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servedly to the improvement of common schools — the long forgotten heritage
of the many. His labors were arduous enough in themselves, being none
other than to awake a slumbering people, to encounter prejudice, apathy and
sluggishness, to tempt avarice to loosen its grasp, to cheer the faint-hearted
and to sustain hope in the bosom of the desponding. The teachers of Connec-
ticut and of the country can never forget his valuable services to them — to
many of them individually — and to the measures and agencies which he has
advocated and to some extent projected for the advancement of their
profession."

Professor Quick wrote twenty-two years ago : " Those who know the
wealth of German paedeutical literature often lament the poverty of our own.
Indeed the history of education and treatises upon everything connnected with
education may now be read without having recourse to any foreign literature
whatever. A great deal of this literature owes its origin to the energy and
educational zeal of one man — the Hon. Henry Barnard."

Another English writer said of him: " He gave himself to the work with
the enthusiasm of an apostle. Probably no man in the United States has done





BKON/.E MKIiAL — WORLD'S F,\IK, CIIIC-AGO, 1S93.
Two-thirds actual size.



so much to advance, direct and consolidate tlie movement for popular educa-
tion. In looking back to the commencement of his lifelong labor, it would
seem that he must contemplate with eminent satisfaction the progress of pub-
lic sentiment and the good results already attained, as well as the brightening
prospects for the future. He has done a work for which his country and com-
ing generations ought to thank him and do honor to his name."

The following is the deliberate opinion on Dr. Barnard's work by the
Honorable William Torrey Harris, LL.D., United States Commissioner of
Education: "It is deemed a piece of good fortune that we are able to recog-
nize and acknowledge the services of a public benefactor while he is yet living
in our midst. Most recognition comes too tardy for the purposes of comfort
and consolation of the hero himself. We build high the monument and place



HENRY BAKMARD, EDUCATOR. 137

the portrait statue in our public square, not only to commemorate the patriotic
citizen who benefitted us by his life, but also to confess our churlish neglect of
his service while he lived.

"The nation rejoices with Connecticut in paying the tribute of respect to
the great educational counsellor of the past fifty years — for Dr. Barnard has
always been retained as a counsellor on all difficult educational questions by
state legislatures, municipal governments and the founders of new institutions
of learning. The nation assists you to-day in this celebration of the man who
has expended his time and fortune to print and circulate an educational course
of reading of 24,000 pages and twelve million of words. It assists you (Con-
necticut) in bearing testimony to Henry Barnard as the missionary of im-
proved educational methods for the schools of the people, the schools which
stand before all other philanthropic devices, because they alone never demor-
alize by giving help — they always help the individual to help himself."

Although Dr. Barnard has reached the eighty-eighth year of his life, he
retains his old-time custom of rising at 5 o'clock every morning, and accom-
plishing his study and literary work before breakfast. It was the writer's
good fortune, recently, to spend an early morning hour in his company. To
see him in his ripe old age, with elastic step, upright form, manly and scholar-
ly countenance; to hear the words of warm and courteous welcome with which
he receives all who enter his home; to listen to the discourse with which he
charms them, is truly a great pleasure and a great boon.

Every teacher and pupil in the State should remember him and his sacri-
fices in their behalf.

In the words of Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes, one of the last of Dr. Bar-
nard's early friends to leave him, we exclaim:

"Before the true and trusted sage,
With willing hearts we bend,
When years have touched with'hallowing age
Our Master, Guide and Friend.

"But when untamed by toil and strife,
Full in our front he stands,
The torch of light, the shield of life.
Still lifted in his hand.

"No temple, though its walls resound
With bursts of ringing cheers,
Can hold the honor that surround
His manhood's twice told years 1"




THE LESSON OE THE RAIN.



BY LOUISE 1'. MERRITT.



Through long days of darkness
Fell the sad-voiced rain,

Till the world seemed weeping
Like a soul in pain.



Yet we knew that slowly,
Surely, hour by hour,

Grew to full perfection
Many a leaf and flower.



Thus our days of darkness.
Sorrow, pain, and woe.

Are God's ways of making
Wayward spirits grow.



Then there came a Sunday,
Clear with heaven's own blue.

Fresh with bursting leaflets.
Bright with crystal dew.



Trees with feathery branches
Caught the sun's bright ray.s

Softly sang the wild birds
To their Maker's praise.



Shy and sweet the violets
Grew beside our way.

And we knew that surely
Spring had come to stay.



Thus God grant our natures
May attain full powers,

By the loving chastening
Of affliction's showers.



THE TORIES OF CONNECTICUT.



KY JAMF.S SHKl'ARD.



During the first few years of the revolutionar}' war, this state was liter-
ally full of Tories. They filled our jails to overflowing; many of them were
confined within the court-house at Hartford,, and others were confined under
guard or within certain limits on parole in various parts of the state where
they would be out of contrast with the British, while many others of fighting
age and burning zeal for their King left their families, property and homes
and took up arms against the American cause.

In addition to our own Tories those of other states were sent here for con-
finement. The Tories were so numerous that it would be impossible to notice
them all in one paper and besides it would be an almost endless task to
find in the voluminous manuscript records of the state, the various superior
courts and towns, the names of those who were brought to answer. And even
if one should do all this, there were many more bearing coldness or hatred to
the American cause who by a judicious self-control kept their hands and
tongues from committing any overt act and thus left no history.

A Tory was an American who adhered to the King, and by sympathy or
otherwise favored the part of Great Britain in the revolutionary war. They
were sometimes called Loyalists, but the terms Loyalist and Tory mean pre-
cisely the same thing, excepting as the word Tory may carry with it an ele-
ment of contempt. Those who strenuously insist on saying Loyalist instead
of Tory would be very likely to apply the name Rebel to our revolutionary
Patriots. The Tories were certainly loyal to their King, they upheld the ex-
isting state of affairs — in fact one of the principles of Tories in any country
has always been "the maintenance of things as they were "

In May, 1775, i^he Colony of Connecticut passed an "act regulating and
ordering the Troops that are or may be raised for the Defence of this colony,'
which act was called the articles of war. In December, 1775, an "act for
restraining and punishing persons who are inimical to the Liberties of this
and the rest of the United Colonies " was passed, which provided among other
things "that if any person by writing, or speaking, or by any overt act, shall
libel or defame any of the resolves of the Honorable Congress of the United
Colonies, or the acts of the General Assembly of this Colony, and be thereof
duly convicted before the Superior Court, shall be disarmed and not allowed
to have or keep any arms, and rendered incapable to hold or serve in any office
civil or military, and shall be further punished by fine, imprisonment or dis-
franchisement." The same act provided also for the confiscation of real estate.
At a special session in June, 1776, this act was amended to cover the confisca-
tion of both real and personal estate of all convicted Tories. The year of the
King's reign headed the record of this act of '75 opposing the King, but that
was the last time that such dating appears in the journal.

The Governor and Council of Safety on July 18, 1776, voted that, "Where-



I40 THE TORIES OF CONNECTICUT.

as many persons inimical to the United States do wander from place to place
with intent to spy out the state of the colonies," etc., and "no person be al-
lowed to pass unless known to be friendly, or unless by proper certificate or
otherwise they can prove themselves to be friendly to America." A more
stringent act of the same nature was passed in May, 1777.

In October, 1776, an act for the punishment of high treason and other
atrocious crimes against the state was passed which provided "That if any
person or persons belonging to or residing within this state and under the pro-
tection of its laws, shall levy war against the state or government thereof, or
knowingly and willingly shall aid or assist any enemies at open war against
this state or the United States of America by joining their armies or by enlist-
ing or procuring or persuading others to enlist for that purpose * * * or
shall form or be in any way concerned in forming any combination, plot, or
conspiracy for betraying this state or the United States into the hands or
power of any foreign enemy, or shall give or attempt to give or send any intel-
ligence to the enemies of this state for that purpose, upon being convicted
shall suffer death," At least six persons were convicted of high treason under
this act, but Moses Dunbar of Waterbury is the only person who was ever ex-'
ecuted in Connecticut under the civil law.

It was further provided in Ma}-, 1777, "that all Tories confined within this
state may at all times be taken for debt, provided they are returned after hav-
ing worked out their indebtedness." In October, 1777, it was enacted " that no
person can be administrator on any estate till he has taken the oath of fidelity,
and that anyone who refuses to take the oath of fidelity shall not be capable to
purchase or hold or transfer any real estate without license from the General
Assembly."

It was not necessary that a man should be convicted of toryism by a jus-
tice of the peace or a judge before he could be confined or removed and com-
pelled to pay the cost of removal. In October, 1776, the General Assembly
voted " That the civil authority, selectmen and committee of inspection within
the several towns of this state shall have power to confine within certain lim-
its or remove all such persons as they shall upon due examination judge to be
inimical and dangerous to the United States, at the cost of such persons, and
that His Honor the Governor and Council of Safety shall determine the place
or places of confinement."

In August, 1777, it was enacted "that any person convicted under the act
relating to treason shall not be allowed liberty on bail, but shall be imprisoned
until delivered by due course of law."

The first record I find of any Tory in the doings of the General Assembly
is that of Abraham Blakesly of New Haven, captain of a military company in
the second regiment of this colony, who was complained of before the General
Assembly in March, 1775, "for being disaffected to this government by speak-
ing contemptuously of the measures taken by the General Assembly for main-
taining the same." His case was referred to the next session, and in the fol-
lowing May he was cashiered. In October, 1775, it was represented that Ben-
jamin Stiles of Woodbury "hath publickly and contemptuously uttered and
spoken many things against the qualification of the three delegates of the col-
ony now belonging to the Continental Congress, &c., &c., whereof he hath



THE TORIES OF CONNECTICUT. 141

openly showed his inimical temper of mind and unfriendly disposition." He
was cited to appear before the General Assembly at their next sessions.

It was also reported that a major part of one company in Northbury (now
Plymouth) was inclined to toryism, and a committee was appointed to inquire
and report.

In November, 1775, "The Brigatine Minerva, an armed vessel in the ser-
vice of the colony, was ordered on a cruise to the northward on an important
enterprise for the defense and safety of the colony, when all hands on board
except ten or twelve utterly declined and refused to go, so that the expedition
wholly failed." All these disobedient hands were discharged and their title to
receive their wages was suspended.

In December, 1775, Lieut. Benjamin Kilborn of Litchfield was complained
of as declaring " that he wished there were ten thousand regular troops now
landed in the colony and that he would immediately join with them in order to
subdue the Americans who were in a state of rebellion, that he was determined
to join the Regulars and would kill some of the inhabitants of .said colony!
that the late oppressive measures of the British respecting America were con-
stitutional and right and that the conduct of the United Colonies were uncon-
stitutional and rebellious," etc. He was caShiered and directed to be prose-
cuted in law for what he would call his firm adherence to the King, and yet
the complaint against him was brought by the "Attorney of our Lord the
King." The forms of various processes, oaths, etc., were soon afterwards
changed to avoid all reference to the King.

In June, 1776, Capt. Daniel Hill, Lieut. Peter Lyon and Ensign Samuel
Hawley, all of the nth Company, in the Fourth Regiment, and Hezekiah
Brown of the 1 2th Company, in the Tenth Regiment, were ordered to appear
before the General Assembly for disobedience, etc. John R. Marshall of
Woodbury, missionary, was cited to appear before the General Assembly for
toryism. Capt. Isaac Quintard and Filer Dibble, both of Stamford, were sus-
pected of assisting a British officer to the possession of certain barrels of pow-
der stored at said Quintard's house, but Quintard claimed to be innocent and
Dibble published a confession and recantation of torj'ism. He afterwards
joined the British army. Capt. Nathaniel Shayler of Middletowu refused to
muster his company and march to assist George Washington at New York.
Ho was cashiered and declared unfit to hold office. Thomas Brooks of Farra-
ington, a lieutenant, openly professed that he could not join the army against
Great Britain or against the King, and was therefore suspended. Jacob Per-
kins, captain of the First Company, in the Twentieth Regiment, and Samuel
Wheat, captain of the Second Company, in said regiment, refused to muster
and march for the defence of this state and were ordered to be brought before
the General Assembly, but in December, 1776, upon satisfactory information
that they had acknowledged their fault, " have since complied and declared
themselves sorry and are now ready to defend their country with their lives
And iortune, this asseiiibly ready to forgive have and do revoke the aforesaid
order." In January, 1778, Capt. James Landon of Salisbury, for neglect of
duty and great unfriendliness to the American cause, cited to appear before
the Assembly and later was cashiered. Capt. Solomon Marsh was also cash-
iered for the same cause, while John Marsh the 3rd declared his willingness to
risk his life for Americfe and the complaint against him was dismissed. " Epa.



142 THE TORIES OF CONNECTICUT.

phras Sheldon, Esqr., Colonel of the Seventeeth Regiment of militia, was dis-
missed for disobedience and Lieut. Ira Beebe of Waterbury was dismissed for
leading off a number of his company from Fishkill last October."

In February, 1778, it was represented to the General Assembly " that Rob-
ert Martin hath been chosen Captain of the 15th Co. loth regiment, and Reu-
ben Rice, junr. Lieut, and that they are unfriendly to the liberties of America
and its independence." A committee was appointed to examine them, but
they subsequently received their commissions.

In May, 1778, "three alarm list Companies of Newtown made choice of
persons for their officers that were inimical to this and other of the United
States, and for that reason their commissions were refused and a new election
ordered."

Fairfield county was a Tory center. The first Episcopal church in Con-
necticut was founded at Stratford in November, 1722. The Rev. John Beach,
rector of the churches at Reading and Newtown, said in 1767: "It is some sat-
isfaction to me to observe that in this town (Newtown) of late in our elections
the church people make the major vote, which is the first instance of this kind
in this colony, if not in all New England." This was the only town in the
state in which Episcopalians were in the majority during the war. In 1775, it
was represented to the General Assembly " that the towns of Ridgefield and
Newtown had come into and published certain resolutions injurious to the
rights of this colony and of a dangerous tendency." A committee was
appointed to examine said matter and report. In October, 1777, it was repre-
sented to the General Assembly " that a number of inimical persons in the
western towns in the state are forming dangerous insurrections and taking
every method in their power to communicate intelligence to comfort, aid, and
assist the enemies of these United States and to distress the inhabitants of said
towns," etc. Whereupon a committee was sent to these towns to "examine all
such persons with full poiver to confine them as deemed best." The town
officers may have been Tories, or the towns may have instructed them not to
take any action. Such votes were passed in several towns. Even in Middle-
town several resolutions to have the town authorities take action against the
Tories were voted down. That place was probably a Tory center, for in July,
1776, the Council of Safefy voted " that none of the prisoners residing at Hart-
ford or Wethersfield be any longer permitted to go into the town of Middle-
town without a special license."

In October, 1776, Ralph Isaacs and Abiatha Camp, both of New Haven,
were before the Assembly and adjudged to be "so dangerous to the state that
they ought to be removed." They were sent to Eastbury, in the town of
Glastonbury, to be retained there in care of the civil authority of the town,
and it was further resolved, " That if said Isaacs and Camp shall receive any
letter or letters from any person or persons, or send any, they shall offer such
letters to some one of said civil authority or selectmen to be by them read and
inspected." It was also provided that in case they should leave Eastbury, any
officer can take them and put them in jail. In December following, Isaacs
asked permission to reside in Durham under the same conditions. His petition
was granted, but still discontented, in February, "77, he complains of his quar-
ters, and at his own request he is ordered to Wallingford. In response to an-
other petition tlie following June, the still discontented Isaacs is removed to



THE TORIES OF CONNECTICUT. 143

his farm in Branford. In October of the same year he is "granted liberty to
attend any of the Superior Courts in this state in which he has any action de-
pending for tryal upon first taking the oath of fidelity. In January, 1778, he
states that he is the executor of his father's and brother's wills, that these
estates and his own affairs suffer greatly by reason of his confinement, that he
has taken the oath of fidelity and done much to promote the good of the
United States, whereupon he was "'discharged and set at liberty."

His fellow prisoner remained for a while at Eastbury, and while there,
Davis's History of Wallingford says that he applied to the General Assembly
for "permission to be indulged the free exercise of his religion on Sundays at
Middletown in attending religious worship by the Church of England, of
which he was a professor and member," but the petition was denied. In De-
cember, 1777, he asked to be removed either to his farm in North Branford or
to his house in Wallingford. He was sent to Wallingford to stay within the
limits of the Parish. He does not, however, appear to have been well received
for the town " Voted, that Abiatha Camp, formerly of New Haven, now being
in the town of Wallingford, shall not dwell in said town nor be an inhabitant
of said town. Voted that the Selectmen of said town Go and Warn Said Camp
immediately to Depart said town." He was certainly in a straight betwixt
two. He could stay only in defiance of the town, he could leave only in defi-
ance of the state. The state came to the rescue and discharged him in Janu-
ary, 1778. He finally went to St. John, New Brunswick, and died there in 1841.
The selectmen of Stamford, when they warned Tories out of town, added the
injunction that they were "never to return."

On January 22, 1777, Ebenezer Hall of Fairfield was by the authorities ,of
that town brought before the Governor and Council as a person dangerous and
inimical to this and the United States that his place of confinement might be
determined. His Honor the Governor fully instructed him in the nature of
the dispute between Great Britain and these states and of the measures taken
to prevent any rupture or disaffection between this and the mother country
long before the commencement of any hostilities. The said Hall then declared
himself fully convinced of the justice of the American cause and of her rights
to take up arms in defence, whereupon he was released and allowed to return
to his family on giving bail, etc. A similar petition and action was had as to
Capt. Isaac Tomlinson of Woodbury.

January 22, 1777, Lazarus Beach, Andrew Fairfield, Nathan Lee, Abel
Burr of Reading and Thomas Allen of Newtown, being Tory convicts confined
in the town of Mansfield to prevent any mischievous practice, having made
their escape, and being taken up, were remanded back to the Governor and
Council. They were all sent to jail in Windham "to be safely kept until they
come out thence by due order of the General Assembly or Governor and
Council." A Thomas Allen of New London was sent to Windham as a Tory
in March, 1777.

On January 28, 1777, Rev. John Sayer of Fairfield was before the Governor
and Council as a Tory that he might be ordered to some safe place for confine-
ment. He was sent to the parish of New Britain to be under the care of Col.
Isaac Lee, and not to depart the limits of said society until further orders. In
July of the same year the wardens of the Episcopal church and others at Fair-
field, with consent of the selectmen and committee of inspection, petitioned for



144 THE TORIES OF CONNECTICUT.

his release and return to his people to remain within the limits of Fairfield and
give bond with surety for good behavior, which petition was granted. He was
probably the first Episcopal clergyman that ever resided in New Britain. In
a letter he subsequently said: " I was banished to a place called New Britain,
where I was entirely unknown except to one poor man, the inhabitants differ-
ing from me both in religion and political principles: however, the family in
which I lived showed me such marks of kindness as they could, and 1 was
treated with civility by the neighbors."

In January, 1777, Ebenezer Holby, Elliot Green, Jonathan Husted, Josiah
Seely, Benjamin James, Isaac Hubbard, Jacob Scofield of Stamford, Nathan
Fitch, Frank Smith, Gold Hoit, Stephen Keller and John Betts of Norwalk,
convict Tories, were permitted to return home upon giving bond of ^"1,000
each for their good behavior, and not to give any intelligence nor do or say
anything against the interests of the U. S. A.

John Sanford, a person confined in Mansfield as an enemy to his country,
was permitted to go to Reading to settle his mother's estate on giving bond
for _^"i,ooo to be forfeited if he did anything against the interest of this state
or the other of the U. S. A.

In February, 1777, Capt. Hall of Wallingford took considerable time of the
General Assembly on business about Tories, and the 24th of that month was a
day appointed for Tories to bring their cases before the General Assembly.
Job Barnlock, Enoch Warren, Jos. Olmstead and Richard Patrick of Norwalk,
residing in Coventry, Frederick Dibble and Stephen Wilson of Stamford, re-
siding at Lebanon, were permitted to return home, having signed a full and
ample declaration of the justice of the American cause with profession of their
friendship to it. The next day three more Tories, viz., Gardner Olmstead of
Norwalk, Nathaniel Munday and Samuel Crissey of Stamford came and signed



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