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Epistles, which forms the subject of this article.

" Ignatii Epistolarum septem genuinarum,
Oxonii in Theatro Sheldoniano An. 1708, in 8.
typis exscriptarum, centum duntaxat exempla im-
pressa sunt. Vid. Schelhornij Amcenitat. T. n.
p. 391. sqq."




THERE were two editions of Lactantius pub-
lished in the same year at Venice, viz. in 1478,
One, " impendio Joannis di Colonia, Joannis-
que Manthen de Gheretzen, 27 Augusti," the
other by Andreas de Pattasichis Catarensis and
Boninus de Boninis xn. Martii. Both in folio.
The last is the most rare, but the former by far
the most elegant book,

The first edition of Lactantius was published,
In Monasterio Sublacensi, in 1465. A copy of
this most rare book was purchased for the King
of France from the Valliere Collection for 1830

There is a most superb copy of this book in
the Cracherode Collection, as well as of the
edition of 14/1. In this last i3 the following
note by Mr. Cracherode.

" A vero aberravit Audimedy, p. 124, dicena
Adamum Lactantii hujus impressorem esse eun-
dem qui Ciceronis Orationes Anno 147iJ edidit;
nulla enini est inter utriusque characterem pa-
ritas. Adeoque Adatnus Lactantii Impressor
longe discrepat ai) Adaino Ciceronem impri-



mcnte, et etiam uterque discrepat ab Adamo
Jiot Dominici de Sancto Geminiano lecturam su-
per secunda parte decretalium imprimenti, id
probante etiam dilucide Characterum dispa-

Vide F. X. Laire J. L. t. 1. p. 2*5."




THE Rev. Dr. Thompson, when he wrote
the Introduction to the History of Great Britain
from 1688 to the accession of George the first,
left it a matter of doubt, whether Alexander
Cunningham, the editor of Horace, and Alex-
ander Cunningham, the author of that history,
were the same or different persons.

I am able to pronounce, unequivocally, that
they were different persons. Alexander Cun-
ningham, the Historian, died in Westminster,
and was buried in the Chancel of St. Martin's
Church, on May the 15th, 1737. His will is
deposited in Doctors Commons.

Alexander Cunningham, the Editor of Hor
race, died at the Hague in December, 1730.

In the Obituary of Mr. Professor Macjty, he
is described as " Literator eximius."

I am in possession, through*fhe kindness of
Mr. G. Chalmers, of a duodecimo edition of
Horace, by Rutgersius, in 1699, croucled with,
manuscript notes by this Alexander Cunning-
ham. It was presented to the late Marquis of
Lansdowne, by Lord Buchan, with the following

* Diyburgh


Drjburgh Abbey, Nov. 14, 1800.

" My Lord, .

I have sent by the hands of my
nephew, whom T beg leave to recommend to
your Lordship's attention, the curious original
MS. of the Horatius Cunninghamii, which you
will see mentioned in that interesting Preface to
Hollinburv's edition of the Translation of Cun-
ningham's History of Great Britain, with a view
to determine his identity.

This little book seeks for access to your fine li-
brary, as will the bearer, who is fond of literature,
and is an admirer of your literary and political
character. I desire to be kindly remembered
to Lord Henry Petty, and am, with much regard,

My Lord,

Your Lordship's obedient humble servant,


To the most honorable

The Marquis of Lansdowne.


With a book by David Erskine, Esq. of Holmes."
In the first leaf Lord Buchan lias written thus:
"Mr. Cunningham's Horace, with his original

notes, given me by Mr. George Paton, March

4th, 1786."

' vol. ir. d d In


In the second page is written, " Notae margi-
nales in hoc libro scriptae sunt per Alex. Cun-

The marginal notes are innumerable ; not
having the means of consulting an edition of
Cunningham's Horace, I am not able to say
whether the various readings which appear in
this volume were there adopted, but many re-
ferences to critical authors and passages appear
in this volume, which would be of material use
to every reader of this Poet.

This most curious little book was sold at the
auction of Lord Lansdowne's library, and there
purchased by Mr. Chalmers, for the sum of four
guineas or thereabouts.

In the last page some person has written with
a pencil, " Van de Waters Horatius, with Mr.
Cunningham's ms. corrections and various read-

tt-S f

M. N. TEN HOVE. 403


THE Memoirs of the House of Medici, from
its Origin to the Death of Francesco the Second,
Grand Duke of Tuscany, by Mr. Nicholas
Tenhove, is one of the rarest productions in

The account given of the author, by Mr.
Roscoe is this :

" Mr Nicholas Tenhove was a branch of one
of the most respectable families in the United
Provinces. His paternal ancestors were all high
in office, and by his mother he descended from
the family of Fagel, which had furnished the
Dutch Republic with illustrious Ministers through
several generations.

An easy fortune, and a previous stock of
classical and historical knowledge, rendered hiin
capable of deriving singular advantages from
his travels in Italy and Sicily. The Memoirs of
the House of Medici were composed at his ease,
from time to time, and were printed piece-meal
as they were composed. In the form in which
he left them, they have rather the aspect of in-
teresting materials for a great work, than that
of a regular edifice. As he did not live to com-
plete his design, he committed to the flames all
d d 2 the

404 M. N. TENHOVE.

the copies of these memoirs, excepting those
which he had distributed to his particular friends
in separate parts as they came from the press."

The copy of this curious work, of which Mr.
Roscoe had the benefit, is the same which I
have had the opportunity of examining. It was
bequeathed by the late pious and learned Dr.
Maclaine, the ^translator of Mosheim, and Mi-
nister of the English Church at Rotterdam, to
Henry Hope, Esq., in whose possession it now
is, and who kindly gave me the use of it. Dr.
Maclaine had formerly lent it to the Marquis of
Lansdowne, of whom it was borrowed bv Mr.

It is thus entitled : '

" Memoirks Genealogiques de la
Maison de Medicis.

Medicumque Genus Stirpemque Deorum.


It is inscribed

" A l'heureuse memoire de Francois Fag el
Greffier de leurs hautes Puissances les Etats Ge-
neraux des Provinces Unies.

Heritier des Vertus et des talens de ses Ancetres,
Collegue et Ami du venerable vieillard son Pere,
Favori des Peuples et des Grands,
Fragile Espoir de la Patrie,
Ami zele des Lettres et des Arts,


M. N. TENHOVE. 405

Arbitre sur de Telegance et du gout,

Meilleur moiti6 de meme."

Mr. Roscoe gives this character of the per-

" Although these volumes appear to be rather
the amusement of the leisure hours of a polite
scholar, than the researches of a professed histo-
rian, yet they display an acquaintance with the
transactions of history, seldom acquired but by
a native.

To a great proficiency in the literature of that
country, Mr. Tenhove united an indisputable
taste in the productions of all the fine arts, and
a great knowledge of the state of manners, and
the progress of science in every period of so-
ciety. The fertility of his genius, and the ex-
tent of his information, have enabled him to in-
tersperse his narrative with a variety of interest-
ing digressions and brilliant observations ; and
the most engaging work that has perhaps ever
appeared, on a subject of Literary History, is
written by a native of one country, in the language
of another, on the affairs of a third."

I should be more particular in my description
of this rare and curious publication, but that I
understand it has been translated into our own
language by Sir Richard Clayton, Bart, in two
volumes, quarto. This translation appeared in




DR. HGRNE, the late venerable and learned
Bishop of Norwich, in his Preface to his ex-
cellent Commentary on the Psalms, takes notice
of a very beautiful paraphrase on the I22d
Psalm, in Latin verse, by Zuinger.

Zuinger was Professor of Medicine at Basil;
he flourished in the sixteenth century ; and the
Bishop remarks, that this paraphrase was the
dying and triumphant effusion of Zuinger's Muse.
Dr. Home had inserted in his work an excellent
version of this Psalm by Merrick, and observes
that it was some time before he could procure a
sight of Zuinger's original.

It is an act of justice to the memory and
merits of the celebrated Buchanan, to make it
known that this same original is, with a few slight
alterations, particularly in the last stanza, the
production of the Scotch Poet.

Buchanan's Poetic Paraphrase of the Psalms
was first published at Paris by the learned
Henry Stephens in the year 1565. This was
twenty-three years before the death of Zuinger,
and seventeen years before the death of Buchanan.
Melchior Adam, who wrote the life of Zuinger,
affirms, that this was Zuinger's last song, and


ZUINGER. , 407

composed by him on his death bed. But this is
a mistake. Zuinger probably retained Buchanan's
composition strongly in his recollection, and in
his last hours, ut inspicienti patebit, had adapted
the Jewish parts to the language and senti-
ment of the Christian dispensation. I insert the
two versions, and the reader may determine for

Ps. 122.

O lux Candida, lux milii
Laeti conscia nuncii :
Jam pleno stata tempora
Reddit circulus anno :

Jam festi revocant dies
Augustam Domini ad domum :
Jam sacri pedibus premam
Latus limina templi.

Jam visam Solymae edita,
Ccelo culmiua, et ajdium
Moles nobilium^ et suo
Augustam populo urbem :

Urbem, quani procul ultimi.?
Terras iiuibus exciti,
Petunt Isacidie ut Deum
PJaceut more parentum,

Jussam coelitus oppidis
Urbem jus dare ceteris,

i) d 4 Et


Et sedem fore Davidis
Cuncta in saecula proli.

Mater nobilis urbiuin,
Semper te bona pax amet :
Et te semper amantibus
Cedant omnia recte.

Semper pax tua mcenia
Colat : semper in aedibus
Tuis copia dextera
Larga munera fuudat.

Dulcis Isacidum domus,
Te pax incola sospitet :
Sedes Numinis, omnia
Succedant tibi i'auste.

Ps. 122.

O Lux Candida, lux mihi
Laeti conscia transitus !
Per Christi meritum patet
Vitae porta beata?.

Me status revocat dies
Augustam Domini ad domum
Jam sacra oetherii premam
Laetus limina templi.

Jam visam Solymae edita
Coelo culmina, et aedium
Coitus Angelicos, sno et
Augustam populo urbem :



Urbem, quam procul infimis
Terrae finibus exciti
Petunt Christiada?, ut Deura
Laudent voce perenni :

Jussam co?litus oppidis
Urbem jus dare ceteris,
Et sedem fore Davidis
Cuncca in saecla beati.

Mater nobilis urbium !
Semper te bona pax amat:
Et te semper amaniibus
Cedunt omnia recte.

Semper pax tua moenia
Colit ; semper in atriis
Tuis copia dexterai
Larga munera fundit.

Dtilcis Christiaduin domus,
Civem adscribe novitium :
Sola comitata Caritas,
Spes Fidesque valete.




EVERY modern nation has been studious to
produce ornamented editions of these favourite
moral lessons. Barlow's jEsop, in English,
French, and Latin, (Fol. 1677) are particularly
valued for the spirited etchings with which they
were adorned by the Editor himself. There is
also a French iEsop, published under the quaint
title of "Esbatiment Moral des Animaux," from
which Barlow seems to have caught the spirit,
if not exactly the invention, of his sculptures.
They are in a very similar style, but more highly
finished; and the frontispiece, representing a
kind of theatre, where the lion and several other
beasts appear on the stage, and a part of the
audience is represented below, is a specimen of
the most beautiful etching that can be seen ;
this principal print being surrounded by de-
signs from several histories and fables, in very
small medallions. The book was printed at
Antwerp by Philip (Jalle, and the dedication is
dated 15/^. The engraver appears to have
been Peter lleyns, who addresses a copy of
verses to the reader, immediately after the de-
dication : each plate being marked with the
initials P. II. Who the Poet was, does not



appear, for the dedication has no signature,
but " Votre tres humble Esbatement moral."
But the verses are said, by Heyns, to have been
begun in London.

Et toy Poete Francois, vray amateur des Muses,

Tu y verras aussi des Heroique vers

En Sonet bien troussez : qui par deux cornemusea

(A Londres entonnez et finiz en Anvers)

Font sauter, a l'ennvy, Oyseaux, bestes, et vers.

Each fable is comprised in a French Sonnet,
placed opposite to the plate which represents the
subject ; and each plate has a French motto
above, and one or two texts of Scripture under-
neath. The book contains 125 Fables, and as
many plates, all well designed and well executed.
The fables are not all iEsopian, but selected
from various authors. Though the sonnets are
not very excellent, yet, as the book is, I believe,
of rare occurrence, it may be worth while to
introduce one as a specimen. I take a fable
which I do not recollect to have seen elsewhere.
The motto is,

Dissent ion des Amis les f aid proye aux



De cet aspre conflict des Raines et des Rats,
Qui dura si long temps (dont Homere n'a honte


412 jESOP'S fables.

En ses chants les plus doux d'en reciter la conte)
II en vint en la paix mesme de grans combats.
Cotnme une Raine aprez voulant par ces appas

Tirer (pour se vanger) une Souri, fort promte

De luy promeltre assez, luy diet quelle se conte,
De luy faiie en son lieu un niagnific repas.

Mais la Raine noia la Souri miserable,
K flottant sur les eaux, un vaultour effioiable,

La ravit, et son hoste, a ses jainbes li6.
L'homme meschant qui tasche a nuire ainsi sus terre

(Die tant qu'il voudra, qu'on luy avoit faict guerre)
En la tin perira, son? aucuae pitie.

The French are extremely fond of turning
narratives into sonnets. But there is a curious
book, executed by command of Louis xiv., in
which the whole of Ovid's Metamorphoses is
converted into Rondeaux. Of this truly French-
ified performance a friend of mine has a mag-
nificent Copy in quarto, which has all the ap-
pearance of being a presentation book, having
the arms and crown of France splendidly stamped
on the covers, and on the back, Imp. Royale,
for Imprimerie Royale. The author was no less
a personage than the famous Benserade, and the
title announces the Royal order, for its splendid
publication, at least, if not for the composition.
" Metamorphoses d'Ovide en Rondeaux, im-
primez, et enrichis de figures, par Ordre de sa
Majeste, et dediez a Monseigneur le Dauphin."



Below, on a vignette plate, are the Royal Crown,
Arms, and Orders. The date 1676*.

As the French Rondeau is of all absurd de-
vices the most absurd, exceeding in strictness,
as well as in quaintness, the sonnet itself, it will
be curious to some readers, without doubt, to
see how this strange task was executed. I
should not omit to say, that for the designs, the
Royal painter Le Brun was employed ; a letter
from whom, to Benserade, on the design of the
Frontispiece, stands first in the book. After
that, every thing is Rondeau. There is a double
Rondeau to the King, a Dedication to the
Dauphin in a Rondeau, a Rondeau for a Pre-
face ; the Royal Privilege, and even the Errata
are announced in Rondeaux. The latter, as
containing a witticism of the author, on the sub-
ject of his own very singular Work, may serve,
perhaps, as a good specimen.



Dans ce volume, ou sont toutes les Fables,
S'il s'est gliss6 des fautes peu notables,
Ou qui ne soient que de l'impression,
Mauque de soin, et duplication,
Un mot pour l'autre, elles sont excusables.



D'autres peut-estre, et bieti moins suportables.
Com me au bon sens plus prejudiciables,
Meriteroient une correction,
Dans ce volume.

Pour raoi, parmy des fautes innorobrables
Je n'en counois que deux considerables,
Et dont je fais ma declaration,
C'est f Enterprise, et C Execution,
A mon avis fautes irreparables,
Dans ce volume*

The " Extrait du Privilege du Roi" is a
witticism of a similar kind, and deserves also,
perhaps, to be selected from a number of at-
tempts in which the Poet had less scope for his



II est permis a quelqu'un du Parnasse
Qui de Marot cherche a suivre la trace,
De mettre au jour des Rondeaux qu'il a faits,
Pour estre en vente exposez beaux, ou laids,
Et defendu que Ton les contre fasse.

Le Roy plus loin etend la mesme grace,
Tout Acheteur qui du s'embarasse
Peut affecter de les trouver mauvais.
7/ est permis.



S'abandonner au public quelle audace !
A moins que d'estre Virgile, ou le Tasse,
Le milleur est de u' imprimer jamais,
On y hazarde, et 1'honneur et les frais ;
Mais qui voudra fairs le Fat le fane,
// est pcrud*.

Here the origin of the Rondeau is referred to
Marot, to whom the French doubtless think it
does honour. Though it is easy to conceive
with how little advantage Ovid's tales must ap-
pear thus travestied, I will give one specimen of
them. Among so many it is not easy to choose,
but that on the Metamorphosis of Argus makes
as good an Epigram, perhaps, as any among


Ave c cent yeux bien ouverts sur sa tasche
Le malhereux s'endort, Junon se fasche,
De s'estre ainsi confiee a ses soins,
Tile le change en un Paon neanmoins
Et sa pitie jusques la se relasche.

Ses pieds sont laids, il n'a point d'autre tache,
Son ample queue est comme une grand panache
Ou de l'lris 1'arc, et les traits sont joints,
A vec cent yeux.

Gens clair voyans, pensez-vouz qu'on vous scaclie
Beaucoup de gre de toute vostie attache ?

2 Veillez,

416 jESOP'S fables.

Veil'ez, grondez, cherchez par tous les coins,
II n'en sera pourtant ni plus, ni nioins,
Le pauvre Argus ne sgeut garder sa Vache,
Avec cent yeux.

The plates accompanying these Rondeaux are
neatly engraved, and not ill designed : but so
many fantastical epigrams are very fatiguing.
At the end are some Rondeaux which are Acro-
stics also. The whole extends to 463 pages. A
singular monument of idle labour !





SEBASTIAN Brandt's Ship of Fools, written in
German, is well known, as well as Locher's Latin
translation, first published in J 488, and again
in 1497 and 8; also the English translation of
Alexander Barclay, published with the Latin, from
which he translated it, in 1570. But there is
also a Dutch translation published at Leyden, in
1G10, which is entitled Narren Specl-Schuyt, or
*aV Narren Schip : which means the Ship of
Fools; for $latv in German and Dutch means a
Fool. Hence the Latin title Navis Narragoniit
is formed : Narragonia being an imaginary
country of fools, from that German term Narr.

This Dutch edition has a copper-plate vig-
nette in the title, representing the ship with its
passengers, very elegantly engraved, and 103
wood cuts, executed with force and spirit : in
some of which the designs are the same as those
in Barclay, but in others very different. It is
a small quarto.

Prefixed to the Dutch edition is an account of
Sebastian Brandt, written by John Trithemius,
Abbot of Spanheim, during the life of the author;
where he is also called Stbastianus Titio, which
is a translation of his German name. Trithe-

vol. 11. e e mius


mius enumerates several other works of Brandt,
who was then 37 years old, and in high favour
with the Emperor Maximilian. Of the Ship of
Fools he says, " Compilavit praeterea mini arte
et industria, vulgari tamen et vernacula. lingua
libellum quendam quern Navem Narragoni^e
appeliavit, in quo causam et radicem omnium
stultitiarum adeo cleganter expressit, mores
hominum carpit, et quredam salutaria remedia
tradit, ut non jure stultorum librum, sed divinam
potius satyram, opus illud appellasset. Nescio
enim si quid tempestatis nostras usibus salubrius
aut jucundius legi possit. Aiunt euin magno-
pere anniti, ut Latine, carmine pariter et ora-
tione soluta, illud quarn primum prodeat." This
was written in 1495. It is known that Brandt
afterwards relinquished the task of translating it
himself, and consigned it to his pupil Locher.
This account of Trithemius is not in Barclay's

Barclay's other translations, and his own ori-
ginal Eclogues,, and other poems in the same
volume, seem to have been less noticed than they
deserve. The Dutch translation is in the Col-
lection of the Rev. Mr. White, of Lichfield.






OF the origin of the designs, Wither speaks
thus in his Address to the Header.

" These Emblems, graven in copper, by Cris-
pinus Passceus, with a motto in Greeke, Latine,
or Italian, round about every figure ; and with
two lines (or verses) in one of the same languages,
(periphrasing those motto's) came to my hands
almost twentie yeares past. The verses were so
meane, that they were afterwards cut off from
the plates; and the collector of the said Em-
blems, (whether he be the versifier or the graver,)
was neither so well advised in the choice of
them, nor so exact in observing the true pro-
perties belonging to every figure, as hee might
have beene.

* Yet the workmanship being judged very
good, for the most part ; and the rest excusable,
some of my friends were so much delighted in
the graver's art, and in those illustrations, which*
for mine owne pleasure, I had made upon some
few of them, that they requested me to moralize
the rest. Which I condiscended unto: and they
had beene brought to view many yeares agoe,
but that the copper prints (which are now gotten)
e e 2 could


could not be procured out of Holland, upon
any reasonable conditions."

These prints, in their original state, as pub-
lished at Arnheim, are well worthy of notice.
Their merit, in that state, is hardly to be con-
ceived from the worn condition in which they
usually appear in Withers book. The work,
which is a thin quarto, without date, but pub-
lished by John Janson of Arnheim, has a fron-
tispiece finely engraved, and full of emblematical
fig.ues of considerable elegance. There is also
a singularly fine portrait of Gabriel Rollenhagius
of Magdeburg (aet. 27) the author of the verses
subjoined to each emblem, which Wither, not
without reason, despises. Yet there are two Epi-
grams in praise of the author, subjoined to his.
portrait; and another in commendation of his un-
fortunate couplets. The portrait and the frontis-
piece are both engraved by Crispian Pas, in his best
style. The latter has within it this title, also en-
graved. " Nucleus emblematum selectissimo-
rum, quae Itali vulgo impresas vocant, privata in-
dustria, studio singulari undique conquisitus, non
paucis venustis inventionibus auctus, additis
carminibus illustratus a. Gabriele Rollenhagio,
Magdeburgense. Ex Musaso Ccelatorio Crispiani
Passaji. ' ......

This book of Emblems is only one out of
many, in which much excellence of design and
ensravincr is exhibited : and' sometimes in com-



bination with good poetry. But the verses of
Rollenhagius, it must be confessed, are indif-
ferent enough. The first distich affords per-
haps one of the best specimens.

Disce bonas artes, et opes contemne caducas, fa
Vwitur ingenio, cetera mortis erunt.

In that on the third Emblem there is a gross
error in quantity, which cannot well be attri-
buted to a tault of the graver.

JjEX regit, et hostes contra Ducis Arm a tuentur,

TT T T C '-

Hunc populum, Legis qui sacra jussa tacit.

The Eulogists of Rollenhagius were certainly
very indulgent, and at 27, if ever, he might have
one better.

! '





to wipj 3fll I


THE Spectator was not the first Englishman
who adopted these Roman Personages as the
vehicles of rVfc satire. In the reign of Elizabeth
they were made the sole interlocutors in a dia-
logue against Puritans, there called Martinists.
The Tract, which is probably very scarce, has
this quaint title.

" The Returne of the renowned Cavaliero

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