William Burckhardt Barker.

Cilicia, its former history and present state; with an account of the idolatrous worship prevailing there previous to the introduction of Christianity online

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PV^Ti^/i



THE BIRTHLAND OF ST. PAUL



CILICIA:

ITS FORMER HISTORY AND PRESENT STATE,



WITH AN ACCOUNT OF



THE IDOLATROUS WORSHIP PREYAILING THERE PREVIOUS TO
THE INTRODUCTION OF CHRISTIANITY.



;WM. BURCKHARDT BARKER, M.R.A.S.,

MANT TEARS RESIDEfTT AT TARSUS IN AN OFFICIAI, CAPACITV.



EDITED BT

WM. FRANCIS AINSWORTH, F.R.G.S., F.G.S.,

Corresponding Member of the Geogr.-vphical Society of P.iris.



Illustrateb b» nitmrroug (Engravings from tristmg lirmains.



' I am a man which am a .Tew of Tarsus, a city in Cilicia, a citizen of no mean city."

St. Paui,, Acts xxl. 39.



LONDON AND GLASGOW:
RICHARD GRIFFIN AND COMPANY.

PtTBLISHERS TO THE UNIVERSITY OF GLASOOTT.



CONTENTS.



PAGB

Introductory Preface 1



CILIOIA AND ITS GOVERNORS.

CHAPTER I.

Early period of Cilician history. Scriptural mention of Tarsus. An-
cient religion. Notice of the Cilicians by Herodotus. Cilicia under
the Assyrians. Burial-place of Sardanapalus. Dominion of the
Medes. Cilicia overrun by Scythian hordes. The Prophet Daniel's
tomb. Croesus, king of Lydia. Persian satraps. Invasion of Greece
by the Persians. Syennesis, king of Cilicia. Treaty of Antalcidas.
Alexander the Great in Cilicia. Battle of Issus 11



CHAPTER II.

Plistarchus. Battle of Ipsus. Ptolemy Evergetes. Antiochus the
Great. Zeno and Chrysippus. Cilicia under the Seleucidis. In-
vaded by Tigranes. Reduced to a Roman province by Pompey.
Cicero's campaign in Cilicia. Marc Antony and Cleopatra at Tar-
sus. Cilicia invaded by the Parthians under Labienus. Atheno-
dorus. Vonones slain in Cilicia. St. Paul. Insurrection of the
Cliteans. Cossuatianus Papito govei-nor. Polemon, king of Cilicia,
marries Berenice. Cilicia declared a Roman province in Vespasian's
time. Fate of the Roman empire decided on the plain of Issus. . 23



CHAPTER III.

Legend of the Seven Sleepers. Sapor invades Cilicia. Zeuobia's con-
quests. Cilicia oveiTun by the Alani. Maximiauus dies at Tarsus.
Death of Couotuntius at Mopsuestia in Cilicia. St. George, patron
saint of England, born at Epiphanea. The Emperor JuUan buried
at Tarsus. Invasions of the Huns. Belisarius in Cilicia. Cam-
paigns of Heraclius and of Chosroes (Kusru Anushiiiwan). . . 36

a



VI CONTENTS.



CHAPTER IV.

PAGE

Rise of the Saracens. Cilicia overrun by Harun al Rashid. Al Mamun
dies in Cilicia. Exchange of prisoners at Il-Lamas. Sack of Mop-
suestia by the Khalif Mutassim. Mopsuestia retaken by Nicephorus
Phocas and John Zimisces. Rise of the Turkmans. Alp Arslan
and Roraanus Diogenes. Turkman dynasty at Nicjea. Persecu-
tion of the Christians. First Crusade. Tancred and Baldwin in
Cilicia. Alexius annexes Cilicia to the Greek empire. . . 45



CHAPTER V.

The Emperor John Comnenus killed in a wild boar hunt in Cilicia.
Description of Anazarba. The second Crusade. Third Crusade.
Death of Frederick I. (Barbarossa) in Cilicia. Fourth Crusade.
Cilicia under John Ducas Vataces. Devastations of Yanghiz or
Genghiz Khan. .......... 54



CHAPTER VI.

Rise of the Osmanlis or Usmanlis. Victories of Bayazid. Invasions of
the Moguls. Capture of Constantinople by jMuhammad II. Bay-
azid II. Annexes Cilicia to the Ottoman empire. Campaigns of
Sulaiman the Magnificent. Amurad IV. invades Cilicia. His house
at Adana. Reforms of Mahmud II. Abd'ul Masjid. ... 65



CHAPTER VII.

Modern histoiy of Cilicia. Rise of Kutchuk Ali I^glu. His means of
revenue. Acts of cruelty. Bayas. Mode of life and character-
istics. Seizes the master of an English vessel. Captures a French
merchantman. Bribes the Turks who are sent against him. Puts
his friend the Dutch Consul of Aleppo into prison. Forces a cara-
van of merchants to ransom him. A characteristic anecdote. . 73



CHAPTER VIII.

Dada Bey, son of Kutchuk Ali Fglu. His piratical expeditions. Re-
pels the attacks of tlic Tin-ks. Is taken by sti-atagem. Is be-
headed and l)urnt. History of Mustafa Pasha. Kil-Aga killed
by Haji Ali ]}oy. Dervisii Ilaniid. Story related of Haji Ali Bey.
Conquests of Ibrahim Pasha. Mustuk Bey placed in power. Com-
parison between the Egyptian and Turkish governments. . . 84



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER IX.



Muhammad Izzet Pasha. A pretender to the Turkish throne . His
strange history and rare accomplishments. Disappears at Kuniyah .
Ahmed Izzet Pasha. Grants permission to Mustuk Bey to murder
his nephew. Sulaiman Pasha. Durwisli Ahmed's expedition against
Mustuk Bey. His chief officers taken and stripped. Bayas captured
and sacked. ........... 92

CHAPTER X.

Anecdotes of Sulaiman Pasha. Gin-Jusif, rebel of Kara-Tash. Arif
Pasha. Murder of a pasha. Hasan Pasha. Anecdotes of the
council. Christian members of council. Employes of the Porte.
Toll at Kulak Bughaz. Hati Sheriff. Courts of justice. . . 101

CHAPTER XI.

Geography of Cilicia. Tarsus and Adana. Missis (Mopsuestia) . Sis
(Pindenissus). Bayas and the coast. Pylae Ciliciae. Population
of Cilicia. Europeans and their influence destroyed. Consuls and
their authority. English consuls allowed to trade. Climate.
Stagnant lake (Rhegma). Marsh of Alexandretta. Country-
houses. Nimrud. Sea-ports. Kaisanli. Mursina and its road-
stead 110

CHAPTER XII.

Advantages and disadvantages of Tarsus in a commercial point of view.
Tables of navigation. Tabular view of the trade of the interior of
Asia Minor. Table of exports. Table of imports. State of agri-
culture in Cilicia. Produce of the country. Cotton. Wheat.
Barley. Linseed. Wax. Fruit-trees. Silk. Olive-trees. Pay
of a day-labourer. Pasture of land. Tenure of land. Timber and
woods. Geology and mineralogy. Extracts from Mr. Ainsworth's
work. Plain of Tarsus. Falls of the Cydnus. First, second, third,
and fourth range of hills. IMines of iron and lead. Argentiferous
Galena. Revenue of the Pashalik 117



CHAPTER XIII.

II Lamas (Lamum). Kui'kass (Corycus). Aski Shahir. Soli, after-
wards Pompeiopolis. Great Mausoleum at Tarsus. Strabo's de-
scription of the coast of Cilicia. His account of Tarsus and neigh-
bouring towns. . . . . . . . . . .128



viii CONTENTS.

LARES AND PENATES.
CHAPTER I.

PAGE

Introductory 145

CHAPTER IT.

Discovery of the terra-cottas. Lares and Penates of Cilicia. Evidences
of promiscuous worship. Apollo of Tarsus. Perseus, Bellerophon,
and Pegasus. Radiated Apollo. Identity of physiognomy. Ugly
faces. Deification of children. Deification of princes. Deification
of ladies. Character of Cilician art. Progress of Christianity.
Destruction of the Lares and Penates. Atys. Apollo, the Syrian
Baal. Cybele, Ceres, and Isis. Eleusinian mysteries. Cybele and
Atys, T sis and Osiris, Venus and Adonis. The cat, dog, and horse.
Harpocrates and Florus. Isis and the Nelumbium. Sacred bulls.
Egyptian art. Morpheus 152

CHAPTER III.

Apollo. Apollo Belvedere. Caricatures of Midas. Apollo of Tarsus.
Senator in the clavus latus. Lion attacking a bull. Telephus
or Mercury (?). Ceres. Victory. Date of destruction of the Lares.
Metamorphosis of Actaeon into a stag. Remarks of Mr. Birch. . 184

CHAPTER IV.

ON CERTAIN PORTRAITS OF HUNS, AND THEIR IDENTITY WITH THE
EXTINCT RACES OP AMERICA.

Monstrous head in a conical cap. Portrait of a Hun (?). Identity
with American sculptures. Emigrations of Asiatic nations to
America. Testimonies from Stephens, Schomburgk, Humboldt.
Analogies of language. Evidences from Klaproth and d'Herbelot. 203

CHAPTER V.

ETHNOLOGICAL SUBJECT OF THE HUNS CONTINUED.

" The ugly heads" of the collection. Standard of beauty. Monu-
ments of Central America. Parallel case in Hayti. The Hittites
of Scripture. Reference to Egj'ptian sculpture. Effects of the
Egyptian invasion of Cilicia. 208



COiNTENTg.
CHAPTER VI.

ADDITIONAL WORKS OF ART. GODS, DEMIGODS, AND HEROES.



FAGE



Apollo. Mercury. Hercules. Bacchus. Silenus. Fauns and Satyrs.
Pan. Minerva. Venus. Cupid. Europa. Marsyas. Leander.
Laocoon. ^sculapius. Fortune. Caius Caligula (?). Priapus.
Harpy. Marsyas. Abrerig or Nergal (?). Summary . . . 21 3

CHAPTER VII.

SIBYLS AND DOLPHINS AND THEIR RIDERS.

Sibyls. An African sibyl. Head-dress of the virgin-prophetesses. A
matron sibyl (?). Dolphins and their riders. Apotheosis of de-
ceased childi-en. Story of Arion. Radiated heads. The Bulla. . 228

CHAPTER VIII.
Magi and Monks 232

CHAPTER IX.
Monsters and Idiots 237

CHAPTER X.

HUMAN FIGURES.

Bards. Priests. Miscellaneous. Female figures. Deified children.

Undetermined. 243

CHAPTER XI.

ANIMALS.

Dogs. Oxen. Bulls. Buffalo. Horses. Lions. Panther. Wolf.
Boar. Ape. Hippopotamus (?). Cat. Goats. Rams and Sheep.
Crocodile. Snake. Eagle. Swan. Ostrich. Cocks. . . . 249

CHAPTER XII.

DOMESTIC AND RELIGIOUS ART.

Chariots. Vases. Bowls and dishes. Wine-jars and drinking-vessels.
Lamps. Handles. Table and chair. Ring and glass. Round
disc of pottery. Net. Butter-print (?) 253

CHAPTER XIII.

MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS.

Lyres. Syrinx 259



X CONTEXTS.

CHAPTER XIV.

PAGE

COMPARATIVE GEOGRAPHY.

Arsus (Rhesus). Myriandrus. Iskandrun or Alexandretta (Alexandria
ad Isson). Godfrey de Bouillon's fort. Baylan (Pictanus, Erana ?).
Primitive Christian church. Castles of Ibn Daub and of Baylan
Bustandah. Altars of Alexander. Castle of Markatz. River Ker-
sus. Gates of Cilicia and Syria. Bayas (Baiae). Issus. Nicopo-
lis. Kara Kaya (Castabala). Epiphauea. Matakh. Tamir Kapu
(Iron Gates, Ammanian Gates). Ayas (Ageae). Ammodes. Kara
Tash(MallusandMegarsus). Aleian plain. Pyramus. Mopsuestia.
Castles on the plain. Sari Capita. Rhegma of the Cydnus. Yanifa
Kishla. Mazarlik. Castle of Kalak Bughaz. Kara Sis. Anabad
andDunkalah • • .262

CHAPTER XV.

ANTIOCH AND SELETJCIA.

The Bay of Antioch. Village of Suwaidiyah. Grotto of Nymphseus.
Island of Meliboea. Ruins of Seleucia Pieria. Projected re-open-
ing of the port of Seleucia. Mount St. Simon. Mount Casius.
Temple of Ham 267

CHAPTER XVI.

NATURAL HISTORY — ZOOLOGY.

The ounce. The lynx. Bears. Hyenas, wolves, and jackals. The
Fox. Hares. Fallow-deer. White gazelle (ghazal). Greyhounds.
Gh'aik, or ibex 276

CHAPTER XVII.

GAME BIRDS.

Game birds. Manner of taking quails. Manner of taking francolin
and partridges. Capture of wild doves. 281

CHAPTER XVIII.
Falconry 284

CHAPTER XIX,
Medicinal Plants 299



CONTENTS. XI



APPENDIX.

PAGE

Nan-ative of Nadir Bey, written from his own dictation (in French) . 301

Translation 310

Petition of Nadir Bey (in Italian) 320

Translation 325

Historical Documents : Copy of a Buynrdi from Muhammed Izzet
Pasha. Insurrection of Lattakiyah in 1804. State of North Syria
in 1805 and in 1814. Petition from the Chief of the Trades to
Mr. John Barker, 1841. Notice of Badir Khan Bey, the extir-
minator of the Nestorian Christians. Story of Fahel, chief of the
Arabs of the Zor, or forest district on the Euphrates. . . . 328

Burckhai'dt's Account of Cilicia 355

Commercial Tables : I. Commerce of Kaisariyah with the chief
towns of Asia Minor. II. Summary of the Commerce of Kaisariyah
one year with another. III. Exports of the Pashalik of Adanaand
Tarsus. IV. Imports of the same Pashalik. V. Prospectus of the
Navigation of Mursina, roadstead of Tarsus, 1844. VI. Table of
Duties paid at Constantinople 372



INDEX 387



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



View of Sis ....

Mausoleum at Eleusa

Map of Cilicia

Sarcophagus at Seleucia Pieria

Ruin at Anazarba .

Saccal Tutan ....

Plain of Antioch — Overflow of the

distance ....
Missis .....
View of Alexandretta
Alexandretta and Cape Khanzir
Sarcophagus at Seleucia Pieria
Ground-plan of Mausoleum at Tarsus
Tomb at Eleusa

Ruins of an Aqueduct at Anazarba
Valley of the Orontes
Sculptured Rocks at Anazarba

GOS-HAWK AND FaLCON

Gesril Hadeed, in the Plains of Antioch
Betias : Summer Residence of Mr. Barker
Mr. Barker's Villa in the Valley of Suedia



Orontes — Mount Amanus



Frontispiece



10
11
35
64
91

109
110
113
116
131
133
•242, 258
275
275
283
295
298
300
360



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS TO LARES AND PENATES.



page

Actseon 189

Adonis as Apollo 178

Apollo . 157,161,162,164,178,195

Apis 182

Ariadne 216

Atys, young 174,227



Bacchante 200

Bacchus 195, 216

Bard playing 243

Boy and Dolphin 230

Caius Caligula 223

Captive, kneeling 211



XIV



LIST OP ILLUSTRATIONS.



Ceres 176

Chronos 193

Commodus 167

Cupid and Swan . . . . 21.0, SiO

Cybele 192

Davus 198

Diana 156,284

Eros 166, 194

Gladiator 244

Harpocrates 181

Head, tutulated 192

Heads, monstrous .... 203, 204

Hercules 169

Hero 193

Horse, leg of 175

„ head of 180

Idiot head , 268

Incense- burner 155

Iris 177

Isis l.qi

Juno 157, 1()7, 177

Jupiter 157

Lady, head of 168,188

Lamp 156

Leander swimming the Hellespont 222
Lion attacking a Ball . . . . 187



Macrocephalus, a 238

Magus 232

Man riding a Bear .... 226

Mask, comic 177, 178

Mercury 158

^lessalina 158

Midas 185

Monster, head of a 236

Musical Instruments .... 260
Osiris 14, 161



Pallas

Pan

Perseus

Phree (the Egyptian Sun)
Phrygian Head ....
Priest with attributes of Apollo
Priestess



169
155
197
252
197
164
199

Saturn J 93

Senator 186

Serapis 14

Sibyl, African 228

Silenus 218

Somnus 183

Tartarus 248

Venus 170, 193

Victoria Aleta 189



— i*<> :» > a > »g ^K—



INTEODUCTOEY PEEFACE

BY THE EDITOR.



The author of this little volume, and the first to bring to hght the Lares
and Penates of the ancient and interesting city of Tarsus — Mr. William
Burckhardt Barker — is the son of John Barker, Esq., who died at
Suedia, or Suwaidiyah, near Antioch, on the fifth of October, 1850, in
his seventy-nmth year. He is also the godson of the eminent traveller
and Oriental scholar Louis Biu'ckhardt, Avhose footsteps he has most
worthily followed, having prosecuted the study of the Oriental languages
from his early boyhood, and being now as familiar -with Ai'abic, Tui'kish,
and Persian, and the many dialects which emanate from these languages,
as he is with the chief languages of Europe. He lately made an ex-
tended tour in Persia, whither he went to perfect himself in the language
of that country before his final return to England.

Mr. W. Burckhardt Barker is further akeady known in this country
by an account of the sources of the river Orontes, of which no previous
description had been published, and which appeared in the 7tli volume
of the Journal of the Eoyal Geographical Society.

The father of our author for a long period occupied posts of honour-
able trust under the British government. He was appointed Consul
and Agent to the East Lidia Company at Aleppo in 1799, where he
exercised his functions and practised a generous hospitality to his coun-
trymen and to strangers till 1826, when he was promoted to the post

B



2 INTIiODUCTOrvY TREFACE.

of liis Majesty's Consul- General in Egypt. Here lie remained till 1834,
Avhen lie became entitled to liis retirement from public service. He
then fixed his residence in the beautiful valley of Suedia, ancient Se-
leucia Pieria, on the banks of the Orontes, and about fifteen miles
from Antioch. Here he built a commodious house, and planted his
grounds with the choicest flowers, shrubs, and fmit-trees of Europe and
Asia. At a subsequent period he added to this general residence a
summer-house at the village of Betias, on a commanding eminence of
jNIount Rhosus, where there was an abundant supply of water, the air
was always refreshing and cool, and the prospect magnificent; and here
his mortal remains Avere consigned to the tomb.

The presence of an Englishman of a liberal and benevolent mind
had a great influence upon the native population, who looked up to him
and his family with sentiments of love and respect. This feeling was
shared as well by the Muhammadan inhabitants as by the Christian.
His services to Eastern travellers have in numberless instances been
called into action, and have been gratefully recorded in many published
works of those who partook of his hospitality.

IMr. Barker's family came from Bakewell, in Derbyshire, where
they have long been estabUshed. He married Miss Hays at Aleppo
in 1800, who survives him. This lady's mother was a daughter of
Mr. Thomas Vernon, a Levant merchant of Aleppo, when that city was
the grand emporium of the commerce of India. He was of the family
of the Yernons of Hilton, in Cheshire, and a near kinsman of Admiral
8ir Edward Vernon, of Porto Bello celebrity. By this lady, who was a
remarkable linguist, for it is stated she spoke five languages fluently
when only six years old, ^Ir. Barker had three sons and two daughters,
r-aU of whom possessed a great facility for acquiring languages, and be-
came proficient Orientalists.

Mr. Barker's latter years were much occupied in procuring from all
parts of Asia the best kinds of fruits, which he cultivated in his gar-
dens at Suedia with a view to prove their merits, and afterwards of
transferring them to liis native country, so as to improve upon the
varieties grown there. His attention was especially directed to the
peach, nectarine, and apricot ; and from specimens that have already
been produced from his stock, there is but little doubt that in a few



INTRODUCTORY PREFACE. 6

years a very superior order of what we denouiinate w'all-lruits will be ia
conamon cultivation in England. Some hundreds of Mr. Barker's trees
are now under culture in the garden of an eminent nurseryman in
Devonshire, and are destined to be spread over the country. They
all possess the peculiar property of having sweet kernels, in contra-
distinction to those common in Europe, which have bitter kernels : this
imparts a greatly improved flavoiu' to the fruit. The famous Stanwick
nectarine, declared by Dr. Lindley to be incomparably superior to any
thing we have, Avas introduced by Mr. Barker into this country through
the assistance of his Grace the present Duke of Northumberland. In
this gentle and humanising pursuit Mr. Barker spared neither exertions
nor expense. He was in the habit for many years past of sending
agents into distant coimtries of the East, including Bokhara, Samar-
kand, Kandahar, and Shiraz, to procure for him scions of all such trees
as bore the best fruits.

He was, indeed, enthusiastic in the pursuit of whatever he thought
would benefit mankind. Thus in 1848, when the cholera committed
great devastation in the north of Syria, a remedy is stated to have been
discovered by which many persons were cured even in the advanced
stages of the disease. Mr. Barker verified the efficiency of the proposed
remedy by personal observation ; and once he was satisfied, he spared no
pains or expense to spread the knowledge of what he deemed an impor-
tant discovery to all parts of the world.

During a residence of fifty years in Syria and Egypt, Mr. Barker
never lost an opportunity of obliging in his private capacity all persons
who came within his reach ; and such was the reputation he had acquired
by his general hospitality, that often a letter of introduction from him to
any of the chiefs around was of more real value than the best passport
from the government authorities. During the campaign of the French
in Syria he also rendered good service to our old ally the Porte, from
whom, imder Sultan Selim, he received a gold medal and a snuiF-box
set with diamonds, which were sent to him through his friend Sir Syd-
ney Smith.

Mr. Barker had a final opportunity of being usefid to his country
by forwarding the objects of the Euphrates expedition, which landed at
the mouth of the Orontes in 1835, and of extending his characteristic



4 IMTRODUCTOKY PRErACE.

hospitality to Colonel Chesney and the officers and men of the ex-
pedition.

This true-hearted Englishman, indeed, spent all his income in
keeping up to the last the honour and respectability of the British
name.

As a farther proof of what has been here stated, I have been in-
duced, with the kind permission of the publishers, to introduce into the
work a brief notice of Mr. Barker, with some account of his residence
at Suwaidiyah and of the immediate neighbourhood, from Mr. Neale's
work, recently published by iSIessrs. Colburn and Co., Eight Tears in
Syria and Palestine, ij-c.

The interest of the present work will be foiuid upon perusal to be
much greater than might be expected from its more or less local cha-
racter. Cilicia, properly so called, is not less remarkable for its phy-
sical configiu'ation, than it is as the scene of varied historical events,
many of which have by their importance infliienced the destiny of the
world.

Physically'speaking, the alluvial deposit of the Cydnus and the Sarus,
the Pyramus and the Pinarus, all rivers of ancient renown, the great
Aleian plain, the lower and wooded ranges of the Taurus and of the
Amanus, the snow-clad summits of which gird this province like a wall
of rock, and the narrow slip of land forming the shores of the Issic Gulf,
constitute the whole of the country of Cilicia Proper.*

But politically and historically Cilicia derived its importance from
being the highway between the nations of the East and the West.
When the Persians, under their powerful monarch Xerxes, advanced
against the first scat of European civilisation, or when the Greeks in
their turn marched in the train of a Persian satrap to the plains of
Babylonia, Cilicia was alike put under contributions by both parties.
Wlien the already aged civilisation of the East and tlie young civilisa-
tion of the West had in Alexander the Great's time become more balan-
ced, the fate of the two was decided half-way on the plains of Cilicia.
Petty chieftains, like the successors of Alexander, made of it a continuous
field of strife ; and so warlike had the experience of the past made its

* Strabo divided Cilicia into Cilicia Aspera and Cilicia Canipostris ; the latter i<
called by Ptolemy, Cilicia Proper.



INTRODUCTORY TREFACE, 5

inhabitants, that it required a Pompej, a Cicero, and a Mark Antony
in the palmy days of Rome to bring the same rock and sea-girt province
into subjection.

Even the short-lived powers of Zenobia affected Cilicia; and in the long
struggle for domination that took place between the Emperor of Byzantium
and the Sassanian Kings, Cilicia still continued to be the field of oft- re-
peated and sanguinary conflicts. This was still more the case upon the
rise of Muhammadanism ; and in the times of the early khalifs, -when the
population of the country appears to have attained its maximum, its soil
was more than ever stained by the blood of victims to men's lust for
power and dominion.

The Saracens were succeeded by Turkman races, which have ever
since held most tenaciously by a country which they have found pe-
culiarly adapted to their habits and mode of life. Three times the
Chi'istians of the West, as they Avere rising into power upon the past
civilisation of Greece and Eome, advanced to battle for the empire of the
Cross through Cilicia; and fatal experience ultimately taught them to
take other routes. For a time, as under the wily Alexixis or the less
fortunate John Comnenus, Cilicia was once more a Greek province: biit
the dread power of the Osmanlis Avas already on the ascendant; and
with the exception of the temporary sway of the Mamluks, and of the
devasting inroads of a Janghiz Khan or a Timur-lang, which w^ere as
evanescent as they were sweeping, and of a brief Egyptian domination
in the time of Ibrahim Pasha, Cilicia has ever since remained vmder
the control of the Osmanlis, or of their more or less dependent vassals,
the Turkman chieftains of the country.

The peculiar position of this sea-and-mountain-girt province has
always influenced the character of the inhabitants. The father of history
tells us that the Cilicians were among the few nations in Lesser Asia
whom Crasus could not bring into subjection. Mr. Barker notices the
bad character for piracy and unfaithfulness that Artemisia, queen of
Halicarnassus, gave of the Cilicians ; so familiar indeed Avere these fea-
tures in the character of these isolated people of antiquity, that CUix
hand facile verum dicit became a proverbial saying.

From the same mountains Avhere Cicero found the " Avicked and
audacious Tibarani," and Avhere dwelt the rebel Clitn?ans, Armenians (not



6 IXTRODUCTORY PREFACE.

always very warlike in other countries) descended to ravage tlie plains



Online LibraryWilliam Burckhardt BarkerCilicia, its former history and present state; with an account of the idolatrous worship prevailing there previous to the introduction of Christianity → online text (page 1 of 41)