William Fraser.

The earls of Cromartie; their kindred, country, and correspondence (Volume 2) online

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of my father, but cou'd get no accounts of him that night. The bad weather still con-
tinu'd, and as I was very much fatigued, I wou'd have given a great deal for a good bed,
but being quite a stranger in the town I did not know where to go. I went at last
into the first house which I found open, and by good luck found it occupy'd by CoUonel
Grant and by some of the Irish officers. CoUonel Grant was so obliging as to yeild me
his own bed, and sat himself on a chair by the fireside all night. When I awoke next
morning, my servant, whom I had order'd to enquire, told me that my father was lodg'd
not far from where I was, and that he was very well. I immediately gote up and went
to him. Our mutual joy was very great to meet again, and to find that neither of us
had receiv'd any hurt. My father told me that he had run like everybody else in
pursuit of the enemy, till he came to the foot of the hill ; that he had then rallied his
brigade, which consisted of his own regiment, of the Mackintoshes, and of the Farquer-
sons, and waited for further orders ; but that receiving none for some hours, and seeing
that all the rest of the army was march'd away, he had at last march'd into the town
about ten of the clock at night. In a day or two we return'd to the quarters which
we had occupy'd before the battle, and all our attention was then fixt on reducing the
Castle of Sterling, the siege of which was carried on with all the vigour that the bad
season of the year and the drunkeness of our famous French engeneer wou'd allow of
Some days after the battle our quarters were chaug'd. My father's brigade was canton'd
VOL. II. 3 D


in the country between Falkirk and the Torwood, and my father and I, with some

other officers, had our quarters assign'd us at , which was the country seat of a

gentleman of the name of Dumbar. From this place I us'd to go sometimes to Bannock-
burn to pay my respects to the Prince, and sometimes to Falkirk to see Lord George
Murray. Accounts having been soon brought to the Court of London of the defeat
of Halley's army, several regiments were immediately sent from England to reinforce it ;
and the Duke of Cumberland having been appointed Commander-in-chief of the King
his father's forces in Scotland, arriv'd at Edenburgh about the eight or tenth of
February, and immediately took upon himself the command. I have said above that
the Dutch had sent over six thousand men to England to assist King George, but that
their High Mightynesses had afterwards been oblig'd to recall their troops. The reason
w^hy the Dutch troops never acted against us is as follows : — They had been in garrisson
at Turney and at some other places in the Low Countries, which had been taken by the
French the preceding campayne, and by their capitulations they were bound not to serve
against France nor her allies for a certain time. The Dutch thought, however, that they
cou'd send these troops to the assistance of His Britannick Majesty without appearing to
break the articles of their capitulation, as they pretended not to know of any alliance
between His Most Christian Majesty and Prince Charles Edward Stuart ; but Lord John
Drummond, so soon as he landed in Scotland, wrote a letter to the Dutch General by
order of his Court, complaining of their troops having violated the articles of their
capitulation, and requiring that they should forthwith desist from all hostilities against
Prince Charles Stuart, who was the ally of France, and whose army was now join'd by
a body of French troops. The Court of Versailles having at the same time caus'd repre-
sentations of the like nature to be made at the Hague, their High Mightynesses found it
expedient to recall their troops. To repair this loss the Court of London caus'd a body
of six thousand Hessians in British pay to be brought over to Scotland from the Low
Countries, but these troops did not arrive in the country till after our army had rais'd the
siege of Sterling Castle and was retir'd into the Highlands. While the King's army was
becoming daily stronger and stronger at Edenburgh, by the considerable succours which
came to them from England, our army was constantly decreasing ever since the battle
of Falkirk, by the incredible number of our men who daily deserted. The Highlanders
must always be employ'd, and can never thrive long in one place. They grew tir'd
with the siege, which is a service which they do not understand, and which drew out
longer than they had expected. Besides this they took a great longing of visiting their
homes, after so long an absense, and of depositing there in safety the bootty they had


gote in their late victory. The eleventh of February I had gone in to Falkirk to see
what was doing there. Lord George Murray ordered me to tell my father to have his
brigade assembl'd at the head of the Torwood in the dusk of the evening. We were
accordingly there at the time appointed, and having been join'd by the troop from
Falkirk, we march'd all together to the uighbourhood of Bannockburn. I continu'd
at Bannockburn House some hours, and about midnight march'd with the regiment to
our old quarters at Polmese. Before I left Bannockburn the Prince had call'd a counsil
of war, which I thought was only to deliberate on what was the properest place to give
battle to the Duke of Cumberland's army, which was then advancing against us, for I
did not dream of a retreat. I had not been above an hour in bed before my father came,
and he told me that it had been resolv'd in the counsil of war to raise the siege of Sterling
Castle, and to retire to Inverness. That night the trenches were abandon' d, and so
much of the cannon as cou'd not be carry'd otf was nail'd up. Next morning our troops
evacuated Sterling. There happen'd an unlucky accident that morning at St. Ninian's,
where a Highlander having inconsiderately fir'd off his pistol, set fire to some louse gun-
powder, which communicating to several barrels which Avere lying in the church, blew
it up. Several people lost their lives on this occasion, and the Prince was not far from
the church when the accident happen'd. My father and I were then about half way
between Polmese and St. Ninian's, and had we not been detained at Polmese half an
hour longer than we intended, we wou'd have been in the town when the church blew
up. That day the army cross'd the Forth at the ford of the Frews, and march'd to
Dumblain, the head marching so far as Crief. Next day the whole army march'd to
Crief. We were then divided into two collumns, the one of which march'd to Inver-
ness by the Highland road. This coUumn was commanded by the Prince himself, who
had the Duke of Perth along with him. The other collumn, commanded by Lord George
Murray, march'd to the same place, along the sea coast, by Aberdeen, Bamf, Strathbogie,
etc. My father's regiment was in this collumn. As we had nothing to aprehend from
the enemy we march'd in small divisions and by difi'erent roads, for the conveniency of
quarters and provisions. The whole collumn met near Aberdeen, into which place we
march'd all together. Having rested at Aberdeen two or three days, we continu'd our
march, in the same manner as formerly, to the banks of the Spey, where all the different
divisions having again met, we continu'd our march together to Inverness. The Prince
having march'd by the Highland road, as I have already said, took a small fort at
Ruthen, in Badenoch, which he caus'd to be demolish'd, and arriv'd soon after at
Moyhall, the seat of the Laird of Mackintosh, which is but a few miles distant from the


town of Inverness. The Earl of Loudoun and the President Forbes, imagining that the
Prince had but few troops with him at Moyhall, resolv'd to surprise him. For this
purpose the Earl of Loudon march'd from Inverness, with a considerable body of the
forces under his command ; but finding, on his approach to Moyhall, that his design was
discover'd, and that the Prince was ready to receive him, he returned to Inverness,
which place he likewise abandon'd on the approach of our troops, who took pocession
of the town without opposition, and immediately laid siege to the castle, in which Lord
Loudoun had left a considerable garrisson. The Prince at the same time remov'd his
headquarters to Culloden House, and sent the Earl of Kilmarnock, at the head of a
large body of Highlanders, in pursuit of Lord Loudoun, who was retir'd into Ross-shire.
The Castle of Inverness held out but two or three days, and the garrisson surrender'd
prisoners at discretion on the third of March. The same day Lord George Murray's
coUumn arriv'd at that place. So soon as my father came to Culloden the Prince order'd
him to go and take upon himself the command of the forces with which the Earl of
Kilmarnock was gone in pursuit of the Earl of Loudoun. As my father's regiment
was order'd on the same expedition, I halted only about half an hour at Culloden,
to pay my duty to the Prince, and then march'd to Inverness. We stay'd there only
an hour or two, and then continuing our march, we arriv'd that night at Bewly,
where we found the Earl of Kilmarnock with his troops. My father having com-
municated to that Lord the Prince's orders, his Lordship immediately gave up the
command of the troops and return'd the same night to Inverness. Next day we
march'd to Dingwall, from which place we continu'd our march in a day or two
towards Tain, where we expected to meet the Earl of Loudon, but on our arrival
at the Bridge of Anas we gote intelligence that that Lord w^as cross'd over into
the county of Sutherland with his troops. My father march'd that day to his seat
of Tarbat House with part of the troops, and order'd the rest to follow ; but the
same night and next day the greatest part of his detatchment was order'd back to
Inverness, and he was commanded to return with the remainder to Dingwall, and to
wait there for further orders. I never cou'd hear the true reason for this sudden change
of our measures, but I suppose it must have been owing to some false report of the
Duke of Cumberland's motions. We continu'd a considerable time at Dingwall after
this doing nothing. It being at last resolv'd at Inverness to dissipate the Earl of
Loudoun's forces, several regiments were sent to reinforce my father, and we receiv'd
orders to march to Tain. Some days after we had been there, the Duke of Perth came
to us and took the direction of affairs on himself, tho' my father still kept the name of


Commander-in-chief. The Duke of Perth's being at Tain made my father's presence
there less necessary. We went home to Tarbat House and carried some Irish and
other oiEcers along with us. The thertieth of March, in the morning, we gote an
express from Tain to acquaint us that several large boats were arriv'd there fr(jm the
coast of Murray. We immediately went into the town. These boats had been sent
over by the Prince's orders for transporting of the troops at Tain into Sutherland, the
enemy having carried away or destroy'd all the boats thereabouts. Everything having
been gote ready that day and the following night, the first division of our troops cross'd
over into Sutherland next morning, led by the Duke of Perth, and landed without oppo-
sition, being iinobserv'd by the enemy by reason of a thick fog. As we were to cross
over at three different times, by reason that our boats were too few, and as my father's
regiment was to be in the last division, I cross'd over with the Erasers, expecting that
there wou'd be some action, at which I was desirous of being present. But the enemy,
so soon as they discovered our being landed, retir'd. The county militia went to their
respective homes, and the Earl of Sutherland cross'd over the Firth of Murray and
went to the Duke of Cumberland's army. The Earl of Loudoun and the President
Forbes retir'd with Sir Alexander Macdouald and the Laird of Macleod and their men
into the Isle of Sky. The greatest part of Loudoun's own regiment was made prisoners
of war, together with their Major, William MacKenzie, We march'd without loss of
time to Dornoch, and so soon as my father's regiment was come over, I march'd with
it to Lord Duffus's house of Skelbo, where I remain'd that night. The Macgregors and
Stuarts, who had march'd the same way before me, had taken pocession of three small
ships which were lying at the Little Ferry, and which were fraughted by the Govern-
ment. The first of April I march'd from Skelbo to the general rendezvous of our
troops, from which we proceeded next day in pursuit of the enemy, and the third of
the same month we return'd to Skelbo by a different road, having met with nothing to
oppose us. The Duke of Perth left us in this march, and return'd to Inverness. At
Skelbo my father receiv'd orders from the Prince to march himself into Caithness, or to
send me into that county to raise the militia, and to take up the publick revenues for
his service. The county of Caithness is mostly pocessed by the Sinclairs, who are in
general well affected to the Stuart family. The Prince having, after his arrival at
Inverness, solicited these gentlemen to join him, they had declar'd their willingness
thereto, but at the same time requir'd that the Duke of Perth or my father might be
sent to command them, and the Prince made choice of my father, and order'd him to
march there himself, or to send me, as he found most proper. My father, thinking


it necessary for the P 's service that he shou'd remain in Sutherland, where the

■militia of the country were still in arms in the mountains, sent me to Caithness with
his own regiment. On my arrival at Wick, I wrote sircular letters to all the gentle-
men of the county, requiring them to meet me at Thurso on a day I fixt, and to pay
up to me the publick money. A day or two after I march'd to Thurso, where I was
soon after join'd by Ballon's and Dundonell's men from Lochbroom, they haveing not
come out till then. Ballon's men were commanded by his brother, and Dundonell's by
his uncle. The day after my arrival at Thurso, I sent Mr. Mackenzie of Ardloch with a
party into the Orckney Islands, with orders to take up the publick money there, and to
try if he cou'd raise any troops. The day I had appointed for the gentlemen to meet
me being come, severals of them appear' d. After dinner I told them that they knew
for what reason I had call'd them together, as it was at the desire of several among

themselves that the P R had sent me into the country. I exhorted

them to adhere to the principles which they had always profess'd, and to embrace
with unanimity and zeal the favourable opportunity they now had of serving their

lawful P by taking arms for his service. They all appear'd very hearty in

the cause, and seem'd resolv'd to take arms, on which I nam'd a day when I

would set up the P 's standard. In the meantime, I was bussy in raising the

publick money. Some people were unwilling to pay it, and others, who were not,
wanted an appearance of compulsion, by which they might afterwards be able to
justify themselves in case our army was defeated ; so that I was oblig'd to send
small parties through the country to compell all to pay, by which means I at last gote
it. Having receiv'd advice that 100 of Lord Rea's men were posted at a village on
the frontier between Caithness and Strathnaver, to cover their own country on that
side, I form'd the design of surprising them, and provided proper guides for that pur-
pose. The evening before I propos'd marching on that expedition, I communicated my
design to Captain Alexander MacKenzie, Dundonell's uncle, being willing to have his
oppinion of it, as he was a sensible old man, and had been engag'd in the Rebellion
of 1715. Captain MacKenzie having dissaprov'd my design, for reasons which I

have now forgote, I dropt it. The time I had fixt for seting up the P 's standard

beeing come, I march'd with the regiment to the place appointed, which was a hill not
far from Thurso. Two or three of the gentlemen of the country went along with
me, but only one appear'd there with 20 or 30 men, who made but an indifferent
figure. I thank'd the gentleman and his men for their zeal, and gave them leave to
return home, with orders to be ready to march on the first orders.


557. Narrative by John Lord Macleod of his Campaign in tlie Seven Years' War
in Germany, in the Year 1757.

Le Roi cle Prusse voullant j^revenir les Autriciens, resohi d'entrer cle bonne
heur en campagne. Vers le commencement d'Avril sa majesty envoyait le Prince
Maurice d'Anhalt Dessau du cote d'Egra avec un corps de trouppes ; il donnait en
meme tems ces ordres au Marechal Schwerin de se mettre en movement avec son
arm^e de Silesie, pendant que le Prince de Brounswig Bevern devait entrer en
Boheme du cote de Lucace avec un corps d'environs 16,000 hommes. Le 2P''
d'Avril les trouppes Prussiennes en Saxe sortirent de leur quartiers de cantonments
et campirent entre Ottondorf et Cotta ; le 22 nous entrammes en Boheme et cam-
pammes a Nollendorf ; le Lieutenant-General Kyaw devait nous suivre le lende-
main avec la cavalrie pesante. Le 18 du meme mois le Prince de Bevern
entrait en Boheme avec son corps d'arm^e, et ayant trouve le General Autricien
Koningsek intrenche a Reichenberg avec 18 ou 20,000 hommes, il les attaqua
d'abord et forca bientot leurs intrenchments aussi bien que la ville. Les
Prussiens perdirent dans cette affaire 3 ou 400 hommes ; et la perte des
Autriciens puvait monter a 12 ou 1500.

Le General Koningsek passa I'Elbe bientot apres cette echec, et se retira vers
Prague. Le Prince de Bevern se joinait quelques jours apres avec le Marechal
Schvverin qui etait entre en Boheme en meme tems que lui. Le 23, I'armee
du Roi marchait de Nollendorf a Linay. En approchant de cette place notre
avant guard decouvrait un corps de 8000 Autriciens qui se retirerent de la a
measure que nous avan9ammes, et allerent se poster tres advantagieusment sur le
Baskapole qu'est un haute montaigne vis a vis et en veu de Linay, ou etait le
quartier du Roi. Sa Majesty employiait une bonne parti de I'apres midi a recon-
naitre I'ennemi qui faisait tres bonne mine ; il resolut de les fau-e attaquer le
lendemain matin au petit point du jour, mais les Autriciens se retirerent pendant
la nuit. Le Prince Maurice d'Anhalt Dessau nous joinait a Linay. Ce Prince
etait entre en Boheme pres d'Egra, et avait pris Commetau en passant. Le 24
General Kyaw arrivait avec la Cavalerie, et le lendemain nous marchammes a
Schiscovvitz, ayant laiss6 la Ville de LoAvositz a gauche.

La meme jour le Major-General Zastrow etait tue comme il marchait le long
de I'Elbe avec 4 battalions pour venir joindre I'armee apres avoir pris la ville


d'Aussig. Les Pandours que tuait Zastrow et quelques uns de son monde s'etait
caches a I'autre c6t6 de la riviere et ne firent feu qu'apres que les Prussiens
etaient engages bien avant dans la defile. Du camp de Schiscowitz nous
vimmes I'arm^e Autricienne camp6 pres de Budin audela de I'Egra ; elle
parraissait alors d'etre d'environs 40,000 liommes: I'arm^e Prussienne etait de
45 a 50,000.

Le Roi de Prusse ayant pris la resolution de forcer le passage de I'Egra et
de combattre les Autriciens, I'armee se mit en marche a la sourdine le 26 a 11
heures de soir ; en arrivant sur les bords de la riviere le lendemain matin nous
apprimmes que le Marechal Brown avait decampe pendant la nuit, et qu'il se
retirait vers Prague. La raison de cette retraite etait apparament qu'il voullait
se joindre avec le Corps du General Koningsek, et avec les autres trouppes qui
venaient a lui de toutes parts avant que de rien liasarder. L'armee Prussienne
ayant ainsi passe I'Egra sans opposition, campa a Stradonitz. Le Lieutenant-
General Sethon etait detache avec quelques esquadrons de Dragons et d'Hussards
a la pursuite des enemis ; ce General leur tua quelque monde et fit un trentaine
de prisoniers. Le design du Roi de Prusse etait d'empecher le Due d'Arremberg,
qui venait d'Egra avec 10 ou 12,000 liomraes, a se joindre avec le Marechal
Brown ; mais les marches forces que le Due d'Arremberg fit, et le terns que sa
Majesty perdit en faisant passer la riviere a son arm^e sur un seul pont, firent
manquer cet coup. Le 28 nous marchammes a Karwatetz et le 30 a Welwari.

Le \^^ de May l'armee marchait a Tursko, et le Roi avec un avant garde de
20,000 hommes poussait jusque a Tuchomierzitz. La meme jour le Prince Charles
de Lorrain, cpii avait nouvellement prit le commandement de l'armee Autricienne,
quittait son camp sour le Weissenberg, et defilant au trauers de Prague, se
campait a I'autre cote du Moldau. La 2d l'armee Prussienne marchait a Prague
et prit son camp sur le Weissenberg. Le Quartier-General etait a Welislavin.
Le lendemain etait em ploy ez a reconaitre la ville et les environs de Prague, et a
faire prendre une situation convenable a l'armee pour serrer cette Place en de^a
de la Moldaw. Le 4 le Roi ayant apris que le Marechal Schwerin etait arrive
le 30 d'Avril a Brandeis sur I'Elbe avec son armee, et Cjue ce General devait
passer cette riviere ce meme jour, ayant employie les trois primieres jours du
mois a jetter ses ponts, sa Majesty marchait la meme apres midi avec 23 bat-
talions et 38 esquadrons a Seltz, un petit demi lieu desous I'aile gauche du camp,
ou elle avait resolu de passer le Moldau. Le lendemain matin les ponts etant jett^s,


nous passammes cette riviere sans opposition, et nous campammes sur des hauteurs
assez pr^s de I'armee Autricienne ; le Marechal Schwerin fit une marche en avant la
meme jour et campa a un lieu et demi de nous. Son avant garde poussait un corps
des Autriciens qui etait de ce c6t6 la, mais le Prussienne Major-General Wartenberg
perdit la vie en cette occasion. Le Marechal Keith restait en de^a du Moldau avec
2-5,000 hommes, tant pour empecher les Autriciens, en cas de leur defaite, a se retirer
de ce c6t6 la, que pour recevoir I'arm^e du Eoi de Prusse et couvrir sa retraite en cas
qu'elle vint d'etre battu.

Le 6 de May a 5 heurs du matin le corps du Koi marchait par sa gauche
pour se joindre avec Tarni^e du Marechal Schwerin qui marchait par sa droite ;
apres la jonction nous continuammes de marcher par la gauche pour prendre
I'aile droite des Autriciens en flanque, les Autriciens marcherent par leur droite
pour nous prevenir, de sorte que les deux armees se cottoyernt pendant quelque
tems. Le Marechal Schwerin ayant remarqu^ que les Autriciens avaient moins
de chemin a faire que les Prussiens, fit commencer I'attaque par I'infanterie
de I'aile gauche avant que la second line, de laquelle la marche avait et6 retarde
par un morass, etait a porte de la sutenir. Dans cet attaque les Prussiens etaient
repousses, mais quelques battalions de la seconde line etant arrivt^s, on railli-
erent bientot celles de la primiere et les ramenerent a la charge. En meme tems
le General Sethon ayant passe une digue avec son regiment de Hussards prit les
Autriciens en flanque et renversait toute ce qu'il trouvait devant lui. L'attaque
a I'aile droite ne commencait pas sitot qu'a la gauche ; au commencement les
Autriciens avaient I'avantage aussi a cette aile, mais les Princes Henri de Prusse
et Ferdenand de Brunswig qui commandaient a cette aile ayant bientot railli6s
leur infanterie la ramenaient a la charge.

Pendant que ceci passat aux ailes, le Roi de Prusse voyant que les Generaux
Autriciens avaient afi"oible leur centre pour renforcer leurs ailes, fit un attaque vif
contre cet centre qu'il renversat facilement et coupat ainsi leur armt^e en deux, de
sort que leurs ailes ne puvaient plus s'entre-souccourir etaient mis en deroute. La
Cavalerie de I'aile droite Prussienne ne donnat pas a cause du difficulte du terrain,
mais celle de la gauche renversat les Autriciens apres trois charges. Le Prince
Charles de LoiTain, le Marechal Brown, qui etait bless6, et plusieurs Princes et
Generaux se jetterent en Prague avec 44 battalions almands, huit milles infanterie
legere Hungroise, et 6 a 7000 Cavalerie de toute espece. La reste de leur arm^e se
sauva au dela de la Zasawa et s'assembla a Benechau sous les ordres du General

VOL. II. 3 E


Lucesi. Les Autricieus eurent plusieurs officiers et 3000 lionimes tues sur le
champ (ie battaile, on leur prirent environ 40 officiers et 4000 prisoniers ; tons