William Edwin Safford.

The useful plants of the island of Guam; with an introductory account of the physical features and natural history of the island, of the character and history of its people, and of their agriculture online

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& Clarke, in Hooker's Flora British India, vol. 2, p. 573, 1879.



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 349

in.t; the petiole; bracts round, peltate, subsessile at the center, perianth lacking;
stamens 2, short; ovary compressed-ovate, stigma obliquely inserted, brush-like;
ovule 1, erect; fruit minute, indehiscent; seed with membranous testa.
Type species in the Berlin herbarium, collected by Gaudichaud^n Guam.
Grows on the banks of streams.
REFERENCES:

Peperomia mariannensi* C. DC. in DC. Prod. 16 1 : 442. 1869.
Pepitio (Tahiti). See Abrus abru*.
Pepper. General name for the species of Piper.
Pepper, bell. See Capsicum annuum grossum.
Pepper, betel. Piper betle.
Pepper, black. See Piper nigrum.

Pepper, Cayenne. General name for the species of Capsicum.
Pepper, cherry. See Capsicum annuum cerastforme.
Pepper, Guam. See Piper guahamense.
Pepper, Indian wild. See Vilex trifolia.
Pepper, red. See Capsicum annuum and other species.
Pepper, spur. See Capsicum frutescens.
Peppermint, Chinese. See Mentha arvensis.
Pergularia odoratissima. Same as Telosma odoratissima.
Periwinkle, Madagascar. See Lochnera rosea.
Peronia (Porto Rico). See Abrus abrus.
Petroselinum petroselinum. PAKSLEY.

Family Apiaceae.

Parsley is cultivated by the natives. It does not grow very well. The natives
often have one or two plants growing in a pot, taking off a leaf or two when required
for seasoning certain dishes.
REFERENCES:

Petroselinum petroselinum (L.) Karst. Deutsch. Fl. 831. 1880-83.
Apium petroselinum L. Sp. PI. 1: 264. 1753.
Pharbitis cong-esta. Same as Ipomoea congesta.
Pharbitis hederacea. IVY-LEAVED MORNING-GLORY.

LOCAL NAMES. Fofgu (Guam).

A twining plant with azure blue or pink flowers. Stems twining, slender hirsute
with deflexed hairs; leaves 5 to 12.5 cm. long, usually broader than long, cordate at
the base, palmately 3-lobed, the lobes deep, acute, middle one the largest, slightly
hairy on both sides, especially on the veins beneath, petiole a little shorter than the
blade; flowers large, on short stout peduncles, either solitary or in threes; bracts
linear, persistent; peduncle usually shorter than the petiole; sepals equal in length, 18
mm. long, linear, dilated below, acute, hairy; corolla tubular, funnel-shaped, limb 5
cm. in diameter; ovary 3-celled; capsule 12 mm. long, surrounded by the much longer
enlarged sepals, globose, 3-valved; seeds usually 6, 6 mm. long, ovoid-triangular,
glabrous, dull black.

The seeds are strongly purgative and in India are used as a drug under the name
of kaladana. The plant is probably of American origin.
REFERENCES:

Pharbitis hederacea (L. ) Choisy, Mem. Soc. Phys. Genev. 6: 440. 1833.
Convolvulus hederaceus L. Sp. PI. 1: 154. 1753.
Ipomoea hederacea Jacq. Coll. 1 : 124. 1786.



Trimen, Handbook Flora of Ceylon, vol. 3, pp. 212, 213, 1895.



350 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM.

Pharbitis insularis Choisy. Same as Ipomoea congesta.
Pharbitis nil. Same as Pharbitis hederacea.

Phaseolus lunatics inamoenus. LIMA BEAN.

Family Fabaceae.

LOCAL NAMES. Habas (Spanish); Patani (Philippines).

Lima beans will grow in Guam, but our common varieties do not appear to flourish
here. They should be planted toward the end of the rainy season. In India fresh
seed is imported annually from America.
REFERENCES-:

Phaseolus lunatus inamoenus (L. ).
Phaseolus inamoenus L. Sp. PI. 2: 724. 1753.
Phaseolus macrocarpus Moench, Meth. 1 : 155. 1794.

Phaseolus mungo. GREEN GRAM.

LOCAL NAMES. Moriggos (Guam); Muriggo, Moriggo, Balatong (Philippines);
Mung (India).

The most extensively cultivated leguminous plant in Guam. A low suberect
annual, more or less densely clothed with loose deflexed hairs, leaves 3-foliolate,
stipellate; leaflets membranous, entire, rarely faintly lobed; stipules ovate; flowers
in axillary capitate racemes at the end of the peduncles; bracteoles ovate or lanceo-
late; calyx campanulate; corolla yellow, much exserted; keel prolonged into a com-
plete spiral; pedicels very short; pod 3.5 to 6 cm. long by 4 to 5 mm. in diameter,
clothed with deciduous silky hairs, subeylindrical, slightly recurved; seeds small,
green.

In the agricultural statistics of one year I find that in the district of Agaiia there
were planted 131 chupas of monggos (102 pints), and 1,149 gantas (455.3 pecks) were
gathered, making the yield more than seventyfold.

This plant is widely distributed in the Tropics. It is extensively cultivated in
many warm countries, especially in the Philippines and on the plains of India. The
seeds are largely imported into San Francisco, Cal., by the Chinese. In Guam it is
grown as a rotation crop after maize. It thrives best apparently on the highland
during the rainy season. Cattle are very fond of the seeds, stems, and leaves. In
India and in the Philippines the seeds are ground into flour and used as a substitute
for soap for washing delicate fabrics. They are w T holesome and nutritious and have
a pleasant taste. They may be eaten as a porridge or parched. The green pods are
sometimes eaten as a vegetable. An analysis of the seed has been made by W. C:
Blasdale. &

REFERENCES:

Phaseolus mango L. Mant. 1: 101. 1767.

Phoenix dactylifera. DATE.

Family Phoenicaceae.

I know of only one tree of this species in Guam. It grows in the garden of the
rectory back of the church of Agana. As the species is dioecious, of course the tree
bears no fruit. It is probable that the climate is too moist for the culture of dates,
though the trees could be propagated without trouble.
REFERENCES:

Phoenix dactylifera L. Sp. PI. 2: 1188. 1753.
Phoenix sylvestris. WILD DATE.

Several specimens of this palm obtained by me from Mr. David Haughs, of the

Olive y Garcia, Islas Marianas, App. no. 4, 1887.

6 Blasdale, Some Chinese vegetable food materials, etc., U. S. Dept. Agr., Off. Exp.
Sta., Bull. No. 68, p. 37, 1899.



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 351

Honolulu Botanical Gardens, were planted in Guam, and were thriving at the time of
my departure from the island.
REFERENCES:
Phoenix sylvestris (L.) Roxb. Hort. Beng. 73. 1814 (ex Ind. Kew.); Fl. Ind.

3: 787.1832.

Elate sylvestris L. Sp. PL 2: 1189. 1753.
Phragmites cormnunis. Same as Trichoon phragmltes. See under Trichoon

roxburghil.

Phragmites karka Triii. Same as Trichoon roxburghil.
Phragmites phragmites. See under Trichoon roxburghil.
Phragmites roxburghii. Same as Trichoon roxburghii.
Ph.yllanth.us gaudichaudii. Same as Glochidion marianum.

Phyllanthus marianus. PHYLLANTHUS.

Family Euphorbiaceae.

A shrub with leaves arranged in two vertical rows; branches compressed, wrinkled;
leaves subsessile, ovate, unequal at the base, acute at the apex, membranous, promi-
nently net- veined; flowers in axillary clusters, shortly pedicelled, very minute,
numerous; glands of male flowers free; stamens 3, filaments united in a column;
staminal column entire, anthers erect with vertical slits, free from one another;
female flowers with three bifid styles; capsule of three crustaceous 2-valved cocci;
seeds on the back coarsely, transversely undulate-ribbed.

The type specimen of this species was collected on the island of Guam in 1819 by
Gaudichaud and placed in the herbarium of De Candolle. The plant is used medici-
nally by the natives of Guam.
REFERENCES:
Phyllanthus marianus Muell. Arg. Linnsea 32: 17. 1863.

Not to be confused with Phyllanthus (Glochidion) marianus Mull. Arg. Flora 48:

379, 1865, also from Guam, which was first described by Miiller in Linmea, 32: 65, as

Glochidion marianum, a genus which is now recognized as distinct from Phyllanthus.

Phyllanthus niruri. FLY-ROOST.

LOCAL NAMES. Maigo-lalo, Maigu-lalo (Guam).

An annual, herbaceous, glabrous weed of wide tropical distribution; stem angular,
glabrous, 15 to 45 cm. high, often branched from the base, with slender leafy angu-
lar branchlets above. Leaves variable, pale green, 6 to 18 mm. long, often imbri-
cated in two rows, glaucous beneath, elliptic-bbovate, oblong, or linear, the tip
rounded, obtuse, or acute; petiole minute; stipules subulate; flowers very numerous,
males solitary and in pairs, almost sessile; female twice as large; sepals of male orbic-
ular, of female narrowly obovate-oblong with broad white margins, spreading; disk
of male of minute glands; anthers 3, sessile on a short column; disk of female annu-
lar, lobed; styles minute, very short, free, 2-lobed; capsule minute, depressed-
globose, smooth; seeds with equal parallel slender ribs and faint cross striae.

This plant is very common in Guam, growing everywhere in waste places. The
native name, signifying "sleeping flies," or "fly-roost," is probably applied to it
from the appearance of the plant when the leaves closing together have the appear-
ance of a number of two-winged insects clinging to the stem.

The milky juice of this plant is a good remedy for offensive sores. The bruised
bitter leaves are applied externally as a cure for the itch and for scabby sores of the
scalp, and the fresh root is an excellent remedy for jaundice. &
REFERENCES:

Phyllanthus niruri L. Sp. PI. 2: 981. 1753.



"Hooker, Flora British India, vol. 5, p. 306, 1890.

& Watt, Economic Products of India, vol. 6, pt. 1, p. 222, 1892.



352 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM.

Phyllanthus nivosus. ROSY-LEAVED PHYLLANTHUK.

A shrub used extensively in the tropics as an ornamental hedge-plant, in its culti-
vated form (variety roseopictua) having variegated green, white, and pink leaves.
Leaves arranged in 2 lateral rows on small branchlets which have the appearance of
pinnately compound leaves; flowers small, greenish, apetalous, discoid, hanging by
their pedicels from the leaf-axils.

A number of plants obtained from Mr. David Haughs, of the Honolulu Botanical
Gardens, were introduced into Guam by the writer. They grew well and were left
in a flourishing condition. In Honolulu beautiful hedges are made of this Phyllan-
thus. They are easily kept in a good compact condition by clipping, and the light
pinkish foliage offers a pleasing contrast with darker-leaved shrubs.
REFERENCES:

Phyttanthus nivosus Bull. Cat. 9. 1873; W. G. Smith, Flor. Mag. N. S. L 120.
1874.

Phyllanthus urinaria. PIIYLLANTTIUS.

A diffusely branched erect or decumbent herb (sometimes perennial), glabrous or
nearly so, the stem and branches angled. Leaves variable in size, 4 to 16 mm. long,
sessile, distichously imbricate (in 2 rows), lanceolate, oblong or linear-oblong, tip
rounded or apiculate, stipules peltate; flowers very minute, male smaller than female,
axillary, subsessile; sepals ciliolate; filaments very short, free; ovary densely granu-
late; styles short, free, 2-fid; fruit echinate; seeds transversely furrowed.

Collected in Guam by Gaudichaud. Its medicinal properties are the same as those
of P. niruri.

REFERENCES :

Phyllanthus urinaria L. Sp. PI. 2: 982. 1753.

Phyllaurea variegata. VARIEGATED C-ROTON.

Family Euphorbiaceae.
LOCAL NAMES. San Francisco, Buena Vista (Guam, Philippines); Saguilald

(Philippines).

An ornamental plant with bright-colored leaves varying greatly in form and color-
ing. Flowers monoecious, usually in racemes of one sex, rarely a female at the base
of a male raceme; males small, clustered, females solitary; males with small petals
and many stamens; females without petals, calyx 5-lobed, ovary 3-celled.

Much planted by the natives in a line near their houses, so as to receive the drip-
pings from the eaves. The commonest form is one having variegated green and
yellow leaves. Other forms occur with red and orange coloring.
REFERENCES:

Phyllaurea variegata (L. ).
Oroton variegatum L. Sp. PL 2: 1199. 1753.
Phyllaurea codiaeum Lour. Fl. Cochinch. 2: 575. 1790.
Codiaeum variegatum Blume, Bijdr. 606. 1825.

Phymatodes phymatodes. OAK-LEAVED FERN. PLATE LXIII.

Family Polypodiaceae.
LOCAL NAMES. Kahlau (Guam); Lau mangamanga (Samoa).

A climbing fern, with pinnatifld or deeply lobed fronds resembling great oak leaves.
Rhizome wide-creeping, woody, the scales dark brown, fibrillose; stipes firm, erect,
glossy; fronds varying from simple oblong-lanceolate to pinnately lobed, often cut
down to a broadly-winged rachis into numerous entire acuminate lanceolate-oblong
lobes; texture coriaceous; both sides naked; no distinct main veins; areohe fine,
with copious free veinlets; sori large, more or less immersed, 1 or 2-serial or scattered.

Common in the forests of Guam and growing on stone walls and the tiled roofs of



Contr. Nat. Herb., Vol. IX.



PLATE LXII.




PHYMATODES PHYMATODES, THE OAK-LEAF FERN. NATURAL SIZE.



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 353

houses. Spread throughout Polynesia, Formosa, Malaysia, North Australia, Ceylon,
etc.

REFERENCES:

Phymatodes phymatodes (L. ) Maxon.
Polypodium phymatodes L. Mant. 306. 1771.

Physalis angulata. GROUND-CHERRY.

Family Solanaceae.

LOCAL NAMES. Tomates de Brihuega (Spanish); Sisio, Asisio (Philippines).
An annual glabrous weed, with angled stem. Leaves ovate, with cuneate base
and long-acuminate teeth, or subentire; calyx 5-parted, inflated like a bladder around
the included berry; calyx-lobes deltoid; bladder sharply 5-angular; corolla pale;
stamens 5, anthers violet; stigma capitate; berry 2-celled, turning yellow when ripe
and nearly filling the calyx.

Widely spread in the warmer regions of the world. In Guam it grows in waste
places. Fruit eaten occasionally by the natives.
REFERENCES:

Physalis angulata L. Sp. PI. !: 183. 1753.

Physalis minima. GROUND-CHERRY.

LOCAL NAMES. Tomate chaka, i. e., "Rat tomato" (Guam); Tomates de Bri-
huega (Spanish); Sisio, Asisio (Philippines).

An annual pubescent plant. Leaves ovate, sinuate, angular, or scarcely lobed;
calyx inflated, enlarging after flowering, 5 or 10-ribbed; corolla yellow; berry 12
mm. in diameter. Abundant on cultivated land. Fruit eaten by the natives, form-
ing a good salad, when raw, or made into a dulce. Chickens are fond of it.
REFERENCES:

Physalis minima L. Sp. PL 1 : 183. 1753.
Physic-nut. See Jalropha curcas.
Pia (Samoa). See Tacca pinnatijida.
Piao (Guam). General name for bamboo.
Piao lane, Piao tituka (Guam). See Sambos blumeana.
Piao palaoan (Guam). See Bambos sp.
Piga (Guam).

General name for Alocasia spp., giant aroids with acrid starchy stems, eaten in
times of famine.

Piga-palayi (Guam). See Crinum asiaticum.
Pigeon pea. See Cajan cajan.
Pigweed, green. See Amaranthus viridis.
Pigweed, spiny. See Amaranthus spinosus.
Piipii (Hawaii). See Andropogon aciculatus.
Pili (Philippines). See Canarium indicum.
Pilikai (Hawaii). See Argyreia liliaefolia.
Pina (Guam, Philippines, Spanish). See Ananas ananas.
Pineapple. See Ananas ananas.
Piod or Piut (Guam). See Ximenia americana.

Piper betle. BETEL PEPPER. PLATE LXIII.

Family Piperaceae.

LOCAL NAMES. Pupulo, Pupiilu (Guam); Tambula (Sanscrit); Tambol (Per-
sian); Tanbol (Arabic); Bulat-wel, Bulat woela (Ceylon); Buyo (Philip-
pines); Kolu (Solomon Islands); Hurung, Huglong (Kaiser Wilhelmsland) ;
Pan (Bengal).
9773-05 23



354 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM.

A perennial climbing plant with smooth bright green, ovate-cordate leaves, having
a pungent, aromatic taste. Leaves large, coriaceous, petioled, obliquely ovate-oblong
or rounded ovate-cordate, entire, 5 to 9-nerved, often unequal at the base; flowers in
solitary spikes, dioecious, with orbicular peltate bracts; male spikes 7.5 to 15 cm.
long; female long-peduncled, in fruiting stout, 2.5 to 12.5 cm. long, pendulous;
fruit fleshy, often confluent into a cylindrical fleshy red mass. The leaves resemble
those of Piper nigrum, but the fruit is more compact.

This plant, like many other cultivated species, is variable. Piper siriboa and P.
melamiri are forms which were described by Linnaeus as distinct species. Specimens
collected in Guam by Haenke were described by Opiz as Piper marianum, but were
later called by C. De Candolle Piper betle mariannum.b In the Guam variety the
leaves have longer petioles than in the typical form ; are smooth on both sides, mem-
branous, rather stiff, with fine pelucid dots, 5-nerved, the central nerve sending
forth 011 each side one nerve from above the base and another from the base, oppo-
site to each other.

In Guam it is very extensively cultivated. Cuttings take root readily. An old
lady, who made a business of selling betel leaves, brought the writer several cuttings
and planted them in his garden. She removed all the leaves but two or three,
twined the lower part of the cutting into a hoop-like loop, and covered it with a
few inches of soil upon which she laid a flat stone to retain the moisture, leaving the
tip of the cutting projecting from beneath the stone. Following her directions I
watered my cuttings daily for about a week. New leaves soon began to push forth,
and in a short time I had fine vigorous plants climbing up my lemon and lime trees
and running over my garden wall.

The fresh green leaves (mamaon) are chewed by the natives wrapped about a
fragment of Areca nut together with a pinch of quicklime. They are agreeably
pungent and aromatic, the nut and leaves together tasting somewhat like nutmeg,
and giving a spicy odor to the breath. In .Guam the betel takes the place of Piper
methysticum, the roots of which, after having been chewed or grated, are made by
the Polynesians into the infusion called "kava" or "ava." The kava pepper does
not grow in Guam. In islands where it does occur its leaves are occasionally used
in place of those of the betel pepper for chewing.

For the effects of betel chewing and the ceremony attending it see notes under
Areca cathecu. It is interesting to observe the resemblance of "pupiilu," the Guam
name of the betel pepper, to "pipul" and "pipulmul," the names applied in India
and Bengal to Piper longum.
REFERENCES:

Piper betle L. Sp. PI. 1: 28. 1753.
Piper gnahamense. GUAM PEPPER.

A plant resembling the kava pepper (Piper methysticum) of Polynesia. Dioecious;
stems erect; leaves long-petioled, round or round-ovate, with the apex shortly
protracted-acuminate, the point rather sharp, deeply cordate at the base, smooth
above, yellowish-puberulous along the veins on the under surface, membranous,
rather stiff, subopaque, finely pelucid-dotted, 9 to 11-nerved; nerves rather promi-
nent below, the middle one reaching to the apex, the two next nearly to the apex,
the remaining ones finer; petiole sheathing for one-fourth of its length with linear
wings attenuated toward the apex into the petiole; spikes of the female plant axil-
lary, solitary, densely flowered, nearly equaling the leaves, the peduncle a little
shorter than the petioles, sparsely puberulous, the rachis puberulous; bracts round-
peltate, petiolate at the center; ovary ovate, glabrous; stigmas 3, rather fleshy, ses-

Presl, Reliquiae Haenkeanae,- vol. 1, p. 159, 1825.
&De CandoKe, Prodromus, vol. 16, pt. 1, p. 360, 1869.



Contr. Nat. Herb., Vol. IX.



PLATE LXIII.




PlPER BETLE, THE BETEL PEPPER.



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 355

sile; male plants with smooth petioles, leaves more membranous; spike (solitary?)
dense-flowered, rachis puberulous; stamens 3.

A common plant in Guam, growing in shady woods in moist situations and near
the banks of streams. Its leaves have an aromatic taste much like those of the
closely allied kava pepper.

This species was described by C. De Candolle from a female plant collected in
Guam by Chamisso, the type now in the herbarium of Berlin, and from a male plant,
perhaps a distinct species, collected by Haenke in Mexico, also in the same her-
barium. It was referred by Miquel to Macropiper methysticum and Macropiper
latifolium. a

REFERENCES:

Piper guahamense C. DC. Prod. 16 1 : 336. 1869.
Piper marianum. See Piper betle.
Piper nigrum. BLACK PEPPER.

A few plants of black pepper given me by Mr. David Haughs, of the Hawaiian
Botanical Garden at Honolulu, were planted by me in Guam. They seemed to be
well established in my garden when I left. The climate is evidently adapted to the
cultivation of this species.
REFERENCES:

Piper nigrum L. Sp. PI. 1 : 28. 1753.
Piper potamogetonifolium.

A dioecious plant with flower-spikes opposite the leaves. Leaves petioled, cordate-
ovate, with acuminate apex and equal base, lobes approximate, coriaceous, smooth,
glossy, net- veined; petiole sheathing, much shorter than the leaf, smooth; spike
cylindrical, much shorter than the leaf, mucronate; peduncle smooth. An under-
shrub collected by Haenke on the island of Guam.
REFERENCES:

Piper potamogetonifolium Opiz in Presl, Rel. Haenk. I 3 : 156. 1828.
Macropiper potamogetonifolium Miq. Syst. Pip. 221. 1843.
Piper sp.

Besides the above species, an epiphytal piper is mentioned by Gaudichaud, called
"podpod" in the vernacular of the island. This I have been unable to identify.
Piperaceae. PEPPER FAMILY.

This family is represented in Guam by Piper betle, P. guahamense, P. potamogetoni-
folium and Peperomia mariannensis.

Pipturus argenteus. SILVERY PIPTURUS.

Family Urticaceae.

LOCAL NAMES. Handaramai, Hinaramai (Philippines); Fau songa (Samoa);
Kongangu, Queensland Grass-cloth Plant (Australia).

A shrub or small tree, allied to the mamake of the Hawaiian Islands. Young
branches covered with whitish wool or pubescence; leaves alternate, petioled, une-
qual in size and length of petiole, 3-nerved, ovate or elliptical-lanceolate, rarely cor-
date, acuminate or gradually attenuate and acute; petioles varying in length, longer
and shorter ones alternating on the branches; old leaves glabrate and smooth on the
upper face, crenulate or finely serrulate or nearly entire, unlike in color on the two
faces; stipules axillary, deeply bifid; flowers small, growing in axillary clusters of
two sexes; male perianth, 4 or 5-lobed, with 4 or 5 stamens and the woolly rudiment
of a pistil; female ventricose, 4 or 5-toothed, with filiform stigma; ovule 1, erect;
achene nut-like, closely invested by perianth. The inflorescence is arranged either
in axillary clusters or in simple interrupted spikes sometimes leafy at the tip.

a Miquel, Systema Piperacearum, p. 218, 1843-44.



356 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM.

From the fibrous inner bark of this species the Samoans make their red, shaggy,
rug-like mats and their nets and fishing lines. The fiber is of fine texture and great
strength, but difficult to prepare. In Australia it is known as the Queensland
grass-cloth plant, or native mulberry. It was first collected on Guam by Gaudichaud.
The fiber is not utilized on this island. From the allied mamake the Hawaiians
made bark-cloth or "tapa." The bark yields a brown dye.
REFERENCES:

Pipturus argenteus (Forst.) Wedd. in DC. Prod. 16 ': 235 19 . 1869.
Urtica argentea Forst. Prod. 65. 1786.
Pipturus propinquus. Same as Pipturus argenteus,
Pisang ( Philippines ) . See Musa paradisiaca.
Pisonia brunoniana. Same as Pisonia excelsa.
Pisonia excelsa.

Family Nyctaginaceae.

LOCAL NAMES. Umumu, Umumo (Guam); Tak-an (Philippines); Buatea

(Tahiti').

A shrub or tree, glabrous or nearly so; leaves opposite or growing in whorls at the
ends of the branches, more or less coriaceous, oblong or oval, obtuse or pointed at
the tip, slightly cordate, usually attenuate at the base (15 to 20 cm. or more long by

4 to 6 cm. wide). 'Flowers dioecious, growing in terminal or lateral clusters (10 to 15
cm. long); clusters in pairs or in fours on the extremities of the branches, sometimes
covered with reddish hairs, or on nodules on the lower parts of the branches;
peduncles smooth or pubescent, like the rest of the inflorescence, often elongated
and with short ramifications or shortened and with longer ramifications. Perianth
funnel-shaped, 5 to 6 mm. long, 5-toothed, the fruiting clusters larger than the
flowering ones; fruiting perianth, 4 to 5 cm. long by 3 to 4 mm. wide, oblong, with

5 ribs either smooth or armed with tiny spines, attenuate at the base, claviform at
the top, exuding a viscous juice; stamens 6 to 10, of unequal length, protruding;
female flowers having a 1-celled ovary more or less elongated, with a single erect
ovule; style often exserted with a 2-lobed stigma; stigma-lobes pectinate; style of
male flowers when present often shorter than the stamens, its stigma lateral, oval,
entire, spongy; fruit angular, inclosed in the persistent tube of the perianth, the angles
frequently armed with prickly glands, which are sometimes scarcely perceptible.

This species is quite variable and has been described under several names. It is
widely distributed throughout the Pacific and in tropical Asia.
REFERENCES:

Pisonia excelsa Blume, Bijdr. 735. 1826.

Pisonia umbellifera Seem. ; Nadeaud, Enum. PI. Tahiti, 46. 1873.