Olacinea, floribus tri-sepalis, appendicibus 6 apice fimbriatis, stam. 3,
sepalis oppositis, racemis erectis.
_April 5th_. - Reached the mines after a march of about four hours; our
course was winding, continuing through jungle and small patches of plain,
until we reached the base of that part of the Kuwa Boom which we were to
cross, and which bore N.W. from the place at which we slept. The ascent
was steep in some places, it bore in a N.N.W. direction, principally
through a bamboo jungle. From a clear space half way up, we had a fine
and pretty view of the hills and plains, especially to the S. and S.E. In
the former direction, and distant about fifteen miles, we saw on our
return, the Endaw Gyee, but we could not estimate its size or figure; it
is evidently however a large sheet of water; the natives say, several
miles across. From the summit, we likewise had a fine view of the
country to the E.; very few plains were visible in this direction. Nearly
due east, and about thirty miles off, was visible Shewe Down Gyee, and
this will make Camein nearly due east also, or E. by S. The descent
passed through similar jungle, that at the foot being damp. The course
continued in a direction varying from S. to W., or rather between these
points, through damp jungle. We then ascended another steep hill, but
not exceeding 5 or 600 feet in height; descending from this, and passing
through low tree and then bamboo jungle, we reached the mines.
The road was, up to the base of Kuwa Boom on the W. side, very good,
thence it was in general bad; wet, slippery, much impeded by blocks of
serpentine, and foliated limestone (Bayfield) crossing several streams,
mountain torrents, the principal one being Sapya Khioung. This takes its
name from a spring of water of alkaline properties, which bubbles up
sparingly from under its rocky bed, and which must be covered during the
rains. The water is clear, of a pure alkaline taste, and is used by the
natives as soap.
The mines occupy a valley of a somewhat semi-circular form, bounded on
all sides by hills clothed with trees, none being of very great height.
The valley passes off to the N. into a ravine, down which the small
stream that percolates the valley escapes, and in this at about a coss
distant other pits occur. The surface of the valley apparently at one
time consisted of low rounded hillocks; it is now much broken, and choked
up with the earth and stones that have been thrown up by excavating. The
stone is found in the form of more or less rounded boulders imbedded with
others, such as quartz, etc. in brickish-yellow or nearly orange clay.
The boulders vary much in size. There is no regularity in the pits,
which are dug indiscriminately; some have the form of ditches, none
exceed 20 feet in depth. They are dug all over the valley, as well as on
the base of the hill bounding it to the W. and N.W. We could not obtain
any good specimens, nor is there any thing in the spot that repays the
visit. No machinery is used, the larger blocks are broken by fire. But
that they are of importance in the light of increasing the revenue, is
evident, from the fact that B. counted, since we left Camein, 1,100
people on their return, of whom about 700 were Shan Chinese. The loads
carried away are in some cases very heavy; the larger pieces are carried
on bamboo frames by from two to five men, the lesser on a stout piece of
bamboo lashed to and supported on two cross or forked bamboos, the
stouter joint resting on the bearer's neck, the handles of the forks
being carried in his hands. The most obvious advantage of this is the
ease with which the load may be taken off, when the bearer is fatigued.
The revenue yielded last year, B. tells me, was 320 viss of silver, or
about 40,000 rupees. The length of the valley from E. to W. is about
three quarters of a mile; its breadth varies from 460 to 800 yards.
On our return we boiled water at the Soap spring, which is about 50 feet
above the mines, Temp. of the air 80.5. 2.5 P.M. of boiling water 209.
Elevation 1600 feet. And on the top of Kuwa Boom, which is crossed at a
comparatively low place, at 4.5 P.M. Temp. of the air 76, of boiling
water 207. Elevation 2678 feet.
I can say nothing as to the peculiar features of the vegetation, in the
woods towards Kuwa Boom. I gathered three Aurantiaceae; the Olacinea of
yesterday is common, a large arborescent Artocarpus fructibus oblongis
sub-informibus, sub-acidulis, .75 uncialibus; Teak rarely; Tonabea, noble
specimens occur; on the Kuwa Boom, a large Gordonia arborea, two
arborescent Myrtacea, large Mangoes, Bamboo, a Morinda; Magnoliaecea
occurs on its western face, as well as the Conifera toxoidea before
gathered. Dicksonia and Pladera justicioidea both occur. Dianella
nemorosa, etc. The Serpentine is carried from Keoukseik in boats down
the Endaw Kioung, thence to Camein, and from whence it goes to Mogam,
which is probably the principal mart. Calamus spioris petiolorum
uncialibus verticillatis occurs in abundance in all the damp jungle.
We returned in the afternoon to our halting place of yesterday, from
which the mines are distant ten miles, four of which occur from the side
of Kuwa Boom to the West. The Endaw Gyee is situated on a plain, but it
is enclosed by hills on every side except the S.E. Those to the south
are very high.
_April 6th_. - Returned, diverging from the path to the village
Keoukseik. Noticed Liriodendron, AEsculus, Achyranthis aspera, Vallaris
The village is situated to the S. of the road to the mines; it is close
to the Nam Teen, and on a small elevation; it is stockaded. The number
of houses is about sixteen; of inhabitants, including children, 120: all
the houses, except two, being small. The merchants, etc. employed about
the mines, halt on the Nam Theen, which is up to this point navigable for
Thermometer 66. 6.5 A.M. Temp. of boiling water 210.
_April 8th_. - Reached Camein at noon: halted on the 7th at our former
hut on the Endaw Kioung. The additional plants noticed are Duchesnia
indica, common in wet places; a Bamboo, paniculis (culmis) nutantibus
aphyllis, amplus. Pandanus; Curculigo pumila, floribus sub-solitarius
ante folia, 6 vel. 4 partitis; a Careya, Dillenia, arborea floribus
numerosis parvis luteis.
AEschynomena, Anthistiria arundinacea, Composita arborea, 40-50 pedalis.
Another species of Anthistiria, common on the margins of hills during the
march. Fir trees are reported to exist on _Lioe Peik_, which bears
South from Kioukseik. Volcanic hills reported to exist near the Endaw
Gyee, but no salt rock occurs. This mineral is said to be found three
days' march from Kioukseik on the Nam Theen. The revenue said to accrue
from the Serpentine mines, is probably highly exaggerated; and the supply
of the stone is said to be diminishing yearly. Casually found on the Nam
Toroon, a Sterculia arborea, florib-masculis clavato, infundibul.
coccineis, pubescentibus: a Sophora, floribus albidis pallidissima
ceruleo tinctis, of which the flowers alone were seen; Prenanthis
flosentis citrinis, a Polygala and Hypericum were likewise found.
_April 9th_. - Left Camein at 6, and reached Mogoung at 6 P.M. after a
march of at least twenty-five miles. The course at first was nearly due
east, until we reached the Nam Pong, but subsequently it became more
southerly. Camein bears from this about S.S.E. The country traversed
was the same, generally comparatively open, that is to say, grassy plains
with Rhamnea, Nauclea, Bombax, etc. For some distance the path extended
through shady woods. No villages, nor any signs of such were observed
_en route_. We passed many streamlets particularly during the latter
half of the march. Our original intention was to have come to Mogoung by
water, and with this view Bayfield told the man sent by the Myoowook to
procure two or three canoes. At 6 A.M. the Havildar came up to our hut,
and said that the headman of the village was disputing violently about
our taking the boats. Bayfield proceeded down to the river side, where
the Yua Thugee was very insolent, and he and his followers drew their
_dhaos_ (swords) on Bayfield, who slightly pushed the Thugee. It ended
in our going by land. We had previously heard of the rebellion at Ava:
the Thugee's behaviour evidently arose partly from this. I did not
observe the dispute, as I remained near the stockade.
Noticed a Lonicera in low places, and the Viola of Suddiya on the plains,
a Cardiopteris, Kempferia, Curcuma, a Bambusa vaginis collo barbatis, a
scandent Strychnos, an Aerides, Ardisiae 2, some Acanthaceae, Loxotis
major, Urticeae 2 or 3, Santalacea as before, Tetrantherae, Davallia
atrata, Asplenium fronde simplici, etc. etc.
_April 10th_. - We halt, and hear a report of the death of Mr. Kincaid,
and that a Burmese army is _en route_ here. The whole country is most
unsettled, all the Singphos and Khukeens being in open rebellion. It
appears that Thurrawaddi is meeting with success in his summons for men.
No resistance shewn to his authority hitherto except by one Myoowoon. Our
Myoowoon has absented himself, and the Myoowook determined on surrender.
Bayfield under all circumstances, and failing authentic intelligence of
Mr. Kincaid, resolves on remaining here.
Mogam is a rather pretty town, situated on the right bank of the Mogoung
river, at the confluence of a river 100 yards broad, the water of which
spreads out, in some places, to a considerable breadth and depth. The
country is however low, flooded in the rains, and surrounded by hills,
except in the direction of Shewe Down Gyee. In many places it is only
covered with grass. The town is large, and was formerly stockaded, the
remains of the timber stockade being still visible. It contains about
300 houses, about 2,500 inhabitants, mostly Shans. The houses are
generally raised, in many cases like those of the Kampties, the chopper
coming low down, shaped like a turtle's back. There is a very distinct
opening or chasm in the hills between S. D. Gyee and a low range to the
North, but no river makes its exit there. Sunday, 16th.
_April 18th_. - Halted up to this date, waiting for information
especially regarding the army at Tsenbo.
In this place two fragrant Dipterocarpeae are found; as also Bixa,
Tamarindus, and Carthamus, which last is cultivated and used both for
food and dyeing. About the Poongie houses some remarkable Fici occur,
the trunk being divided so low down as to give the idea of a group of
several trees. The roots in addition are made to spread over the conical
mounds, thrown up at their bases.
A race of wild-looking short men, called Lupai Khakoos, inhabit this
vicinity, wearing a jacket, and dark-blue cloth with an ornamented
border, worn with the ends overlapping in front. They wear garters of
the Suwa. Their hair is worn either long or cropped, and a beard is also
occasionally worn by the elders.
In this place very few regular Chinese are to be found, and the few that
are here seen, are ultra-provincials; none are acquainted with the
manufacture of tea. This article is procurable here, but at a high rate;
it is sold in flat cakes of some diameter; it is black, coarse, with
scarcely any smell, and in taste not much superior to the Assamese
article; 20 tickals weight sells for 1.25. All the blue cloths of the
Shans are dyed, Bayfield informs me, with Ruellia, or jungle indigo.
It is with these people that the only trade seems to be carried on, and
this is limited to amber and serpentine. They are very dirty, and
excessively penurious, but industrious. Owing to their habits and
extreme penury, there is no outlet for our manufactures in this
direction; so that I fully agree with Hannay's statement, that 500 rupees
worth of British goods would be unabsorbed for some years. Rosa is
common, also a Rumex; a Sisymbroid plant also occurs. Among the trees,
all which are stunted, Gmelina arborea occurs. There are some Assamese
slaves here among the people, one of them is said to be a relation of
Chundra Kant, the Suddiya chief: slaves are held in very small estimation
with the Burmese. Thus Bayfield asked his writer, who such a one
standing near him was, whether a Shan or Singpho? The man answered, "My
lord, it is not a man; it is a Waidalee."
Altogether, Mogoung is an uninteresting place; the surrounding plains are
barren-looking, and inhospitable, and clothed with grass. Here and there
a ragged Nauclea, Careya, etc. is visible with Gmelina arborea. The
undershrubs are chiefly a Rhamnoidea, and a Phyllanthus. Rosa is common;
Rumex and Nasturtium are both met with.
News arrived yesterday evening to the effect, that the King is drowned,
the heir-apparent in the palace: and that Colonel Burney is with
My collections up to this place amount to 900 species.
_April 19th_. - Left at 12, and halted after having gone about four
miles. The river continues the same as above; it is a good deal impeded
by trees, and much more so by sandbanks.
_April 20th_. - Reached Tapaw in the afternoon; our progress is,
however, very slow the stream being slight, but the river is much
improved; being less spread out, owing to its greater proximity to the
low hills: often very deep, generally clothed with jungle to the water's
edge. On the hills near Tapaw are some Khukeens of the Thampraw tribe,
and on these hills bitter tea is reported to be found. This the Khukeens
bring down for sale.
_April 21st_. - Continued our course, performing about twelve miles
between 7 and 5, inclusive of one hour's halt. At some distance from
Tapaw and thence throughout the day, here and there occur rapids, which
are much worse, from the stream being impeded by large rocks. In some
places it is divided, in others, compressed between hills, and here it is
_April 23rd_. - Arrived at the Irrawaddi. The Mogoung river is very
uninteresting; the stream being generally slow, sandbanks very abundant,
as well as stumps of sunken trees. At its mouth it is deep, and about
seventy yards across. The banks are either overgrown with trees or else
grassy; the grasses being Arundo and Saccharum. On the steep banks of
the hills where these descend into the river, ferns are common together
with an Amaryllidea out of flower. Cadaba is common, as well as a large
Mimosea. Rosa continues; as also AEsculus. On the road by which the
Chinese branch off from Tapaw to the Irrawaddi, I gathered an arborescent
Apocynea foliis suboppositis, and a Homalineous tree, floribus
tetrameris; Salix is common all down the river. Teak only occurs
occasionally. In one place I gathered Lonicera heterophylla, a fragrant
Valeriana? and Jonesia in abundance; this last being here apparently
quite wild. Adelia nereifolia, a Ficus, Ehretia arenarum, and the usual
sandy plants occur on the banks. Pistia, Salvinia and Azolla are common.
The Irrawaddi opposite the entrance of the Mogoung river, is 600 yards
across. It is a noble stream; has risen a good deal, and presents one
unbroken sheet of water. The banks are by no means high, and are grassed
to the brink. The water is cold and clouded; its temperature is 66.5
degrees, that of air in a boat 88.5. We reached Tsenbo about 1 o'clock,
having passed five or six villages, mostly small, and inhabited by Shans.
Tsenbo numbers about 30 houses, but these as throughout Burma, as far as
we have seen, are small; it is situated on a low hill on the left bank.
Both banks are hilly, especially the right. The river has risen
enormously during a halt here - many feet. In one hour we found it to
rise about 16 inches. At this place I gathered a fine blue Vanda, and a
curious tree habitu Thespiae: stigmatibus 4. Between this and the
entrance to the narrow defile Kioukdweng, which is about 1.5 miles
distant, three villages occur. This entrance is well marked, the river
becoming suddenly contracted from 300 to less than 100 yards. We halted
about 6.5 P.M. at Lemar. Noticed four or five villages between Lemar and
the village at the entrance of the defile. All these villages are
inhabited by Poans, a distinct hill tribe. Passed through two fearful
places, one in particular where the whole body of water rushes through a
_gate_, formed by huge rocks not 50 yards wide.
_April 24th_. - Continued our course, and arrived at Bamoo about 5.5
P.M.; the greater part of the journey extended through the Kioukdweng, or
defile, in which some terrific places occur, one in particular known by
two rocks which are called the Elephant and Cow. Passed several small
villages before we made our exit from the K. dweng: all inhabited by
Poans. Between this and Bamoo the country along the river is truly
magnificent, and is well inhabited. The largest village contains about
70 houses; at least seven or eight occur, between the points above noted.
The Kioukdweng is a remarkable and an awful object. The greatest breadth
of the river while confined within this defile does not exceed 250 yards,
and in all the bad places it is contracted to within 100, occasionally
50. From the enormous rise of the river, which, last night alone
amounted to an increase of ten feet, the passage is one continued scene
of anxiety. In the places above referred to the river rushes by with
great velocity, while the return waters caused on either side by the
surrounding rocks, occasion violent eddies and whirlpools, so as to
render the boat unmanageable, and if upset the best swimmer could not
live in these places. The rocks are serpentine and grey limestone,
presenting angular masses which project into the stream; the former in
all places within high-water mark is of a dark-brown colour. Micaceous
slate? likewise occurs, although rarely. The depth is of course
enormous, in the low state of the river, when Bayfield passed up, in many
places no bottom was found, at 25 or even 40 fathoms, and at this season
the water had no doubt risen 40 feet higher. Some idea of the rise that
has taken place may be formed from the fact, that in places where, when
Bayfield passed up, the stream did not exceed 70 yards in width, it was
now 200; and of course a rise of 20 feet in the open river, would
determine one of at least 40 within the K. dweng. After passing the
Elephant and Cow, which have the usual resemblance implied by their
fanciful names, the river widens and becomes tranquil. The whole of this
Kioukdweng is truly remarkable, and in many places very picturesque.
The vegetation is, I imagine, similar to that of the low hills about
Mogoung; but so dangerous was the passage, that I had but few
opportunities of going ashore. The hills are thinly wooded, and all bear
many impressions of former clearings; but the spots now under cultivation
are certainly few. Besides, we must bear in mind, that the spots
cultivated generally throughout thinly populated parts of India are
deserted after the first crop, so that a very limited population may
clear a great extent of ground. Bayfield tells me, and I consider his
authority as excellent, that the population is almost entirely limited to
the villages seen during the passage. These do not exceed twelve, and
they are all small. None of the hills exceed 500 feet in height
(apparently,) they do not present any very peculiar features.
Below the maximum high-water mark the vegetation is all stunted, at least
that of the rocks; a tufted Graminea is the most common. Adelia
nereifolia (Roxb.), a Celastrinea, a curious Rubiacea, which I also have
from Moulmain, two Myrtaceae, a Rungia, are the most common. I did not
observe Podocarpus. In the occasionally sandy spots Campanula, the usual
Compositae, Panica three. Eleusine, Clenopodium, and Atriplex are
common, a Stemodia, and Asclepiadea likewise occur. One Clematis
carpellis imberbibus, and the Lonicera are met with. No mosses appear to
occur. One remarkable tree, _Belhoe_ of Assam, 70 feet high, cortice
albido, foliis orbato, panculis (fructus) pendulis, occurs: it has the
appearance of an Amentaceous tree.
_April 27th_. - We have remained at Bamoo; nothing appears to have been
settled below, and the river is reported to be unsafe. It has fallen at
least three feet since our arrival. Bayfield measured the left channel
yesterday; it is nearly 750 yards wide.
Bamoo is situated on the left bank, along which its principal street
runs. The town is a very narrow one, the breadth averaging about 200
yards; its extent is considerable, but it scarcely contains 600 houses,
and of these 105 are Chinese, and only has one good street, _i.e_. as
to length. Neither are the houses at all good or large, so that the
population cannot be established at more than 3000. I allude only to
those within the stockade; out of this, and close to Bamoo are two or
three small villages. The stockade is of timber, _pangaed_, or fenced
outside for about 30 yards; it has just been completely repaired, as an
attack is expected from the Khukeens.
The Chinamen live all together, in a street of low houses built of
unbaked bricks; these are not comparable to the houses at Moulmain. There
is but little trade now going on. Within the stockade and without, low
swampy ravines occur, that cannot be but injurious to the healthiness of
the town. The Myoowoon spends all his money in pagodas, none of which
are worth seeing: all the roads and bridges he leaves to take care of
The _inferior caked tea_, sugarcandy, silk dresses, straw hats, and
caps are procurable, but at a high price. Pork is plentiful, and the
bazaar is well supplied with fish. It is a much more busy place than
Mogoung, as well as considerably larger. The chief export trade with the
Chinese is cotton; the revenue however by no means equals that of the
The country around is nearly flat; on one side of the stockade there is
an extensive marsh well adapted for paddy. Otherwise the ground is dry,
and tolerably well drained; it appears to have been formerly wooded; at
present the environs are occupied by undershrubs. I have observed no
peculiar botanical feature. Among the undershrubs are Phyllanthae 2,
Apocynea arborescens, Gelonium, Combretum, Strychnos, Vitex, Melastoma.
When I say undershrubs, I mean that such is their present appearance. The
only new plant is an elegant Capparis, subscandens, floribus albis,
odoratis demum filamentisque purpureo-roseis. About old Pagodas, Pladera
of Moulmain, a Labiata, Stemodia, and Andropogon occur.
The cultivated plants are those of the coast, Hyperanthera Moringa, Bixa
Orellana, Calotropis gigantea, Artocarpus integrifolia, a Phyllanthus,
Cordia Myxa, Carica Papaya, Citrus medica, Plantains, a large and coarse
Custard Apple, Mango, Zyziphus, Cocos, Taliera, Agati.
The climate is dry and sultry, the diurnal range of the Thermometer being
from 28 to 32 degrees. At this season, viz. at 6.5 A.M. from 66 to 68; 4
P.M. from 94 to 96. North winds are common, daily commencing from that
quarter, or terminating there. They are not accompanied by much rain,
although the weather is unsettled.
_May 2nd_. - A Khukeen whom Bayfield sent for tea returned, bringing
with him many specimens out of flower. The striking difference between
this and the tea I have hitherto seen, consists in the smallness and
finer texture of the leaves. For although a few of the specimens had
leaves measuring six by three inches, yet the generality, and these were
mature, measured from four to three, by two to three. As both entire and
serrated leaves occur, the finer texture was more remarkable. The
bitterness, as well as the peculiar flavour were most evident. Young
leaves were abundant.
The Khukeens make no use of the tea. The Chinese here talk of this as
the jungle tea, and affirm that it cannot be manufactured into a good
article. They talk of the valuable sorts as being very numerous, and all
as having small leaves. Neither here nor at Mogoung are there any real
Chinamen, nor is there any body who understands the process of
manufacturing tea. The caked tea is not made to adhere by the serum of
sheep's blood, it adheres owing to being thus packed before it is dry.
The plain around Bamoo is intersected by ravines, which afford good paddy
cultivation; no large trees occur within 1.5 miles of the town. At this
distance a large Dipterocarpea is common. In the underwood around the
town, a Dipterocarpus, arbuscula, foliis maximis, oblongo-cordatis,
Gordonia, Lagerstraemia parviflora, Elodea, Nauclea; Leguminosae 3,
Gelonia, Combretum, Jasminum occur. In the marshes Ammannia