William Carpenter.

Scripture natural history; containing a descriptive account of the quadrupeds, birds, fishes, insects, reptiles, serpents, plants, trees, minerals, gems, and precious stones, mentioned in the Bible online

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Online LibraryWilliam CarpenterScripture natural history; containing a descriptive account of the quadrupeds, birds, fishes, insects, reptiles, serpents, plants, trees, minerals, gems, and precious stones, mentioned in the Bible → online text (page 1 of 39)
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IRLF




B 3 TOfl




THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY
OF CALIFORNIA




PRESENTED BY

PROF. CHARLES A. KOFOID AND
MRS. PRUDENCE W. KOFOID




The Stork.




The Lioness and her whelps.



SCRIPTURE NATURAL HISTORY;

CONTAINING A DESCRIPTIVE ACCOUNT OF THE

QUADRUPEDS, BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS, REPTILES,

SERPENTS, PLANTS, TREES, MINERALS, GEMS, AND PRECIOUS STONES,

MENTIONED IN THE BIBLE.



BY W M. CARPENTER.




IRST AMERICAN, FROM THE LATEST LONDON EDITION, WITH IMPROVJM*KTS,

'

BY REV. GORHAM D. ABBOTT.



ILLUSTRATED BY NUMEROUS ENGRAVINGS.



TO WHICH ARE ADDED

SKETCHES OF PALESTINE, OR THE HOLY LAND.



BOSTON:

LINCOLN, EDMANDS & CO.
1833.



NTRED ACCORDING TO ACT OF CONGRESS, IN THE TEAR EIGH-
THS* HUNDRED THIRTY-THREE, BY LINCOLN, EDMANDS & CO., Ill

TH CLERK'S OFFICE OF THE DISTRICT OF MASSACHUSETTS.



BOSTON:

JAMES B. DOW, PRINTER,
122 WA8HINGTON-ST.



C






PREFACE

TO THE THIRD ENGLISH EDITION.



IN preparing this edition of the SCRIPTURE NATURAL HIS-
TORY for the press, the author has carefully revised it through-
out, and made such alterations in style and matter as will,
he hopes, render it more worthy of public acceptance than the
former edition. In doing this, he has borne in mind a sug-
gestion put forth in a favorable critique upon the first impres-
sion in the ' Eclectic Review,' and by divesting the work of some
of the dryness and tedium of criticism, and making it less
diffuse, he has sought to give it a more ' popular,' though not
a less useful character. These alterations have enabled him,
without omitting any thing of real value and utility, to bring
the volume into a smaller compass, and publish it in a more
attractive form.

Since the publication of the former edition of this work,
the author has been driven, by the force of circumstances, and
a deep sense of moral responsibility, to devote much of his
time and attention to objects of an apparently different aspect
to those pursued in biblical literature, and which are regarded
with considerable jealousy and suspicion by a large proportion
of the religious public. This is not the place to justify the
course he has taken, or to defend the motives by which he has
been actuated, It is enough to say, that his attachment to
biblical pursuits is as strong as ever, and that his conviction
of the paramount importance and infinite value of pure and
undented religion grows with his growth, and strengthens with
his strength. To assist in removing out of the way some of
those impediments to the spread of religion, which the sullen
discontent and reckless profligacy produced by the inordinate
and inadequately remunerated labor, combined with the super-
induced ignorance, of the manufacturing population almost
every where present, he has encountered the perils and priva-



6 PREFACE.

tions of imprisonment. A consciousness of the purity of his
motives, however, amply compensates him for all these and
much more.

The indulgent reader will pardon the intrusion of these re-
marks. They have been deemed to be necessary, in conse-
quence of certain misrepresentations which some persons have
either wilfully or ignorantly put forth, as to the author's con-
tinued attachment to the truths of Revelation.

April 5, 1832.



PREFACE

TO THE FIRST EDITION.



HAVING stated the nature and object of his work in the In-
troduction to the following pages, it is only necessary that the
author should here subjoin a few words, by way of explana-
tion.

There being two editions of Dr. Harris's ' Natural History
of the Bible ' extant in this country, (England) it is natural
that the public should inquire upon what grounds a second
work of this description is presented to their notice. The an-
swer to this inquiry may be very brief. Dr. Harris's work is
by far too critical for general purposes, and contains but little
' Natural History.' It furnishes valuable materials to aid the
student in his investigations ; but to the unlearned reader it
presents few attractions ; while its frequent conjectural criti-
cisms, and utter destitution of evangelical sentiment and feel-
ing, render it by no means desirable as a medium of religious
instruction.

In every part of the following work, the author has given
the authorities upon which his statements are founded ; and
conceiving that literary property is as sacred and inviolable as
that of every other species, he has conscientiously pointed out
the immediate sources of his information. This may be some-
times found operating to the prejudice of others ; but he can-
not be answerable for such a result.

In availing himself of the labors of his predecessors, the
author has frequently found the highest authorities supporting
conflicting opinions : in such cases, he has decided to the best
of his judgment, and where the limits assigned to his work
would permit of it, he has laid before the reader the grounds
of his decision.

The author cannot close these prefatory observations with-
out acknowledging his particular obligations to Mr. Charles



8 PREFACE.

Taylor, the late erudite and indefatigable editor of Calmet ;
and also to Professor Paxton. To the former, for the result
of much laborious investigation, to identify the subjects of
Scripture Natural History ; and to the latter, for many felici-
tous illustrations of particular passages of the Sacred Writ-
ings. The chief inducement with the author to avail himself
so freely of the writings of the last-mentioned author, was
their evangelical tone, and their strong tendency to elevate
the religious feelings of the reader. Written under the influ-
ence of a deep but enlightened piety, Professor Paxton's ' Il-
lustrations of the Holy Scriptures ' present a striking contrast
to the cold and lifeless 'Illustrations' generally furnished in
biblical works.

With reference to the embellishments, it is only necessary
to say, that those objects have been selected which are the
least known in this country : and the best authorities have
been chosen for their representation. The author's thanks
are due to the respective artists, for the fidelity and taste with
which they have executed their work.

Relying upon the same indulgence that has been extended
to his former efforts in the cause of biblical literature, the au-
thor presents the following work to the acceptance of the re-
ligious public. May HE whose cause it aims to promote, ren-
der it subservient to his gracious purposes !






PREFACE.



THIS book was originally intended to be but a re-print of
the English work, by Carpenter. His volume, however, was
found to contain so much of Biblical criticism, and Classical
learning, as to be adapted almost exclusively to the use of the
Greek and Hebrew scholar.

It was therefore thought best to revise Carpenter ; to omit
'hose classical discussions, and verbal criticisms, which al-
though interesting and valuable to the orientalist, must, from
their very nature, be of little service to common readers ; and
to bring the substance of the Scripture illustrations, found in
his volume, within the reach of the readers of the English
Bible.

Such a revision of Carpenter's volume, with alterations and
additions, was but just accomplished and ready for the press,
when the third London edition of his work camfe to hand,
published under countenance of the * Book Society for promo-
ting Religious -Knowledge/ in which the design above stated
was fully pursued, and that too, with evidence of much judg-
ment and good taste.

The very favorable and commendatory notices which his
first editions had received from the ' Eclectic and Monthly Re-
views,' ' The Athenaeum,' ' The Christian Remembrancer,'
'The Home Missionary,' 'The Baptist,' < The Methodist/
' The Congregational/ ' The Evangelical/ and ' Imperial
Magazines/ and other publications, induced him to prepare an
edition better calculated for popular use and general circula*
tion.

1 In doing this/ the author remarks in his preface, * he has
borne in mind a suggestion, put forth in a favorable critique
upon the first impression, in the " Eclectic Review/' and by
divesting the work of some of the dryness and tedium of crit-
icism, and making it less diffuse, he has sought to give it a
more " popular," though not a less useful character. These al-
terations have enabled him, without omitting any thing of re-
al value and utility, to bring the volume into a smaller com-
pass, and a more attractive form.'



10 PREFACE.

It was therefore only justice to Mr. Carpenter, to re-publish
his own revision of this Book. This has been done, with a few
alterations and additions, which it is hoped will render it not
less acceptable and useful to readers among us. The work is
intended to be a plain and simple account of the subject of
which it treats, to be illustrated with numerous engravings, in
a manner suited to the comprehension of those, who have little
or no acquaintance with Classical or Scientific Learning.

The English Editors arid Reviewers speak in the highest
terms ofthe indefatigable industry displayed in Mr. Carpenter's
volume. But we cannot withhold our regret that they, who
have noticed with so much approbation the result of his labors,
should have unconsciously awarded credit, that takes from an-
other his due.

We cannot but regard the course pursued by Mr. Carpen-
ter as very extraordinary and very unjust. And we respect-
fully invite his English friends and ours, to compare his vol-
ume, with the work of our distinguished countryman, the Rev.
Dr. Harris.

In 1793, Dr. H. published his first 'Natural History ofthe
Bible,' which met in this country and in Europe the honorable
and flattering reception it deserved.

Twenty-seven years afterwards, in 1820, he published a
second volume under the same title. He says in the preface
of this, ' I kept on my table, an interleaved copy, (of his
first work) and in the course of my reading, transferred to it,
the additional information, which I collected. Desirous of
pursuing the investigation still farther, I procured, with con-
siderable expense, many valuable books, which I had not, be-
fore, the opportunity of consulting. In fine, I have re-exam-
ined every article, with better knowledge and greater care ;
have transcribed and new-modelled the whole, and made such
amendments and additions throughout, as rerider this rather
a new work, than a new edition ; and to its completion and
perfection, the studies and acquisitions of more than twenty-
five years have contributed.

' I have endeavored to substantiate every article, which I
have introduced, by proofs stated with all possible clearness,
and to illustrate it by criticisms and explanations; yet I lay
claim to no praise, but that of having brought into a regular
form, such information as I could collect, from the best and
most unexceptionable sources. In the most unrestrained terms
I acknowledge that I have borrowed from all authors of es"
tabjished reputation, with freedom,



PREFACE. 11

' I have subjoined a list of the principal books which I have
consulted, (a catalogue of fifty three different works) with
a reference to the edition, which I used, and would st.ill men-
tion, that in the notes, (scattered through the volume) will
be found references to more than twice the number, in the
following catalogue.

' In short, I have spared neither labor nor expense, in the
collection of materials ; and have aimed to make my work a
useful and valuable treasure of information, and worthy of the
approbation of the public.

' Of my authorities and the use, which I have made of them,
it becomes me to speak with grateful acknowledgments. The
first and principal of these is Bochart, who in his Hierozoicon
has, in the most learned researches, traced the names of the
animals mentioned in Scripture through the different lan-
guages and dialects of the East,' &,c. &c. * He had the oppor-
tunity of consulting the Nat. Hist, of Damir, and other Ara-
bian authors.

' The Plysique Sacr^e of Scheuchzer, in eight volumes folio,
is a magnificent work, with which a noble friend in Paris
supplied me. It has contributed greatly to enrich my arti-
cles '

He thus goes on to enumerate some of the most distinguish-
ed authors, who hnd been of assistance, in treating of the
PLANTS, the FISHES, INSECTS, and Precious Stones.

Among these principal authorities, are the names of Hiller,
in the f tier opfiijti con t Celsius in his Hierobotanicon, Diosconi-
des, the Elder Pliny, Alpinus, Rauwolf, Hasselquist, Shaw,
Russell, Forskal, Bruce, Rudbeck, Lemnius, Braunius, and
Calrnet.

The Lexicons of Castel, Buxtorf, Meninski, and Parkhurst
were the companions of his labors. The commentaries of
Micliaelis and the illustrations of Paxton, we may add to swell
the list.

Under these circumstances it is, that Mr. Carpenter takes
up the work of Dr. Harris, and, changing the arrangement
from an Alphabetical to a Scientific one, making some omis-
sions and some alterations, and inserting some valuable ad-
ditions, claims the work as his own. A comparison of any
of the important articles in the two books, such as that on
Flax, the Behemoth, the Eagle, the Fox, but much more a
comparison of the two entire works will show how much of Mr.
Carpenter's matciials were made ready to his hand.



12 PREFACE.

But this, is not all ; with an unkind and ungenerous insin-
uation in his preface, calculated to injure Dr. Harris, if not
designed to prevent the circulation of Ids work, and of course,
a comparison of the two, which might prove unpleasant to
Mr. Carpenter, he announces to the world, that the ' utter des-
titution of evangelical sentiment in the volume,' from which
he had gathered and gleaned, more than from all other works
together, ' renders it unfit for general use.'

To despoil an author of the results of his literary labors, who
with indefatigable zeal, and distinguished ability and success
has been serving the cause of Science and Biblical Literature
with his time, his talents, his labors and his money, for more
than a quarter of a century, and then to brand him as a here-
tic, in order to conceal the robbery, does not appear to us as
evincing much of the spirit or practice of piety.

Would that Mr. Carpenter, with all that he has borrowed
from the work of Dr. Harris, had taken, also, a note append-
ed to its ingenuous and unassuming preface :

' Est benignum, et plenum ingenui pudoris, fateri per quos
profiteris.' Plin. Nat. Hist. Pref.

Justice at least should have been given to one who so early
and ably led the way, in the study of the * Natural History of
the Bible.'

It argues little in favor of the purity or liberality of our
principles, if we have no eye to discover nor heart to acknow-
ledge the high Literary, Critical and Scientific merit of anoth-
er, because, forsooth, his Theological opinions may be different
from our own.

The circulation of Dr. Harris's work in Europe for many
years (it having passe J three editions in London) is a testi-
mony to its value, not easily set aside. And we cannot but
hope, that he will favor the literary world, with another edi-
tion of his invaluable volume, with such additions and improve-
ments as the lapse of a dozen years will have enabled him to
make. And we are sure that Literary and Scientific men of
every country, who alone are able to appreciate these labors,
will award to him, the full measure of thanks, which he de-
Serves. There is perhaps no living writer who has devoted
so much attention to this particular subject, or has such a
mass of materials at command.

Perhaps some may think, that the writer of this preface is
a friend, or acquaintance of Dr. H., writing under his eye
and perhaps at his suggestion, and therefore affects to feel so



PREFACE. 13

sensibly the injuries of the respected Author. The writer
deems it as due to himself, to say, that he is neither kinsman,
nor acquaintance, arid has never, to his knowledge, had the
pleasure of seeing the Rev. Dr. Harris. And the latter, as
deeply as he must feel his own wrongs, does not dream that
such a preface as this is in hand, or probably never heard of
its writer. He, if he knows his own heart, would have been
equally ready to do the same justice, that he has attempted
here, to Mr. Carpenter, had he been the aggrieved and any
other individual the aggressor.

But to return to the volume now presented to the Christian
csmmutiity, it is sincerely hoped, that it may contribute, in
some good degree, to increase and gratify the interest which
the subject of it has at this day so genera ly awakened.

The American Editor can truly say, that the delightful il-
lustrations of scripture, which have been continually coming
before his mind, in the progress of his examinations, have
made him more sensible than ever, how much of real, intel-
lectual and moral pleasure and improvement is lost by a want
of acquaintance with the Natural History of the Bible.

And therefore does he most cordially commend this study
and this volume to the notice of all, and especially of the
young, who desire a fuller acquaintance with the beauties
and treasures of the Sacred Oracles.

, GORHAM D. ABBOTT.

Boston, Oct. 24M, 1832.



CONTENTS.



Introductory Remarks by the American Editor 25

CHAPTER I. ANIMALS.

SECTION I. Domestic Animals:

The Elephant the Camel the Horse the Asa
the Mule the Ox the Sheep the Goat the
Dog the Hog .35

SECTION II. Ferocious Wild Beasts :

The Lion the Leopard the Wolf the Hyena the
Fox, or Jackal the Wild Boar the Bear. 83

SECTION III. Wild Inoffensive Animals:

The Wild Ass the Rock Goat or Ibex the Antelope
the Hart and the Hind the Hare and the Coney
the Mouse the Mole the Bat 101

SECTION IV. Dubious Animals :

The Behemoth the Leviathan the Unicorn 108

CHAPTER III. BIRDS.

INTRODUCTORY SECTION Reviewing the Structure and
Instincts of the Feathery Tribes, and also their Biblical
Appellations 129

SECTION I. Air Birds :

The Eagle the Hawk and the Kite the Raven the
Dove and the Turtle the Swallow the Sparrow 132

SECTION II. Land Birds :

The Ostrich the Peacock the Owl the Partridge
the Cock and Hen the Quail 147



16 CONTENTS.

SECTION III. Water Birds:

The Crane the Stork the Pelican the Cormorant 159

SECTION IV. Dubious Birds :

The Cuckoo the Heron the Swan 165

CHAPTER TV. FISHES.

Biblical Appellations Principal Divisions Fish of Galilee
Preserver of Jonah 171

CHAPTER V REPTILES.

SECTION I. Lizards :

The Tortoise, or Lizard the Ferret, or Gecko the

Chameleon the Frog 173

SECTION II. Serpents :

The Viper the Adder and Asp the Cockatrice the Ser-
aph, or Fiery Serpent the Dragon the Horseleach
the Snail 180

SECTION III. Worms :

Singular Construction Biblical Appellations Tenacity
of Life Various kinds mentioned in Scripture 195

CHAPTER VI. INSECTS.

INTRODUCTORY SECTION. -Number and Variety Won-
derful Construction 197

SECTION I. Wingless Insects :

The Scorpion the Spider the Flea the Louse 201

SECTION II. Winged Insects :

The Fly the Hornet the Gnat the Moth the Bee the
Ant the Locust 205

SECTION III. Dubious Insects :

The Beetle the Canker Worm the Caterpillar the
Palmer Worm , 2SU



CONTENTS. 17



BOTANY.

INTRODUCTORY SECTION. Import of the Term Dis-
tinctions between the Animal and Vegetable World
Structure of Vegetables Differences among the Three
Classes of Vegetables Vegetable Life Biblical
Arrangement 227

CHAPTER I. GRASS AND HERBS.
Herbaceous Productions 232

SECTION I. Grain :

Methods of Preparing Grain for Food Corn used as an

Emblem of a Future State 234

Wheat Barley Rye Millet 237

SECTION II. Reeds:

The Bulrush of Papyrus the Cane the Flag 239

SECTION III. Pulse:

Lentils Beans 242

SECTION IV. Weeds :

Suphim Cockle Fitches 243

CHAPTER II. PLANTS AND SHRUBS.

SECTION I. Aromatic Plants :

Camphor Aloes the Myrtle the Lily Cummin-
Anise Hyssop the Juniper 246

SECTION II. Cucumber Plants :

The Cucumber the Melon the Mandrake 252

SECTION III. Thorny Shrubs and Plants :

The Thorn the Bramble Nettles 254

SECTION IV. Onions and similar Plants :

Onions Garlick Leeks 257

SECTION V.Flax. . . .258



18 CONTENTS.

CHAPTER III. TREES.

INTRODUCTORY SECTION. Scripture Names Sacred
Groves 260

SECTION I. Fruit Trees :

The Apple or Citron Tree the Almond Tree the Chest-
nut Tree the Fig Tree the Sycamore Tree the Palm
Tree the Olive Tree the Pomegranate the Vine. . . .262

SECTION II. Aromatic Trees:

The Cedar Tree the Balsam Tree the Cypress Tree
the Lign Aloe the Rose Tree 282

SECTION III. Woody Trees :

The Oak, or the Terebinth the Fir Tree the Poplar
the Willow the Mustard Tree 288

CHAPTER IV. DOUBTFUL PLANTS AND TREES.

The Bay Tree the Pine Tree the Shittah Tree the
Almug Tree the Box Tree the Gourd the Heath-
Hemlock Wormwood Tares Mallows Manna 294

CHAPTER V. VEGETABLE SUBSTANCES.

SECTION I. Woods :

Thyine Cassia Cinnamon 302

. a
SECTION II. Fruits :

Nuts Husks 305

SECTION III. Gums :

Frankincense Galbaniun Myrrh Stacte 307

GEOLOGY:

INTRODUCTORY SECTION. Import of the Term Object
of the Science Non-eternity of Matter Origin of the
Earth Review of the Plutonic and the Neptunian
Theories Scripture Account of the Formation of the
Earth Objections to the Mosaic Account Alluvial
Marbles Traditions of the Deluge Its Moral and
Physical Causes Changes and Formations in the
Earths and Stratas Geological Researches confirma-
tive of the History of Moses 311



CONTENTS. 19

CHAPTER I. STONES.

Adamant Agate Alabaster Amethyst Amianthus
Beryl Carbuncle Chalcedony Chrysophrasus
Crystal Diamond Emerald Jacinth Jasper Mar-
ble Onyx and Sardonyx Pearls Ruby Sapphire
Sardius or Sardine Topaz 323

CHAPTER II. EARTHS.

Brimstone Pitch Salt Soap Nitre Vermilion Clay . .333

CHAPTER III. METALS.
Gold-Silver Amber Copper Iron-Lead Tin 345



SKETCHES OF PALESTINE.

History of Geography Climate and Natural History
Jerusalem Manners and Customs of the Jews Bead
and Relic Trade Mount Zion Mount of Olives
Bethlehem The Dead Sea Lake of Tiberias The
Vale of Nazareth Mount Tabor Route to Nablous
and Tiberias - 355



LIST OF CUTS.



FACE.



1. Frontispiece 2

2. Group of Animals 34

3. The Elephant 35

4. Elephants drinking 40

5. Loaded Elephant 43

6. TheCamel 45

7. Caravan in the Desert 48

8. Bactrian Camel 49

9. The Horse 55

10. The Ass 58

11. The Ox 65

12. Treading out Corn 69

13. Oxen Ploughing 70

14. The Goat 76

15. The Dog 78

16. The Hog 81

17. The Lion 83

18. The Leopard 90

19. The Hyajna 93

20. The Fox, or Jackal 95

21. The Bear 99

22. The Rock Goat, or Ibex 104

23. The Antelope 106

24. The Hart 108

25. The Hare 112

2(>. The Mouse 114

27. The Mole 115

28. The Bat 117

29. The Hippopotamus 118

30. Group of Birds 128

31., The Eagle 132

32. The Hawk 135



22 LIST OF CUTS.

33. The Raven 137

34. The Dove 140

35. The Swallow 144

36. The Sparrow 145

37. Ostriches \ 147

38. The Peacock 152

39. The Owl 153

40. The Partridge 155

41. The Quail 158

42. The Crane 159

43. The Stork 160

44. The Pelican 162

45. The Heron 165

46. The Swan 167

47. Group of Fishes 170

48. The Tortoise 173

49. The Chameleon 175

50. The Cockatrice 185

51. The Dragon 189

52. The Snail 193

53. The Scorpion 200

54. The Spider 201

55. TheHornet ...208

56. The Bee ,,.211

57. The Ant . . . , , . . 213

58. The Locust .........216

59. The Beetle ,, 221

00. Fruits and Flowers 226

61. Grinding Grain ....235

62. Wheat 237

63. Flax 258

64. The Fig... 264

65. Palm Trees 268

66. The Olive.. 293






SCRIPTURE
NATURAL HISTORY






INTRODUCTORY REMARKS,

BY THE AMERICAN EDITOR.



THERE is no subject, that can be named, in so few words,
that embraces such an extent and variety of interesting and
useful information as the Natural History of the Bible. It-
includes within the range of its various objects, everything
that can invite the attention, or reward the inquiries of the
Natural Philosopher. It furnishes subjects for investigation,
which have engaged the interest of the most gifted minds >
and those too, under the guidance of inspiration, during a
period of more than Four Thousand Years. It leads the mind
back to the hour, when the world was in its infancy, and when,
at its birth, the ' morning stars sang together, and all the
sons of God shouted for joy.' And it extends down beyond
the time when the Saviour of the world ascended, in the
clouds of heaven, to his Father's throne.

The whole kingdom of nature, in all the multiplicity and
variety of its objects, is brought to view in the ' Perfect



Online LibraryWilliam CarpenterScripture natural history; containing a descriptive account of the quadrupeds, birds, fishes, insects, reptiles, serpents, plants, trees, minerals, gems, and precious stones, mentioned in the Bible → online text (page 1 of 39)