algeria
under conditions to which the Washington Navel orange does not
appear to be well adapted.

The specimen illustrated in Plate LVI was grown at Riverside, CaL

1 Letter from Mr. A. D. Shamel, February, 1912.

2 Letter from Mr. Walter T. Swingle, December, 1911.

Y. B. Separate .589.




Pomologist and Chief %


Pomologist in Charge of Fruit District Investigations,
Bureau of Plant Industry.







Introduction ". 261

Eastman apple 262

Monocacy apple 263

Summer King apple 266

Douglas pear 267

Chesapeake strawberry 269

Ormond persimmon 270

Pollock avocado 272

Pecans... 273



PLATE I. Eastman apple - 268

II. Monc-cacy apple 268

III . Summer King apple 268

IV. Douglas pear 268

V. Chesapeake strawberry 268

VI. Ormond persimmon 268

VII. Pollock avocado 268

VIII. Major, Burkett, Warrick, Havens, and Owens pecans 268



By WILLIAM A. TAYLOR, Pomologist and Chief, and H. P. GOULD, Pomologist in
Charge of Fruit District Investigations, Bureau of Plant Industry.


This paper is the twelfth in a series which was begun in the Year-
book for 1901. The primary object throughout the series has been to
discuss fruit varieties that are little known among fruit growers,
but which are believed to possess qualities that make them inherently
valuable in their places of origin and worthy of testing elsewhere.

The " variety problem " is one that is ever before the grower who
views the fruit industry either from the standpoint of the student
or that of the businessman. In the last analysis commercial fruit
growing, to be permanently successful, must be considered from both
of these standpoints. In one form or another the variety question
has long been prominent in the minds of those interested in the
production of fruit in the United States and Canada. Reference to
the earlier proceedings of the American Pomological Society dis-
closes the fact that for many years its meetings were devoted largely
to discussion of the relative merit of different varieties for the
various sections of *the country. The " fruit lists " of varieties
recommended for planting which resulted from these discussions and
the work of committees appointed to give the matter more sys-
tematic consideration have been a potent influence for good in the
development of the fruit industry of the country.

As the business aspects of fruit growing receive more definite
recognition varieties will be planted more and more to meet par-
ticular conditions and for special rather than for general purposes.
For instance, under present conditions one of the most important
requirements of a winter apple in many sections is that it have good
cold-storage qualities, and a variety may be selected for commercial
planting or discarded on account of its behavior in this one par-
ticular. Again, summer apples were, for a considerable period, a
very minor consideration commercially, but within the past 10 or 15
years there has developed an important demand in the eastern
markets for this class of fruit. This has greatly stimulated the
planting of early apple varieties in many sections where formerly
they were little valued.



Such changes in conditions as have been mentioned necessarily
have an important bearing on the question of varieties, and their
influence must continue until the attainable degree of perfection in
varieties to meet the more important demands is reached. More-
over, in the case of such fruits as the avocado, the mango, and some
others, the commercial culture of which is comparatively new, there
are as yet but few varieties in cultivation in this country. As the
market demand for these newer fruits increases and their culture
becomes of greater commercial importance, new and better varieties
or varieties better adapted to commercial needs will in all probability
be developed.

The Department of Agriculture has no stock for dissemination of
any of the varieties referred to in this paper.


SYNONYMS : Fameuse Seedling, Fameuse No. 1, Patten's Fameuse.



The pioneer attempts at fruit growing in northern Iowa early
demonstrated that the varieties with which the early settlers were
familiar in their old homes in the East were not hardy enough to
withstand the dry, cold winters characteristic of a large portion of
the upper Mississippi Valley.

The Eastman apple is of interest in pomology not only because of
its merit as a variety, but because it is one of the results of a defi-
nitely planned effort to develop varieties adapted to the peculiar
needs of this region. It originated at Charles City, Iowa, from a
seed of a Fameuse apple which was planted in the spring of 1874
by Mr. Charles G. Patten. The pollen parent of the Eastman is un-
known, but the apple from which the seed was obtained grew in Mr.
Patten's orchard at Charles City, where there were also growing
trees of the St. Lawrence, Oldenburg, and Wealthy apples. The
Eastman is, therefore, probably a cross between the Fameuse and
one of these varieties. 1

This variety was first offered to the trade in the spring of 1884.
and the synonyms named above were used at various times by Mr.
Patten in his catalogues. But, as none of these names seemed to be
suitable^ he subsequently applied the name " Eastman " in honor of
Mr. P. S. Eastnian, formerly of Iowa but now residing at Berkeley,
Cal., who supplied the Oldenburg apple from a seed of which the
Patten 2 (Patten Greening) apple originated.

1 Letters from Mr. Charles G. Patten, October and November, 1912.

2 For description and illustration, see Yearbook, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, for 1908,
p. 474.



The tree makes a strong, vigorous, spreading growth and is con-
ceded to be decidedly more hardy than its parent, the Fameuse, and
equal in hardiness to the Wealthy. It has proved to be a remarkably
early, regular, and prolific bearer. For some years it has been giv-
ing good satisfaction in central ^lowa, as well as in various sections
of Minnesota. It seems to do well in the Bayfield Peninsula region
of Wisconsin, and Mr. Eastman has recently fruited it at Berkeley,
Cal., where it is considered by him to be a promising variety.

The original tree became weakened by mechanical injuries and
was cut down in 1910, though still bearing fruit.


Form roundish, slightly truncate, sides often unequal; size large;
cavity regular, large, deep, slope gradual, somewhat russeted; stem
of medium length, rather slender; basin irregular, very large, deep,
slope abrupt, furrowed ; calyx small, closed ; eye small, funnel form ;
surface smooth except indistinct ribbing; color pale yellow, heavily
washed with delicate bright red in highly colored specimens and
marked with broken stripes and splashes of light carmine; dots
numerous, small; flesh whitish: texture rather coarse, tender, mod-
erately juicy ; core roundish conic, clasping the long calyx tube, size
medium, slightly open; seeds few, plump, medium size, color rich
brown ; flavor mild subacid, moderately rich, pleasant : quality good.
Season in locality of origin, late fall, ripening just after the Wealthy

The specimen illustrated in Plate I was grown by the originator
at Charles City, Floyd County, Iowa, in 1912.


SYNONYMS: Hoop, Baumgardner, Bill Baumgardner, Smith.


The Monocacy apple is one of many examples of fruit varieties
that apparently possess great potential possibilities and have long
been grown in very restricted regions, where they are highly esteemed,
but which remain quite unknown to fruit growers generally.

The history of this variety as recalled by Mr. Frederick Dorcus,
of Carroll County, Md., who is now 81 years of age, supplied in the
present connection by Mr. Jesse P. Weybright, 2 also of Carroll

1 The varietal descriptions of the Eastman and Summer King apples, the Chesapeake
strawberry, and the Pollock avocado used in this paper are based on data in the Office
of Pomological Collections, Bureau of Plant Industry.

2 Letters from Mr. Weybright, September and November, 1912.


County, is substantially as follows, the account of the original tree
beginning with the year 1849, when Mr. Dorcus remembers eating
apples which it produced:

The tree stood on a farm owned by Mr. William Baumgardner,
which was located on the Monocacy River, in Carroll County, at
the mouth of Piney Creek and about 7 miles southwest of Taney-
town. This farm is now owned by Mr. Aaron Veant. 1

The tree was considered a wilding and the fruit was so hard in
the fall that it was not usually gathered. About Christmas time,
however, during these early years, Mr. Dorcus would go to the tree,
secure the frozen apples, and, after thawing them, would eat them.

Apparently this variety came into local prominence about 1859
or 1860 through a Mr. Seiss, who lived in a tenant house on the
" Baumgardner farm " and who helped pick the apples. When the
crop was harvested that fall, the fruit on this tree being left un-
touched, as was the usual practice, Mr. Seiss obtained the permis-
sion of Mr. Baumgardner to gather it for himself. This he did,
picking 30 bushels, which he took home and buried in a pit. He
kept them in this manner till late the following spring after the
apples of everyone else were all gone. At this season they were of
such high quality that they attracted much attention and apparently
created considerable local excitement.

At about this time (1859 or 1860) Abram and Isaac Furney were
growing nursery trees near Taneytown, Carroll County. They
grafted a considerable number of trees of this variety, and these
became known locally as the " Hoop " apple. Apparently these were
the first trees of the variety to be propagated in a nursery.

Recollection as to the location of the original tree differs somewhat.
Mr. Dorcns recalls it as being in a field near a ravine, standing apart
from any other trees, while others say that -it stood in the orchard on
the Baumgardner farm; but as to the more important features, this
account appears to be well authenticated.

There is another account 2 of this variety which locates the original
tree about one-half mile from Wobdsboro, Frederick County, Md.,
on a farm owned at the time by the late George Livingston Smith.
When Mr. Smith gathered his apples in the fall of 1865 he was
attracted by this particular variety, which apparently had remained
unnoticed in previous years. It is stated that after due effort had
been made to ascertain the name of the variety without success he
called it the " Smith " apple. This name is still applied to this
variety in some localities in Frederick County.

1 Letter from Mr. Veant, November, 1912.

2 . Letters from Mr. D. A. Sharetts, October, 1912 ; also from Mr. Charles E. Klein,
November, 1912.



As the " Smith farm," near Woodsboro, is but 9 or 10 miles distant
from the " Baumgardner place," referred to in the earlier account,, the
occurrence of 3 tree or trees of the variety of fruiting age at Woods-
boro as early as 1865 is not difficult of satisfactory explanation.

As already indicated, the names " Smith " and " Hoop " are applied
locally to this apple; in other localities it is still known as the
" Baumgardner " or " Bill Baumgardner " apple. The name " Monoc-
acy," so far as known, was first suggested for this variety in 1897
by Mr. J. A. Ramsburg, 1 of Frederick, Md. The identity of the va-
riety was then apparently unknown to him, and because of the fact
that it originated near and for many years' had been considerably
grown at points in the vicinity of the Monocacy River this name
seemed to be an appropriate one. In recent years the name " Monoc-
acy " has become more widely known than any one of the others,
the variety having been commercially propagated and disseminated
under this designation. So far as known, the other names, though in
use locally for many years before the name " Monocacy " was sug-
gested, have not previously been published in connection with the

Though this variety has become somewhat more widely distrib-
uted in recent years, it remains very largely unknown except in the
northeastern portion of Frederick and the western part of Carroll
County, Md. It is to be found in many small home orchards in
this region, where in most cases its distribution has been by means
of scions top-worked into trees of bearing age.

The original tree died some years ago, having become greatly
weakened, it is said, from the excessive cutting of scions from it.


Form roundish, some specimens slightly oblate conic, sometimes
slightly ribbed; size medium to large; cavity regular, medium to
large, rather deep, slope abrupt, sometimes .slightly russeted, but
without markings in the majority of specimens; stem short, rather
slender; basin regular, medium in size and depth, slope gradual,
some leather cracking, slightly furrowed ; calyx segments medium to
large, converging; eye rather large, closed or nearly so; surface
smooth ; color yellowish green, almost entirely overspread with dark
crimson, shading to a purplish crimson in very highly colored speci-
mens, splashed and striped with darker crimson, with an overspread
of mottled gray in many specimens; dots yellowish white, rather
numerous, increasing in numbers toward the apex, rather large and.,
conspicuous; skin moderately thi'ck, tenacious, and firm; flesh yel-
lowish white, sometimes slightly tinted with red; texture moder-
ately fine grained, juicy; core large, oblate, clasping, closed or par-

1 Letter from Mr. Ramsburg, October, 1897.


tially open; carpels rather small, nearly circular; seeds numerous,
of medium size, plump, rich dark brown ; flavor mild, subacid, pleas-
ant, moderately rich; quality good to very good. It is prized by
those who know the variety best both for culinary and dessert pur-
poses. Season, winter, keeping till late winter and sometimes well
into the spring in the region in Maryland in which it is most largely
grown. It is reported to be an excellent variety for cold storage.

The tree attains only moderate size, but is vigorous and healthy;
the wood is very tough; limbs not easily broken by heavy crops. It

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Online LibraryWilliam Alton TaylorPromising new fruits → online text (page 18 of 21)