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the same declaration and were discharged. William Fitch of Stamford was also
allowed to go home. John Wilcocks, Ira Ward and James Ward, all of Kill-
ingsworth, and confined in Willington, repented and were released. George
FoUiot of Ridgefield, having been confined first in Fairfield jail and then in
Hartford jail, was released on paying cost, etc. One Hubbard and Jno. Wil-
son, of Stamford, visited houses and persons infected with small pox and then
went about among people not so infected. They were consequently put in
charge of the selectmen of Lebanon.

Hanford Fairweather of Norwalk, sentenced to Windham jail for two
years, had the privilege to work out days, but had to return to jail at night,
asked permission to stay outside of the jail and also to go to Norwalk and re-
move his family to Windham to reside there with him. His request was
granted.

Of Tory property that was confiscated, we find but little in the published
state reports. In December, 1776, the property of John McKey of Norwalk
was confiscated, and he was sentenced to two years' imprisonment for harbor-
ing and secreting persons who were about to go over to the enemy. In May,
1777, he was released and his estate restored to him.

Sundry farms in Hebron, belonging to Barlow Trecothick and John Tom-
linson of Great Britain and to the Rev. Samuel Peters, then in Great Britain,
were confiscated in May, 177S, and the State Attorney for Hartford County
was empowered to lease the said farms for the benefit of the state.



THE TORIES OF CONNECTICUT. 145

In May, 1777, Mary Hoyt, wife of Isaac Hoyt, late of Danbury, represent-
ed to the General Assembly that she had ever been a true friend to the rights
of her country, but that her husband, being an enemy to his country, joined
the British during their raid on Danbury and thereby justly forfeited all his
estate, both real and personal, which had been seized and left her without the
necessities of life. She requested that she might be allowed one-third part of
said estate, which request was granted. Nicholas Brown of Hartford went
over to the enemy in New York and left his wife Hannah and four children.
She was given liberty to follow him with her children to New York at her own
pleasure and expense. Hannah Church, the wife of Asa Church of Danbury,
was also given permission to follow her absconding husband to New York.

In February, 1778, it was represented to the General Assembly that the
property of Samuel Doolittle of Waterburyhad been confiscated, leaving a wife
Eunice and three children to be supported by her father, Thomas Cole, and that
a certain round table and other articles of the confiscated property were her wed-
ding portion. It was therefore resolved ''that the said round table and other
articles, being 1 quart cup, 3 pewter platters, 6 plates, i pint cup, 3 pewter ba-
sins, 3 porringers, i teapot, i pepper box, 5 spoons, 3 knives and forks, 6 plain
chairs, i great wheel, i Dutch wheel, i feather bed, 1 bed quilt, 2 blankets, 2
pair of sheets, i iron pot, i looking-glass, i beer barrel, i churn, 1 pair of flat-
irons, I clock-reel, i bed tick, i meal sive, i frying pan, i chest with drawers,
6 black chairs, i warming pan, i brass kettle, a cow and a calf and ten sheep,
which are now held in custody of Samuel Hickox, constable, be delivered to
said Thomas Cole for the use and support of said Eunice and her children.

In August, 1779, the town authorities of Derby applied to the General
Assembly in behalf of the family of Azariah Prichard, who had gone to Cana-
da and joined the enemy, and permission was granted his wife and children
with wearing apparel and a bed and furniture to be removed to Canada.

In May, 1778, the confiscation act was so amended that the constable was
not compelled to take household goods away from the families, and all confis-
cated estates were thereafter brought before the probate courts, who were in-
structed to grant administration as in other estates, whereby a proper allow-
ance for the wife and children could be made and also provision for the pay-
ments of debts.

In January, 1780, the administrators of the confiscated estate of Joseph
Hanford of Fairfield, and of William Nichols of Waterbury, asked the General
Assembly for certain instructions. In 1777 the town of Wallingford voted
"That the families of all those who are convicted of Toryism and the heads of
all the families that have absconded to Lord How, they and their families
shall be removed to Lord How. Also voted that the selectmen of said town
secure the estates of all those persons that are inimical to the States of
America."

In 1780, Pomp, a negro slave belonging to the confiscated estate of Rev.
Jeremiah Leaming, formerly of Norwalk, represented to the General Assem-
bly that he was "liable to be sold for the benefit of the state and to be contin-
ued in slavery by act of the government, praying to be emancipated and set at
liberty." The petition was granted. In the case of a certain negro calling
himself James Cromwell, who fled from his master. Major Hudson, a Tory en-
emy at Long Island, the Governor and Council voted that "he may be and



146 THE TORIES OF CONNECTICUT.

ought to be protected until the pleasure of the General Assembly may be
known."

In February, 1778, "upon the memorial of Moses Northrup, Patience his
wife, and Eunice Northrup his daughter, all of New Milford, showing to this
Assembly that the said Patience and Eunice are confined in Litchfield goal
upon suspicion of treason against this state, that no court proper to try them
will sit in said county till August next and that their services are greatly
needed at home," praying to be admitted to bail as they could not be imder
the law. This petition was granted.

Various records show that those who were once Tories were not always
Tories. The Loyalists of '75 and '76 were often the Patriots of '77 and '78, and
in fact on or about 1780 the Tories were mainly banished or repressed. It is,
however, seldom that a Patriot has been converted to Toryism, but a few such
cases are found, although they generally returned again to the American cause-
Nearly all the petitions for favor that we find appear to be from good Tories
or those who are weak in the faith. Our state reports are published only to
^lay, 1780, and they contain only such resolutions as received an affirmative
vote. Tory petitions that were denied are not placed on the records of the
General Assembly and can be found only in various manuscripts, and the trials
of the incorrigibles who would suffer anything rather than ask a favor of their
opponents can be found only in various court records.

In May, 1777, Joseph Seely junr. had been sentenced to two years in jail
and a fine of ^^20. He says "that he had served the U. S. in the present war
with faithfulness, and professing repentance for his evil conduct, promising
reformation in the future " prays for release upon his enlisting into the conti-
nental army. Granted, upon his so enlisting and paying or securing the cost
of prosecution arising against him.

Nathan Daton of New Milford took an active part on the side of his coun-
try at the beginning of the war, yet in November '76, having his mind from
some disastrous incidents of the war filled with gloomy apprehensions, sundry
of his acquaintances, by the stratagem of magnifying the dangers of this coun-
try and by the strongest assurances of the safety and peace he might enjoy under
the protection of the regulars on Long Island, deluded and seduced him to so
far join them as to put himself under their protection, but Col. Delancy, then
commander, tyrannically forced him to bear arms under pain of military exe-
cution. He finally escaped, returned to New Milford and was then sent to
Litchfield jail. He was released and pardoned.

Joshua Stone, confined in Hartford jail, was a hearty friend to his bleeding-
country at the beginning of the war, but by the crafty insinuations and persua-
sive arguments of his near relatives to the contrary and the persuasion of his
unfortunate father, he was influenced to go to the British at New York, where
he was confined as a spy, but soon after made his escape to Stamford, where he
was taken, bound over to the superior court of Fairfield county, then sentenced
to three months' imprisonment and a fine of ^20, which he peacefully en-
dured, but in working out the fine he was permitted to labor for one Elisha
Wadsworth, who, being an enemy to the United States, persuaded him to run
away. He was apprehended and confined in Hartford jail. " But by the pow-
erful arguments of a worthy member of the General Assembly on the justice
of the American cause, he is fully sensible of his error." He was discharged



THE TORIES OF CONNECTICUT. 147

on paying- cost, etc., and further that he "may enlist in the continental army
for three years."

Marchant Wooster, of Derby, represented that he was "always a friend to
the United States and faithfully served as a soldier in '76, but was afterwards
unhappily seduced by one Major French, a British officer, to join the enemy,
where he was taken a prisoner of war." Professing a hearty and sincere re-
pentance, he was discharged on taking the oath of fidelity.

"John Elliott junr. of Middletown hath ever been friendly to the U. S.,btit
by means of a most trying- scene of disgrace and disappointment he had met
with, he rashly and unadvisedly went to New York, and, expressing deep re-
morse and penitence, his request for a stay of prosecution was granted." From
these and similar petitions, it appears that all able-bodied Tories who went
into the territory in possession of the British were forcibly impressed into the
service.

Persons were sometimes unjustly detained as suspected Tories. Col.
Wadsworth reported three prisoners of whom it was " highly probable that
they had never shewn themselves inimical to or being active against the
United Colonies," and consequently they were released.

Benjamin Betts of Stamford was taken from his bed, carried to Long
Island and forced into the British service. He subsequently escaped, and was
then arrested, fined and imprisoned for Toryism.

Twenty-six other prisoners whose cases require no special mention were
before the General Assembly in various ways as follows: Seth Hall, Eben-
ezer Sturgess, Timothy Beach, Gurdon Wetmore (probably of Middletown),
David Adams junr., Squire Adams, Gideon Lockwood and Albert Lockwood
all of Fairfield; Daniel Lockwood, Isaac Peck, Gilbert Lockwood, Solomon
Wright, Isaac Anderson, James Merrill, Benjamin Wilson and Nathan Merrill,
all released on request of the selectmen of Greenwich; David and Benjamin
Peet, of Stratford; Jabez Sherwood, junr., Hezk. Holby, Solomon ^lerrit, junr.,
Silas Knap, Wm. Marshall, Joseph Galpin and Jonathan ^lead, of Greenwich,
and Roger Veits of Simsbury.

In October, 1777, "Eight Disciples of Robert Sandeman, viz., Daniel
Humphreys, Titus Smith, Richard Woodhull, Thomas Goold, Joseph Pyn-
cheon, Theophilus Chamberlain. Benjamin Smith and Wm. Richmond, all of
New Haven, who, on account of their religion, were bound in conscience to
yield obedience to the King, signified their desire, if they may not continue at
New Haven, to remove to some place under the dominion of the King." The
request was granted under certain conditions, excepting as to the daughter of
Richard Woodhull, "who shall not be removed," as she was heiress to consid-
erable real estate in New Haven.

Seventeen prisoners from Farmington — Nathl. Jones, Siemon Tuttle, Joel
Tuttle, Nathaniel Mathews, John Mathews, Riverius Carrington, Lemuel Car-
rington,Zerubbabel Jerom, jr.,Chauncey Jerom, Ezar Dormer, Nehemiah Royce,
Abel Royce, George Beckwith, Abel Frisbie, Levi Frisbie, Jared Peck and Abra-
ham Waters — were released on taking the oath of fidelity and paying costs.
The committee who examined these prisoners found that they had been much
"under the influence of one Nichols, a designing church clergyman (the Rev,
Jam es Nichols of Bristol), that they had refused to go in the expedition to
Danbury, that Nathaniel Jones and Simeon Tuttle each of them have as they



148 THE TORIES OF CONNECTICUT.

believe a son gone over to the enemy, that they were grossly ignorant of the
true grounds of the present war, and that they were convinced since the Dan-
bury alarm that there was no such thing as remaining neuters." Poor Wx.
Jones thought that his son John was in the British service as captain of the
marines, but he had been killed in his first engagement about six months be-
fore this time.

Dr. William Samuel Johnson of Stratford was one of the most noted men
of Connecticut ever arrested for Toryism. In military affairs he was first ap-
pointed a lieutenant in 1754, afterwards a captain, and in 1774 was made a
lieutenant-colonel. He was a member of the General Assembly at various
times from 1761 to 1775, serving in both houses. He was a representative
from Connecticut to the Stamp Act Congress at New York in 1765. He drew
up the petitions and remonstrances to the King, and about one year thereafter,
when the Stamp Act was repealed, he drafted the "Address to the King" for
the colony, "returning their most grateful tribute of humble and hearty
thanks. ' He was made a Doctor of Laws by the University of Oxford, Janu-
ary 20, 1766. In February of the same year he was appointed special agent
of Connecticut before the King and Lords in Council at London, where he
remained until 1771. He was a judge of the superior court of the colony from
1772 to 1774. He was chosen to represent Connecticut in Congress at Phila-
delphia, in 1774, but other duties prevented him from accepting. After the
Battle of Lexington, in 1775, he was appointed by the unanimous voice of the
Assembly one of the committee to enter Boston under a flag of truce with a
letter from the Governor to General Gage, then in command of the British
forces, pleading for a stay of hostilities. After the Declaration of Independ-
ence he persuaded himself that he could not join in a war against England,
and resolved to remain neutral. In the midsummer of 1779, after General
Tryon raided Fairfield and Norwalk, it was rumored that Stratford was also to
be destroyed. Knowing Dr. Johnson to be well acquainted with the British
general, the frightened people insisted that Johnson should seek an interview
with Tryon to dissuade him from burning the town. He reluctantly consent-
ed. Major General Wolcott, in command of the Continental forces along the
toast, sent an officer with a detachment of troops to arrest Dr. Johnson and
send him under guard to the town of Farmington. The arrest was made, but
Johnson persuaded the officer to accept his word of honor to proceed at once
to Farmington and place himself in the custody of the selectmen. On arriving
there, one of the selectmen proved to be an acquaintance of Mr. Johnson, and
they declared that they "had no business with him," but at Johnson's request
they accepted his parole and permitted him to go alone to Lebanon and pre-
sent himself to the Governor and Council. Johnson solmnly declared " that he
never hath communicated with the enemies of this state in any way, nor done
or said anything in prejudice of the rights and liberties of this state." He had
even "hired a soldier to serve during the war," that in the Stratford matter he
only yielded at the "pressing importunity of the people." The board dis-
proved of the course taken by the people of Stratford, commended the meas-
ures taken by General Wolcott as prudent and necessary," etc., but nevertheless,
being satisfied with Dr. Johnson's word and oath, he was released.

But this arrest did not prevent him from receiving further positions of
honor from our state He was one of the three counsellors of Connecticut in



THE TORIES OF CONNECTICUT. 149

the Susquehanna case, was a member of the Continental Congress from 1784
to 1787, he aided in drafting the Federal Constitution, and Dr. Beardsley says
that "the first action of the Legislature of Connecticut under the new Federal
Constitution was the election of Dr. Johnson as a Senator in Congress." He
held this office from 1789 to 1791, and was then president of Columbia College
till i8oor

The motives that may have induced many to join the enemy are set forth
in an act of the General Assembly passed at its May session in 1779, which,
after referring to the crime of treason when committed with deliberation as
justly deserving the most severe and exemplary punishment, they say: " But
whereas it is apprehended that very different motives and principles have in-
fluenced the conduct of the deluded few who have taken part against their
country — some through ignorance of the nature and grounds of the dispute
between Great Britain and America, some through particular prejudice, pros-
pects of reward and gain, others deceived by the treacherous acts of subtle
and secret enemies, have without deliberation given way to the force of various
temptations, which persons are now convinced of their error and lament their
folly. This Assembly, taking the matters aforesaid into consideration and
ever willing to exercise leniency and mercy according to the genius of this
free and happy constitution as far as may be consistent with justice and public
safety, do therefore in tenderness and compassion to such deluded persons
resolve and declare, that any and all such persons who shall return into this
state on or before the first day of October next and deliver themselves up to
the civil authority of the town to which they belong, may and shall be suffered
to remain and dwell in safety in such town, provided," etc. And His Honor
the Governor was advised to issue a proclamation accordingly.

But it appears that in the following August, the Governor, through a press
of more important matters, had not issued said proclamation, and whereasTt
appeared that " the ininiical persons described in said act both in this and the
other states have been very active of late in favor of the detestable cause
which they have chosen, and many of them on board and assisting the fleet
and army who have lately committed the inhuman destruction of several im-
portant towns in this state, and otherwise discover great malignity against
their country," etc., they advise "his Excellency the Governor not to issue said
proclamation until otherwise advised "

Resolutions desiring the Governor to issue a proclamation of pardon had
been passed at the May session in 1777. General Putnam had also issued such
a proclamation.

Seventeen persons, in addition to those hereinbefore named, escaped from
the British and received pardon, as follows: Pardon Tillinghast Taber, of
New London; Elijah Elmore, of Stratford; Israel Rowland and Samuel Haw-
ley, of Redding; David Manvill, Jesse Tuttle, Beth Warner, Ephraim Warner,
Richard Miles and Daniel Finch, of Waterbury; John Moorehouse and Com-
fort Benedict, of Dan bury; James Benham, of Wallingf ord ; Michael Ames, of
New Haven; John Davis junr., of Derby; Elisha Fox (residence not stated),
and Nathan Fitch, of Greenwich.

In January, 1778, David Washburn of New Milford represented to the
Assembly that he was under the sentence of death, having been convicted in
November, 1777, of high treason, and that the particular species of treason for



ISO THE TORIES OF CONNECTICUT.

which he was condemned was going on board an armed brig belonging to the
enemy. His sentence, with that of David Whelpley, Solomon Ferris and Wm-
Peck, all of whom were to be executed on the loth of November, 1779, for high
treason, was suspended until the first Wednesday of March, 1780; but before
that time it was arranged to have these persons exchanged as prisoners of war.
Probably they were not executed through fear that the British would retaliate.

In January, 1779, Nehemiah Scribner of Norwalk, being under sentence of
death for high treason, had his sentence changed to confinement and labor at
Newgate prison "during the pleasure of the General Assembly." Other per-
sons whose names are not published in the state reports were held for high
treason, as a resolution was passed in January, 1779, that all persons so held in
the New Haven, Fairfield and Litchfield jails be transferred to the jail at
Hartford.

Moses Dunbar was hung for high treason at Execution Hill, Hartford, near
the present site of Trinity College, on March 19, 1777. His treason consisted
mainly of enlisting men for the British army and having a captain's commis-
sion for that purpose. A full account of the affair, including his farewell let-
ter to his children and his dying speech, may be found in the new History of
Waterbury. His widow retired to the British army for a time, but afterwards
returned to Bristol.

Referring now to non-resident prisoners. Dr. Benjamin Church of Boston,
a member of the 1774 Congress, was confined at Norwich from November,

1775, to May, 1776, with the privilege of going into the jail-yard once a week.
He was a supposed Patriot, but was sentenced for treasonable correspondence
with the enemy, a letter written in cipher having been found on his person.
Many Tories were sent here by order of the New York convention. In May,

1776, a newspaper says that "forty-nine dirty Tory prisoners, taken at John-
ston, N. Y., were brought under guard from Albany to Hartford, and others
were on the way."

Gov. William Franklin, a natural son of Benjamin Franklin, arrived here
in July, 1776, and was confined for a time at Wallingford and afterwards at
Middletown. He was the last royal governor of New Jersey, and was sent
here by the New Jersey convention as a person "that may prove dangerous."
In August, 1776, nineteen Tories from Albany arrived here and were sent to
New London, and a little later were removed to the town of Preston. Mr.
Mather, the mayor of New York, was confined at Litchfield. John Munroe and
Henry Van Schaack, Tory prisoners from Albany, were sent to East Haddam;
Munroe had served in the British army and Van Schaak had talked too much.
He was released in January, 1777^ Judge Jones, who afterwards wrote the
History of New York in the Revolutionary War, was at one time a prisoner in
Connecticut. In the latter part of 1776 it was found that these non-resident
Tories were a great biirden, owing to the scarcity of food. In fact, our own
people were really suffering, and by the force of circumstances were compelled
to send these non-resident prisoners home with the request that they deliver
themselves up to the authorities who sent them here. This was done without
the knowledge or consent of those who had placed these prisoners here for
safe keeping.

Nearly all the names thus referred to in this paper are found in the pub-
lished colonial and state records, but they include only a small per cent of the



THE HOUSE OF THE KIXDLY SMILE.



151



Connecticut Tories. The new history of Waterbury republishes from Bron-
son's history the names of sixty-eight persons who left Waterbury to join the
enemy. I find only seven of these names in the colonial and state reports.
The History of vStamford names sixty Tories of that town, only five of whom I
find in the state reports. No mention has been made of court martials nor of
deserters who did not go over to the enemy."

[To be concluded.]




THE HOUSE OF THE KINDLY SMILE.



BY M.A.RY A. HO.\DI,Ey.



It stands by the road of every day
This House of the Kindly Smile,

About its porch the roses sway
And butterflies flit the while.



The heart bowed down b)^ weight of woe

Looks up when passing by,
And its burden melts like April's snow

\A'hen it meets the friendly eye.

For she who dwells in this wayside house
Well knows the way is rough.

She gives the traveler heart, again ;
She smiles — and it is enough.




THE BLACK DOG.



BY W. H. C. I'YNCHON.



" And if a man shall meet the Black Dog once it shall be for joy ; and if
twice, it shall be for sorrow: and the third time he shall die."

T N a corner of our country not far removed from two of its great cities,
(^ there is a low range of mountains, the hoary evidences of ancient vol-
canic action. Countless years have elapsed since the great tide of molten
lava rolled over the region. Years fewer, but still countless, have passed
during which the shattered and tilted remnants of the lava sheets have watched
over the land. Deep gorges divide the masses into separate mountains, lonely
and desolate, and the most desolate and the most conspicuous of all is the
West Peak.

The West Peak .stands at an angle of the range. Though it is not very
high by measurement, yet, by its wild and savage aspect, it makes a stronger



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