William B. (William Benham) Price.

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THE

TECHNICAL ANALYSIS OF BRASS



AND THE



NON-FERROUS ALLOYS



BY
WILLIAM BENHAM PRICE

Chief Chemist Scovill Manufacturing Company, Waterbury, Conn,
AND

RICHARD K. MEADE

Director of the Meade Testing Laboratories, Allentown, Pa.



FIRST EDITION
FIRST THOUSAND



NEW YORK
JOHN WILEY & SONS

LOKDON: CHAPMAN & HALL, LIMITED
1911






COPYBIGHT, 1911

BY
WILLIAM B. PRICE

AND
RICHARD K. MEADE



Stanbopc press

F. H. GILSON COMPANY
BOSTON. U.S.A.



CONTENTS



PART I INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER PAGE

I. ENGINEERING ALLOYS 1

II. APPARATUS FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL ANALYSIS 19

PART II DETERMINATION OF THE METALS

III. ALUMINUM 39

IV. ANTIMONY 45

V. ARSENIC 51

VI. BISMUTH 56

VII. CADMIUM 60

VIII. COPPER 65

IX. IRON 76

X. LEAD 87

XL MAGNESIUM 96

XII. MANGANESE 101

XIII. NICKEL AND COBALT 108

XIV. PHOSPHORUS 118

XV. SILICA 123

XVI. SULPHUR 125

XVII. TIN 131

XVIII. ZINC 139

PART III SOME APPLIED EXAMPLES OF ALLOY
ANALYSIS

ALUMINUM ALLOY 148

ALLOY OF ANTIMONY AND ARSENIC 152

ALLOY OF ANTIMONY, ARSENIC AND TIN 153

iii

241329



1V CONTENTS

PAGB

ALLOY OF ANTIMONY AND TIN 154

ALLOY OF ANTIMONY AND LEAD 155

BABBITT METAL 157

FUSIBLE METALS, SOLDERS, ETC 175

BRASS 180

BRONZE 189

PHOSPHOR-BRONZE . 190

MANGANESE-PHOSPHOR-BRONZE 191

GERMAN SILVER, WATCH NICKEL AND NICKEL ALLOYS 197

SPELTER 205

REFINED COPPER ANALYSIS 209

THE EXACT ELECTROLYTIC ASSAY OF REFINED COPPER 232

THE DETERMINATION OF ARSENIC AND ANTIMONY IN

COPPER 242

TABLE OF FACTORS FOR USE IN ALLOY ANALYSIS . 260



BRASS ANALYSIS



PART I INTRODUCTION



CHAPTER I
ENGINEERING ALLOYS

IN a paper read before the American Society for
Testing Materials, in 1903, Mr. G. H. Clamer,
second vice-president and chemist of the Ajax Metal
Company, stated that there were at that time in
service of the railroads of the country on 1,600,000
cars 160,000,000 pounds and on 39,900 locomo-
tives 5,000,000 pounds of bearing metal. At an
average price of 13 cents per pound this represented
a money value of $21,450,000. Add this to the
bearing metal on engines, rolling mills, shafting
and machinery of all sorts and the amount would
have been easily doubled. In view of the increase
in the amount of machinery and rolling stock it is
safe to say that the value of the bearing metal now
in use is considerably over fifty million dollars.
Alloys are also extensively used for machinery and
parts for which the metals steel and iron, ordinarily
used for such purposes, cannot be employed because
of the ease with which they rust and corrode or
because a lighter or showier metal is desired.

1



1V CONTENTS

PAGE

ALLOT OF ANTIMONY AND TIN 154

ALLOY OP ANTIMONY AND LEAD 155

BABBITT METAL 157

FUSIBLE METALS, SOLDERS, ETC 175

BRASS 180

BRONZE 189

PHOSPHOR-BRONZE 190

MANGANESE-PHOSPHOR-BRONZE 191

GERMAN SILVER, WATCH NICKEL AND NICKEL ALLOYS 197

SPELTER 205

REFINED COPPER ANALYSIS 209

THE EXACT ELECTROLYTIC ASSAY OF REFINED COPPER 232

THE DETERMINATION OF ARSENIC AND ANTIMONY IN

COPPER 242

TABLE OF FACTORS FOR USE IN ALLOY ANALYSIS . 260



BRASS ANALYSIS



PART I INTRODUCTION



CHAPTER I
ENGINEERING ALLOYS

IN a paper read before the American Society for
Testing Materials, in 1903, Mr. G. H. Clamer,
second vice-president and chemist of the Ajax Metal
Company, stated that there were at that time in
service of the railroads of the country on 1,600,000
cars 160,000,000 pounds and on 39,900 locomo-
tives 5,000,000 pounds of bearing metal. At an
average price of 13 cents per pound this represented
a money value of $21,450,000. Add this to the
bearing metal on engines, rolling mills, shafting
and machinery of all sorts and the amount would
have been easily doubled. In view of the increase
in the amount of machinery and rolling stock it is
safe to say that the value of the bearing metal now
in use is considerably over fifty million dollars.
Alloys are also extensively used for machinery and
parts for which the metals steel and iron, ordinarily
used for such purposes, cannot be employed because
of the ease with which they rust and corrode or
because a lighter or showier metal is desired.

i



2 BRASS ANALYSIS

Some alloys are also not corroded by sea water,
while others are not attacked by acids or alkalies,
and hence are suitable for the manufacture of pro-
pellers of steamships, acid pumps, etc. Again, alloys
are often harder or stronger than the soft metals,
such as copper for example, and may be employed
to advantage where the electrical conductivity prop-
erties of copper are desired coupled with greater
strength than the metal alone would have, etc.
Alloys melt at a lower temperature than do the
component metals and hence may be employed for
solders, fusible plugs, etc. In view of the many
engineering uses of alloys, their study is one which
is well worth the time of the chemical engineer.

BEARING METALS

Bearings are usually composed of alloys of copper,
lead, tin, antimony and zinc, and are known as
Babbitt metal, white metal, brass, phosphor bronze,
etc., and by various trade names. Some of the
alloys are patented (as for example the " plastic
bronze" in Table I), but most of them are merely
sold under a trade name, and as they are often made
of scrap, are, in some instances, of uncertain com-
position even for the same brand.

The principal qualities which a good bearing
metal should have are, first, good antifriction prop-
erties so as to withstand heavy loads at high speeds
without heating, and second, sufficient compressive
strength neither to be squeezed out of place under
a high pressure nor to crack or break when subjected
to sudden shocks.



ENGINEERING ALLOYS 3

Theoretically all metals have the same friction
(Thurston) and the value of the soft white alloys
for bearings lies mainly in their ready reduction
to a smooth surface after any local impairing of the
surface, such as would result from the introduction
of any foreign matter between the moving surface
and the bearing. In this latter case the soft alloys
flow or squeeze from the pressure into the irregu-
larity, forming a larger area for the distribution
of the pressure; and the larger the area over which
the pressure is extended the less liability is there
to overheating, etc.

Lead flows more easily than any of the common
metals, and hence it has the greatest antifrictional
properties.

Lead is also the cheapest of the metals except
iron, the relative values and prices, May 1, 1908,
being:

CENTS PER LB.

Lead 4

Zinc 4|

Antimony 8f

Copper 13

Tin 32

Lead of itself, however, is too soft to be used
alone, as it cannot be retained in the recesses of
the bearing. If antimony is added to the lead it
increases its hardness and brittleness, and if tin is
also added it makes a tougher alloy than lead and
antimony alone. Most of the Babbitt metals now
on the market are alloys of lead, tin and antimony.
In such babbitts the wear increases with the anti-
mony, and the price with the tin.



4 BRASS ANALYSIS

The high-antimony babbitts are most used in
heavy machinery, as they are harder, while those
low in antimony are used in the more rapidly run
machinery. The soft babbitts do not usually have
enough strength to sustain the weight and shocks
of heavy machinery bearings and so are generally
used as a liner, which is run into a shell of brass,
bronze or gun metal.

In Table I will be found some examples of
Babbitt metal. The original inventor is said to
have used a mixture of 12 parts tin, 2 parts anti-
mony and 1 part copper. This would be a very
expensive babbitt, however. The wide divergence
in the composition of babbitt is shown by the
table. Babbitt A is said to be a good alloy for
high-speed machinery, as its antifrictional proper-
ties are great, but it is not very hard. It melts at
about 500 F. (260 C.). Babbitt B is somewhat
harder. It melts at 491 F. (255 C.), and has been
used for many years by a well-known firm for
lining the heavy bearings on marine engines.
Babbitt D is still harder and is suitable for very
heavy machinery. Babbitts C, E and G are
recommended by Davis (" Friction and Lubrica-
tion") as being very successful. Babbitt F is an
example of a high zinc bearing alloy, recommended
by C. R. Tomkins (Mechanical News, January, 1901)
as having great wearing properties and also great
resistance properties. This alloy, however, does
not possess very great antifriction properties and
so cannot be used where speeds higher than 300
R.P.M. are employed. The white metal, white



ENGINEERING ALLOYS



brass, " Magnolia metal " and car brass lining may
also be looked upon as babbitts. The white
brass has about four times the electrical conduc-
tivity of ordinary babbitt, and hence is recom-
mended for use in the bearings of generators,
motors, electric cars, etc. Tempered lead is harder
than pure lead and is supposed to have great
antifrictional value for the following reason: In
use, the sodium hydroxide formed by the oxidation
of the sodium in the alloy is supposed to form a
soap with the oil and so assist lubrication. In
order for this reaction to take place, however, the
oil must contain animal matter, since mineral oils
do not saponify.

TABLE I. BEARING METALS



Alloys.


Analysis.


Lead.


Tin.


Anti-
mony.


Copper.


Zinc.


Iron.


Other con-
stituents.


Babbitt A
Babbitt B
Babbitt C
Babbitt D
Babbitt E
Babbitt F


80.0

72.0
70.0
80.5
0.5


20.0
21.0
10.0
11.5
68.0
20.0
86.0

64^6
4.75
11.5

5.0
11.5
8.0
10.0
2.4
4.3
0.08


7.Q

20.0
7.5

io!6'

12.0

15.0
7.5








Bi=0.25

P =0.80
Na=1.30






'6!s

1.0

'416

6.0
2.00
trace
0.5

65.0
77.0

77




3L5

80.0

'silo




Babbitt G.




White metal
White brass
''Magnolia metal"
Car brass lining. . . .
"Ajax plastic
bronze "
" Ajax metal "
P. R.R. car brass B.
"S bearing metal"
"Delta metal"....
" Carmelia metal "
Tempered lead


82.0

'so'o

80.5

30.0
11.5
15.0
9.5
5.1
14.8
98.5




79 7






'6!ii


92.4
70.2


10^2


0.1
0.5







6 BRASS ANALYSIS

Alloys of copper, tin and lead also make excellent
bearing metals when lined with a thin skin of lead
or babbitt. They wear much better than the soft
babbitts. Examples of such alloys are shown in
Table I. In such alloys it has been proved by
experiment that the tendency to wear decreases
with increase of lead and the decrease of tin.
Increase of lead also increases the antifrictional
value of the alloy and hence its tendency to become
heated. In these alloys a certain amount of tin
is necessary to keep the lead from separating from
the alloy. By using a little nickel in the mixture
and care in its making and pouring, the Ajax Metal
Company have succeeded in making an alloy con-
taining 30 per cent lead, called "Ajax plastic
bronze. " In this alloy no segregation takes place
and the bearings as they wear are continually in
contact with the soft antifriction particles of lead,
which are in turn backed up by the harder particles
of copper. In brasses, structure has much to do
with the antifriction properties, as a bearing in
which segregation takes place, causing hard spots,
is more or less likely to cause friction. It is there-
fore the practice to add small amounts of phos-
phorus or arsenic or one or two per cent of zinc
to keep the mixture homogeneous. A good bearing
metal should have as fine a grain as possible in
connection with the greatest toughness and hard-
ness. To examine the grain, an occasional brass
should be broken, say one in each one hundred.

Of the alloys given in the table, the " S phos-
phor bronze " was for a long time used by the



ENGINEERING ALLOYS 7

Pennsylvania Railroad Company, who discontinued
its use in favor of the " P. R.R. brass B." The
"Ajax metal" and the "Ajax plastic bronze"
are both made by the Ajax Metal Company and
are extensively used for car brasses. " Carmelia
metal " and " Delta metal " are also used as
bearing metals.

Phosphor tin is an alloy of tin and phosphorus,
containing about 5 per cent tin. It is extensively
used in making phosphor bronze, the patents on
which have now expired.

SOLDERS AND FUSIBLE ALLOYS

Practically all of the solders are alloys of lead
and tin. The more lead the alloy contains above
40 per cent the higher will be its melting point and
also the less it contains below 40 per cent the higher
will be its melting point. If bismuth is added to
these alloys, the melting points are lowered. Al-
loys of bismuth, lead and tin are of very low melting
points, and addition of cadmium still further lowers
the melting point of such alloys.

Table II shows the composition of some solders
and fusible metals. The solders E, F, G and H
are those ordinarily used by plumbers and tin-
smiths. Solder F is the one most generally used,
while H is especially adapted to use with lead and
tin pipes. Solder I has a very low melting point
and is intended for household mending, as it can
be dropped on a leak from an old spoon and melted
over a gas jet or candle. Hard solders contain
more or less copper. A good white hard solder



8 BRASS ANALYSIS

TABLE II. SOLDERS AND FUSIBLE METALS



Alloy.


Composition.


Lead


Tin.


Bis-
muth.


Cad-
mium.


Other con-
stituents.


Melting
Point.


Solder A


96.15
90.9
83.3
75.0
66.7
50.0
40.0
33.3
33.3

48.4
44 5


3.85
9.1
16.7
25.0
33.3
50.0
60.0
66.7
33.3








c.

292
283
266
250
227
188
168
171
140

171
141
123
116

100

98
95
93
60
66
66


F.

558
541
511
482
441
370
334
340
284

340
285
253
240
212

208
203
200
140
150
150


Solder B
Solder C
Solder D




Solder E


'33^3

12.8
22 2






Solder F


Zn = 38.8
Zn = 33.3
Zn = 15.8


Solder G


Solder H


Solder I


Steam boiler plug
alloy A


Steam boiler plug
alloy B


Steam boiler plug
alloy C


42 1




42 1




Steam boiler plug
alloy D
Sir Isaac Newton's
alloy


10.0
30.0

31.25
28.1
25.0
25.0
26.9
66.7


40.0
20.0

18.75
21.9
25.0
12.5
12.7


50.0
50.0

50.0
50.0
50.0
50.0
50.0
8.3








Alloy suitable for
casts
Rose's alloy


12.5
10.4


Sb = 25^0


D'Arcet's alloy


Wood's alloy


Lipowitz's alloy
Expanding alloy



contained copper, 60 per cent; tin, 20 per cent;
zinc, 20 per cent; and a fairly easily melted yellow
hard solder, analyzed copper, 43.75 per cent; zinc,
56.25 per cent. Most aluminum solders are alloys
of tin and aluminum, containing from 15 to 25 per
cent aluminum. Novel's aluminum solder consists
of tin alloyed with from 1 to 1^ per cent copper or
nickel.

The fusible alloys are used in engineering work



ENGINEERING ALLOYS 9

for fusible plugs in boilers, fusible plugs in electrical
wiring, for delicate castings and for filling up
defective places in ornamental castings. For fu-
sible plugs in boilers the United States Government
uses pure Banca tin. If a lower melting point
alloy is desired, one of the fusible alloys in Table II
may be used. Fusible alloys are used in electric
circuits as current interrupters. Serving as con-
ductors on short lengths of circuit, they melt as
soon as the current becomes too strong. Rose's
alloy, D'Arcet's alloy and Wood's alloy may all be
used for this purpose. If a melting temperature
between that of the last two alloys is needed,
substituting cadmium for 5 to 10 per cent of tin in
D'Arcet's alloy will lower the melting point accord-
ing to the cadmium added.

Bismuth possesses the unusual quality of ex-
panding on cooling. It is, therefore, introduced
in many alloys to prevent or reduce shrinkage in
the mold. For this reason the bismuth alloys are
excellent for making delicate castings. The more
fusible of these alloys, Wood's and D'Arcet's, can
be used for making soap molds and for taking
impressions from paper or wood molds. For filling
out defective places in castings, the expanding
alloy given in the table is used. Sometimes defects
in structural steel have been hidden by its use,
followed by a coat of paint a dishonest practice
on which it is well to be posted. Type metal,
pewter, stereotype metal, Britannia metal, etc.
(see table IV), are all fusible alloys of industrial
rather than engineering importance.



10 BRASS ANALYSIS

The melting point of alloys which fuse at a low
temperature may be found by tying a small wire
around a fragment of the alloy and suspending in
a bath of water, if under 212 F., or melted paraffine,
if above this temperature. A thermometer is kept
in the bath and the temperature of the latter
gradually raised until the alloy melts. The tem-
perature of the bath is then noted as the melting
point of the alloy.

FOUNDRY AND ROLLING-MILL ALLOYS

Of the engineering alloys used in making parts
of machinery the alloys of copper, zinc and tin
play the most important part. The alloys of copper
and zinc are known as brass and those of copper and
tin as bronze. Additions of other metals and of
phosphorus, arsenic, silicon, etc., give to both brass
and bronze special properties and fit them for
special uses. The composition and properties of
these alloys are given below.

Brass. To insure good castings copper-zinc
alloys should always contain at least 15 per cent
zinc. Between 17 and 30 per cent zinc, brasses
all show practically similar properties. They have
about the same strength (30,000 pounds) and
ductility. From 30 to 41 per cent zinc, brass
increases in tensile strength with the content of
zinc and decreases in ductility. Its tensile, trans-
verse and torsional strength reach its maximum at
41 per cent zinc. All brass containing less than
55 per cent zinc is yellow; after that point it turns
white, and as the zinc increases the metal becomes



ENGINEERING ALLOYS 11

weaker and more brittle. For wire and sheet brass
an alloy containing about 33 per cent zinc is best, as
at this composition it possesses the greatest ductility.
Brass for sheets, rods and wire should contain
practically no antimony. Tin is often added to
brass to harden the alloy, and lead makes it machine,
easily; too much lead, however, makes it brittle.
The more copper brass contains the better its
electrical conductivity. In Table III will be found
some examples of the composition of brass used
for various purposes.

Brass A is intended for use where good clean sand
castings are desired. It has a good yellow color,
will run free and cut clean. If a stronger alloy is
desired, increase the tin slightly. Brass B is recom-
mended by Sperry for trolley fittings, clips, holders,
cars, etc. Less tin makes it too soft, more tin lowers
the conductivity. Lead makes the fittings easily
machined, but too much would make them brittle.

Brass C is suitable for sheets. Brass for such
purposes should be low in lead and tin and contain
practically no antimony (less than 0.02). The
figures given for tin and lead are also safe limits
to stay under. Brass containing as much as 38
per cent zinc still has a high ductility and is tougher
than that -given. If a redder brass is desired one
containing from 70 to 80 per cent copper and 30 to 20
per cent zinc may be used.

Bronze is supposed to be an alloy of tin and copper,
but commercial bronze nearly always contains zinc,
which is added to improve and cheapen the alloy.
Alloys of copper and tin reach a maximum tensile



12 BRASS ANALYSIS

strength at about 4 per cent tin. They get harder
as the tin increases, until finally they become too
brittle to cut with a tool. Alloys of copper and
tin only are rarely used and nearly all bronzes
contain more zinc than tin. Alloys of copper and
tin alone, however, resist acids and alkalies much
better than do those containing zinc, and where
castings are exposed to such corrosive liquids a
strictly copper-tin alloy will give the best results.
Silicon, phosphorus, iron and manganese, when
added in small amounts, add to the strength of
bronze. Zinc is added to bronze as a deoxidizer.
It also makes a cheaper alloy. In Table III will
be found the composition of various bronzes.

Bronze A is that of the U. S. Navy, and C is
the Admiralty metal of the British navy, used for
parts of marine engines. Bronze E is the old
" gun-metal " used for cannon, etc. Bronze B is
used for whistles of shrill tone; if a lower-toned
whistle is desired the tin is reduced to about 17 per
cent. Bronze D is u$ed for large bells ; for smaller
bells the tin is increased until for hand bells, etc.,
the tin may reach 33^ per cent. Bronze F is
suitable for art tablets, etc., and bronze G for
statuary, etc. In this latter class of work it is
necessary that the bronze become thinly fluid on
fusing, fill the molds out sharply, be easily worked
with a file and take on the green coating (called
patina) after short exposure to the air. Genuine
bronze does not fill out the molds well and it is
difficult to obtain homogeneous castings from it.
A bronze containing from 4 to 5 per cent tin and



ENGINEERING ALLOYS



13



from 10 to 20 per cent zinc is, therefore, generally
used for statues. Bronze of the composition given
F has an orange-red color. If a lighter color is
desired more zinc is used.

TABLE III. FOUNDRY AND ROLLING-MILL ALLOYS



Alloy.


Composition.


Used for.


Cop-
per.


Zinc.


Tin.


Lead.


Iron.


Other
constitu-
ents.


Brass A


67tl

87.0
67.0
88.0
80.0
87.0
80.0
90.0

88.8
85.0
90.0

97.12
55.94

60.0
61.20
57.55
74.3

57.20

83.05
82.05

98^55
83


28.7
6.0
32.0
2.0

5^6'

2.8
10.0

1.14
41.61

38.2
37.44
40.02

40.14

6.00
2.00


2.4
4.0
0.5
10.0
18.0
8.0
20.0
10.0

5.6
5.0
9.8

1.10

'6'. 90
1.40
11.4

1.18

10.81
8.00

i!4o


1.8
3.0
0.5






Brass castings.
Trolley fittings.
Wire and sheets.
U. S. navy.
Steam whistles.
British navy.
Bells.
U. S. ordnance
(1875).
Tablets.
Statuary.
Stronger than
bronze.
Telegraph wire.

Acid receivers.
Propeller blades.
Mine pumps.

Telephone wires.
Resistance.
Trolley wheela.


Brass B
Brass C




"Sb=2'.6"


Bronze A


Bronze B
Bronze C




Bronze D
Bronze E (gun metal)]. . .

Bronze F
Bronze G








2.8






Phosphor bronze
Silicon bronze


0.72

'6!36'
0.56
8.9

0.02

0.10
8.00


0.87

1.8
0.18
0.38

1.33
95:6'


P=0.20

Si=0.05
fMn=0.81
\ P=0.013

Sb=5.4
/Mn=0.021
I Al=0.1 /

" P=6'.05
Ni=5.0
Si=0.05
JMn=13 \
\Ni=4 /


Delta metal
Aich's metal


Tobin bronze
Muntz metal


Retz alloy
Manganese bronze

Hydr. metal
Acid-resisting metal ....
Alkali-resisting metal . . .
Phono electric metal ....

Manganin


Trolley wheel bronze. . .


92.0


2.0




6.0





Phosphor Bronze has been mentioned among the
bearing alloys. Phosphorus is added to bronze as
a deoxidizer, hence but a small percentage is re-
quired. Zinc should never be present in phosphor
bronze, as it causes liquation of the tin and con-
sequently " tin spots." Phosphor bronze is usually
made from copper, tin and phosphor tin. The



14 BRASS ANALYSIS

latter alloy usually contains 5 per cent phosphorus
and is sometimes adulterated with lead. About
one or two pounds of phosphor tin per 100 pounds
of alloy are usually enough. Phosphor bronze of
the composition given, cast from remelted ingots,
will have a tensile strength of from 40,000 to
50,000 pounds per square inch. It is used princi-
pally in cases where great strength and power as
well as resistance to corrosion are required. It
can be rolled, hammered and stretched. For rolling
purposes it should not contain more than 0.05 per
cent phosphorus and very little lead. It should
also not contain more than 5 per cent tin for ordi-
nary purposes, although it can be rolled with as high
as 8 per cent tin when desire for great strength
necessitates it. For casting purposes, phosphor
bronze may contain 10 per cent tin and 0.5 per cent
phosphorus. For very strong castings no lead
should be present.

Aluminum Bronze. - This alloy contains from
1J to 11 per cent aluminum and the remainder
copper. It varies from a tensile strength of 25,000
pounds for 1J per cent aluminum to 90,000 pounds
for the 11 per cent aluminum alloy. More than
11 per cent aluminum produces a brittle alloy.
Aluminum bronze shrinks more than ordinary brass
in casting, and hence care is required in pouring, etc.,
into the molds. Aluminum bronze containing less
than 7J per cent aluminum can be rolled, swedged,
spun or drawn cold, and it can all be worked at a
bright-red heat.

Manganese Bronze. Pure metallic manganese



ENGINEERING ALLOYS 15


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Online LibraryWilliam B. (William Benham) PriceThe technical analysis of brass and the non-ferrous alloys → online text (page 1 of 19)