_April 14th_. - A violent squall unaccompanied by rain, came on
yesterday from the west: roofs were flying about in every direction, and
many accidents occurred from the falling of the stones by which they were
secured. Part of the palace was unroofed. The storm has stopped all our
amusements, particularly as the Gylongs attribute it to our firing. The
Kacharies, our servants, were likewise requested not to play any more on
the esplanade. This is just as it has been in every other place in
Bootan, nothing is said against amusement until the presents have been
received, and then we are requested to do nothing, and the authorities
The potters fashion their earthenware entirely with their hands, the
upper half is finished on a flat board; the lower being added afterwards;
the finishing is done chiefly by a wet rag, the operator revolving around
the pot. The vessels chiefly used for carrying water are oval, these are
covered with black glaze.
Some Didymocarpi very fragrant, one near Chindupjee most grateful,
resembling quince and sandal wood; the odour is permanent, and appears to
reside in the young leaves before their expansion: Iris, Hypericum,
Viola, Ligust., Ranunculus, Verbasena, Gymnostomum, Serratula arenaria,
_Return of the Mission from Bootan_.
_May 9th_, _1838_. - We left Punukha at twelve, having been delayed
throughout the morning, on account of coolies. We crossed the palace
precints, and the two bridges unmolested. Our road lay in the direction
of our entering Punukha for some time, but on the opposite bank of the
river. We gradually descended throughout this portion. Then at about
eight miles turning round a ridge, we followed a ravine to the west, some
distance above its base, gradually descending to the watercourse draining
it. Thence we ascended in a very circuitous route to Talagoung, the
castle of which is in a ruinous state: it is visible from the place
whence one turns to the westward.
Up to this point, which was certainly 1,200 feet above Punukha, no change
occurred in the vegetation. The country remained barren, the ravines in
favourable places being clothed with underwood, and as we increased our
elevation, with trees. Noticed a Bupleurum, Viburnum sp., Ficus obliqua.
At 3,500 feet, Sambucus, Bupleurum sp., Potentilla as before, Gentiana
pinnata, Serissoides, Campanula.
At 3,800 to 4,000 feet, Pinus longifolia more common though still a
stunted tree; Emblica, Paederia cyaneum, Q. tomentosa, Primula Stuartii,
Parochetus, Pogonantherum, this is a most common grass about here, it
becomes more stunted as we proceed lower, and its extreme elevation does
not exceed 6,000 feet, Acorus very common, Adhatoda!
At 4,000 feet, Simool, Dipsacus as before, Aspidium, Macrodon,
Rhododendron minus re-appears.
On rounding the ridge, although we did not increase our elevation, the
country became more wooded. In some places Q. robur, Gordonia, Pyrus
were common, others and the greater portion were composed of Pinus
longifolia, Bucklandia re-appears at 4,500 feet, Azalea, Saccharum
aristatum, Hedera, Didymocarpus contortus, on rocks.
Towards the nullah we passed a village with some wheat and buckwheat
cultivation; Plantago, Ranunculus, Thymus, were interspersed. Along the
watercourse Symplocos styracifolius, which becomes a middling-sized tree,
was seen, and Stellaria cana, petalis albis profunda partitus, as well as
Our section was as follows:
[Section Page 285: m285.jpg]
_Telagoung_ is a middling-sized, dilapidated castle, in which it is
settled the first blood is to be shed in the forthcoming contest, it is
occupied by the old Deb's men. Up to its walls, thickets abound, and the
fragrant rose was very conspicuous.
Its elevation is about 5,600 feet, yet a Ficus may be seen planted by the
side of Cupressus pendula, and Punica thrives. The change in temperature
was very great. Birds abounded throughout; a new sombre-coloured dove
was shot by P.: the most common birds were the orange-billed shrike of
_May 10th_. - We left Telagoung at 7 A.M. and descended instantly to a
small nullah, from which we re-ascended. The ascent continued without
intermission, occasionally gradually, but generally rather steep for
three or four hours. The descent occupied about as long, and about three-
fifths the distance, following nearly throughout a small nullah.
Woollakkoo, our halting place, is a good-sized village, and fourteen and
a half miles from Telagoung.
To the nullah I observed Stellaria cana, Berberis asiatica, which has re-
appeared, Erythrina, Rubus deltoid, which is very common all over these
parts and whose fruit is palatable, Uvularia, Swertia plantaginifolia,
Caesalpinia, Mimulus, and Urtica foliis apice erosis.
The ascent commenced through woods of Q. robur, the shrubs consisting of
Gaultheria fragrans and arborea, a Myrsinea, Thibaudia serrata, whose
inferior limit is here, Rhododendron minus, but not very common. A good
deal of wheat cultivation and of better quality occurred at 6,500 feet,
assuming Telagoung as 5,600 feet, Pteris aquilina common throughout and
up to 10,000 feet.
At 8,000 feet, Taxus re-appears, with Baptisia in flower, Thibaudia
orbicularis, Luzula of Chindupjee, Smilax gaultherifolia, Thibaudia
obovata, Fragaria vesca, which continues throughout, and has a range of
between 3 to 10,000 feet, Bambusa microphylla, and Acer sterculiacea
appear, woods of Q. ilecifolia, up to 7,200 feet, chiefly of Q. robur,
Gaultheriae two common ones, occur commonly.
At 8,500 feet, the woods composed chiefly of Q. castaneoides and glaucum,
Q. ilecifolia less common. No Q. robur, path-like glades and rather
open, Pythonium ecaudata, up to 9,000 feet, Primula pulcherrima very
At 8,500 feet, Saxifraga of Khegumpa and of Chindupjee, Mitella,! Luzula,
Carex, Viola reniformis, Lomaria of Khegumpa, Hedera, Ilex, Mercurialis,
Taxus, Quercus, Rhododendron, another species foliis subtus ferrugineo-
argenteis floribus rosaceis.
Smilacina, Ophiopogon, Urtica carnosa decumbens, Limonia laureola,
At the same elevation and indeed below us, but on other ridges, cedars
were seen in abundance: Hydrangea and Hydrangeacea calyptrata, Epilobium
At 7,800 feet, Aristolochia novum genus, Tritium glaucum, Thlaspi, Arabis
cordata, Loranthus, Symplocos sessiliflora.
At 7,900 feet, Lardizabalea.
At 8,000 feet, Hamiltonia?
At 9,000 feet, Crucifera floribus amplis albis, on mossy banks, with
Mitella, Spiraea densa.
Acer sterculiacea in forests, Cerasi sp. common.
Betula, Ribes, Arenaria, Lilium giganteum, Laurinea, Chimaphila, Acer.
At 9,300 feet, Rhododendron hispida and rosaceum, Taxus, Pythonium
filiformia, Trillium album, Salvia of Royle, Rhododendron ferrugineo and
obovata, Smilacinia densiflora, Sarcococea, Daphne cannabinum, here in
flower, Anemone, Prunella, Hemiphragma, Cedar, but rare.
At 9,700 feet, Primula Stuartii in flower lower down, but here quite
past, Corydalis linetta, Viola, Juniperus, Viburnum floribus magnis
albis, Rhododendron deflexa, in flower. Acer: 1, vel. 2, Cerasi sp.
altera, Paris polyphylla, and from 7,000 feet, Iris foliis angustis,
Cerasus apetalus gathered below here a shrub, very common, Osmundia alia,
Berberis ilecifolia and integrifolia, Rosa microphylla, Spinis latis,
Baptisia, Corydalis altior floribus luteis, Aconiti sp., Papaveracea
succo aqueo, ferrugineo hispida, capsula siliquosa, 3-valvis, replis
totidem, stigmata radiata, 5-lobo. Prunella, Betula, Ranunculus minimus,
Carex, Mimulus! Sambucus of below, Salvia of Royle, Polytrichum
From the ridge the view to the south is pretty, the country undulated,
either naked and swardy, or clothed with firs.
Abies spinulosa commences: and is soon succeeded by Pinus pendula, which,
as we proceeded lower, soon became the chief tree; Rhododendron obovata
finely in flower, Lilium giganteum common. Trillium stratum, Ribes
Q. ilecifolia re-appears 500 or 600 feet below the ridge, Pinus spinulosa
common, with a Salix, grey pendulous lichens.
At 6,000 feet, P. pendula, Mespilus microphyllus, Larix, Rumex, which has
occurred throughout, Salvia alia viscosa foliis subhastatis trilobis,
Cycnia, Astragaloides! bracteis subvaginant magnis, Rosa latispina
becomes very common.
At 8,800 feet, Hedera, Hamiltonia re-appears, Galium sp., Juncus, Oxlip,
Clematis, Salix, very common.
At 8,500 feet, a village is seen to the right; Q. ilecifolia is the chief
tree, with P. pendula, Azalea, Baptisia, Pomacea of Rydang, Rhododendron
arbor. minus. Red-legged crow, pine chatterers.
At 8,000 feet, Baptisia continues; all alpine vegetation ceased;
Rhododendron minus continues, Q. ilecifolia, but no Corydalis, Anemone,
Iris, etc. although Oxlip does; Salix continues.
The descent to the halting place is marked by return to the old
vegetation indicated by re-appearance of Elaeagnus fragrans and Rosa
tetrapetala, Valeriana violifolia.
Baptisia rotundifolia and oblonga, this last a tree very common, Pinus
pendula chief tree, Pomacea celastufolia, Elaeagnus fragrans, Rosa
tetrapetala, very common along the nullah, Baptisia continues low down,
as Oxlip, Stauntonia alba, Viburnum, _Asteroides_, Jasminum luteum,
Tussilago, Spiraea bella, found about the level of this.
All the monocotyledons have a defined elevation; Smilacina cordifolia is
the lowest, except Uvularia, Lilacineae and Trillium, are the highest,
not being found much under 10,000 feet. There is an Osmundia likewise on
the ridge, the fronds below are not contracted, it is
ferrugineo-tomentosa. Hemiphragma has a wide range, between 6 and 10,000
feet: Salvia nubigena of Royle, confined to 10,000 feet, Aconitum,
Corydalis lutea, lenella and caerulea, Prunus penduliflora, Papaveracea,
Juniperus, Rhododendron obovata, Silacinea, Cerasus apetala, Ribes 2, are
sure signs of elevation.
If the Mimulus be the same as that from Punukha, it has a very wide
range, as also Lilium giganteum, Pythonium filiformeis, limited, as well
as ecaudata, Crucifera, Anemone, Laurinea, Polytrichium, were all
definite. Mitella ranges between 9 and 9,500 feet, it is strange that
the chief variety in vegetation occurred on the Telagoung side, on which
springs are rare. No Thibaudias occurred on the other side, Euphorbia
was confined to the Woollakkoo side, as also Primula, etc. etc. The
chief cultivation about Woollakkoo is of wheat, but from the mode of
cultivation the plant is evidently adapted for irrigation; rice is also
cultivated. This is perhaps its maximum height. The hills around are
covered here and there with snow, and must therefore be above 10,000 feet
high. The highest were to the north-west.
The river is of moderate size, fordable in most places, but still well
supplied with wooden bridges. Fish, in shoals too, were seen here and
_May 11th_. - Our march continued down this river throughout: we left
its banks once or twice owing to ascending some hundred feet above its
bed, occasionally it spread out, but generally was confined between the
rocks. Its banks in some places were planted with weeping willows. The
vegetation throughout was much the same. The most common plants were
Rosa, this literally abounds, Pinus pendula, Viburnum grandiflora, a
Symphoria! Crataegus 2 species, Mespilus microphyllus, Lantonea, Jasminum
luteum, Berberis asiatica and obovata, Plectranthus canus, Elaeagnus
fragrans, Stellaria cana, Colquhounia, _Indigofera_ sp. altera, Baptisia
did not re-appear, Euphorbia continues, as does the Celastrus noticed
yesterday, which commences at 8,500 feet.
Cycnia re-appears, it is in fruit, the cotyledons are not conduplicate.
In the fields Stachys, Potentilla (common), Brumus, Lamium of Khegumpa,
Cynoglossum, Thlaspi, Datura in waste places, Conaria, rare, Imperata!
Scabiosa of Bulphai.
A low shrub abounded on the road sides and walls, having all the
characters of Plumbago, a Lantonea likewise abounded, Fragaria, Swertia,
Taraxacum, Cardamina lilacina, Herminu sp., Marchantia, Astragalus,
Ranunculus; Carex, Potentilla supina, Potamogeton, Clematis grata,
Poplars were seen; of these, Taraxacum very common. Quercus robur re-
appears towards Lamnoo, as well as Juglans and Populus.
Weeping cypresses about villages, Hordeum hexastichum is commonly
cultivated, A. Buddlaea floribus lilacinis noticed yesterday was found,
its range is 8,500 to 7,500 feet, Zanthoxyla here.
A cuckoo was shot; this bird would seem to be as in Europe attended by
the Yunx, at least a cry very similar to that of that bird was heard.
Lysimachia of Punukha, Campanula re-appears.
The most common bird is Lanuis. The sombre-coloured dove too is rather
common. The wheat cultivated here is poor, a good deal of the Bromus
occurs with it. Astragalus is common on the borders of the fields, and
in some of them Ervum, Lamium and Vicia.
The whole upper surface of the column of Aristolochia of Telagoung, is
viscid and stigmatic, and likewise the margins of the depressions in
which the anthers are lodged, it is certainly akin to Rafflesiaceae.
_May 12th_. - Proceeded to Chupcha, our march to, and indeed beyond
Panga, seven miles from Lamnoo, was through exactly similar country. The
hills naked or clothed with firs, the path lay along the river Teemboo
chiefly, but occasionally we met with one or two stiff ascents. On
reaching Panga it was determined to push on to Chupcha, which was said to
be but a short way off; we started, and descended after some time to the
river, above which Panga is elevated about 1,000 feet. We continued
along the river until we commenced to ascend towards Chupcha, this ascent
was very long and rather steep, the road tolerably good. We found
Chupcha to be ten miles from Panga, and 8,000 feet high, the greatest
height we crossed being 8,600 feet, and this day we were told, that all
our climbings had ceased. The road was generally bad, and well furnished
with rocks: in one place we passed from 100 yards along the perpendicular
face of a cliff, the Teemboo roaring underneath, the road was built up
with slippery slabs of stone. The country was generally very pretty, the
scenery along the river being very picturesque. We passed a waterfall of
considerable size, which is Turner's Minzapeeza. After leaving Panga we
came on an uninhabited country, nor did we see more than one village,
until we reached the ridge immediately above Chupcha, 1,000 feet above
this, there is a very large village inhabited by Gylongs, the bare summit
of the hill rising an equal height above it; snow visible to the south.
The greatest distance we descended was 6,500 feet, the greatest height
8,500 feet. The distance seventeen miles, the longest march we have yet
The vegetation was nearly the same up to the time we turned off towards
Chupcha, it was characterized by a profusion of Rosa, among which the
Crataega, Symphorema, (which is less common than towards Woollakkoo,)
Rhamnus, Viburnum grandiflorum, Pinus pendula, Thymus, Cycnium.
In grassy banks of fields between Panga and Lamnoo, Astragalus, Ervum,
Vicia, Aster major, Rumex, Agrostia, in fields Hieraciae sp., Caricia
sp., Lactuca, Bromus.
Salix pendula about villages. After leaving Panga we came on to a place
called Minzapeeza, here Adiantum, Aspidium? Hamamelidea, Cedrela? Rhus,
Galium, Tussilago, Saxifraga ligularis, Valeriana violifolia, Smilax
flexuosa, Aruncus, Sarcococea, Azalea.
Rhododendron minus recommenced after leaving the river towards Panga, a
straggling cedar or two occurred, Populus rotundifol. very common,
About Panga, Lithospermum, Oxalis corniculata, Umbellifera, from the
flowers of which _moud_ is made, Rubus, Arabis, Taxacum, Dipsacus.
Beyond the waterfall the Quercus robur became common, forming beautiful
woods, it continued throughout until we re-descended to the river, range
7 to 7,500 feet. In these woods formed likewise by Pinus pendula,
Convallaria cirrhosa appeared, Rubia cordifolia, hispida, Paris
polyphylla, Aralia cissifolia, Mitella, Ribes! Spiraea, Asparagus,
Epipactis, Avularia, Houttuynia! Arum viviparum on rocks, Duchesmium,
Populus oblonga occurred also, Coriaria! Hedera common, Benthamia common.
On rocks along the river, Peperomia, 4-phylla, Populus oblonga, Acer
sterculiacea! Symphoria alia! Indigofera, Salix, Cedrela, Sassafras,
arbor facie, Gordonia, Vitis, Syringa, Serissa, Buddlaea, Sedum on rocks,
Eriophon ditto, Campanula cana, Pinus pendula, Rosa, Convallarium
cirrhosa, Polygonum robustum, foliis cordatis.
The ascent up to 7,500 feet, was marked by similar vegetation: up to this
point the prevailing shrubs gradually disappeared, they were never so
common as about Panga. Quercus robur having ceased, was succeeded by
Quercus ferruginea, which is much like Quercus ilecifolia, and has very
coriaceous leaves, this again at 7,500 feet, was succeeded by Quercus
ilecifolia, Dipsacus up to this, Pteris aquilina, Gaultheria arborea.
At 7,600 feet, Rhododendron oblonga, a most beautiful species, Calyce
discoideo commenced, as also Rhodora deflexa and Rhodoracea ochrolenea,
which is, I think, that I before noticed as R. elliptica, foliis basi
cordatis subtus argenteis et punctatis, Euphorbia occurs also here, as
also the Rosa, Berberis asiatica.
At 8,000 feet, the trees were covered with grey lichens, and assumed the
usual highly picturesque appearance: noticed Primula Stuartii in flower
(Symphoria! ceased), Euphorbia, Gaultheria nummularifolia commences,
Artemisia major, Crataegus odoratus continues, Saxifraga ligularis common
up to this, Ribes commences, Gaultheria of Bulphai, Galum, Hyperici sp.,
Lilium giganteum, Clematis grata, Populus species, do not ascend above
At 8,500 feet, Rhododendron minus, Rhododendron oblonga, ochroleucum,
Coccineum appears, Ribes, Smilax sanguinea, Gaultheria of Bulphai very
common, arborea stunted, Limonia major, Clematis grata! Rhododendron
hispida, Potentilla, Pteris aquilina, Berberis asiatica, Mespilus
microphyllus, Gnaphalium, Swertia, Viola, Patrinum! Elaeagnus fragrans!
Thymus, which ranges from 6 to 10,000 feet, Euphorbia, Pedicularis,
Cycnii sp., Mimulus, Rhodora deflexa, Pinus pendula, Quercus ilecifolia,
both stunted, Pteris aquilina.
The descent to the village was about 500 feet, Arenarium on rocks,
Mimulus, Viola, Rumex, Juncus, Acorus veronica, Anagallis, Pythonium of
Blake, Euphorbia, Pedicularis, Carex, Mespilus microphyllus: pine
chatterers throughout, at least above 7,000 feet.
The summit, which was certainly 9,500 feet, was completely bare: Pinus
pendula ascends a long way.
Chupcha - Hordeum hexastichor in beautiful order, the chief cultivation.
Red-legged crow; larger dove. The form of the country traversed is as
[Teemboo to Chupcha: m291.jpg]
At Diglea we had an opportunity of seeing the mode of building in this
part of Bootan; the houses are made of mud, which is trampled and beat
down by men, who perform sundry strange evolutions while so employed; the
mud is beat down in a frame-work; it is from the different layers formed
that the lines seen outside finished houses result. The mode is slow,
but must give great firmness.
_May 14th_. - Ascended to the Gylong village, above Chupcha, and then to
the naked ridge. The village may be estimated as being 8,700 or 8,800
feet above the sea, and that part of the ridge to which I ascended as
9,800 or 10,000 feet. The ascent is uninterrupted up to the village; it
winds through a fine fir wood, after diverging from the road to Panga,
after that it is quite open, scarcely a shrub being met with until the
ridge is surmounted. On turning to its northern face, woody vegetation
becomes pretty abundant, and 500 feet below, woods occur. This is
contrary to what usually happens; the south faces of mountains being
supposed to be better wooded than the others, but in Bootan the
difference would seem to be due to the piercing winds blowing from south,
or up the ravine of the Teemboo. The scenery was very pretty, both in
the woods before reaching the village, and from the ridge: vast
quantities of snow visible to the north and north-east. I ascended to
within 1,000 feet of snow, and I think that at this season, an elevation
of 11,000 feet is required _in open places_ to secure the presence of
snow: it is obvious that local circumstances, such as shelter, etc. may
cause it to descend nearly to 9,000 feet, and it is as obvious that snow
will descend lower down a mountain of 15,000 feet high than one of
12,000; the difference in the beds of snow causing a greater reduction of
temperature in the one than in the other. In an isolated mountain, an
elevation of 11,000 feet will be required for the presence of snow in
At 8,000 feet, Baptisia, Viburnum canum, Umbellifera toxicaria,
Colquhounia, Deutzia, the Symphoria of Teemboo.
At 8,200 feet, Salix, Abies spinulosa straggling, Rhododendron
microphylla commences, the bruised has a terebenthaceous odour, Ilex,
Gaultheria flexuosa, Parus major: variegated shortwing, Papilio
At 8,300 feet, Saxifraga ligularis.
At 8,400 to 8,500 feet, Limonia, Viburnum grandiflorum or canum, Berberis
asiatica, Mespilus microphyllus, Populus oblonga, Rhododendron ochrolena,
Clematis grata viola lutea,* Epipactis, Hemiphragma.
At 8,700 feet, Rhododendron microphyllum very common, Ribes, Bupleuri
sp.,* Rosa fructibus hispidis,* Rubia hispida, Sambucus, Berberis
integrifolia, an vero distincta.
At 8,800 feet, Viola pusilla, Fragaria vesca and lutea, Baptisia, Rosa,
Sphaerostemma, Clematis grata, Pinus pendula, etc.
At 9,000 feet, commencement of sward, no trees, except stunted shrubs of
Pinus pendula, Mespilus microphyllus, Baptisia, Gnaphalium Pedicularis,*
Rosa, Bistorta,* leaves with margins not united to the margins of
pitchers of Nepenthes and Cephalotus, Pteris aquilina, Prunella,
Rhododendron microphyllum, Euphorbia, Taxaxacum, Potentilla, Thymus,
At 9,100 feet, Hyperica brachiata of Moflong.
At 9,300 feet, Morina Wallichiana, Osmundioid, Dipsacus, Scabiosa?
capitulo nutanta, Verbascum, Juncus, Epilobia sp.
At 9,400 feet, Salix shrubby, Cyperus fuscescens of Tassangsee, dwarfed
At 9,500 feet, Anemona aurea commences, covering in some places the
sward; it straggles down in favourable places with Iris angustifolia, to
9,300 feet, Primula Stuartii, Rhododendron microphyllum, Gnaphalia,
At 9,800 feet, southern face of ridge bare, northern thickety, consisting
of Rhododendron fruticosum, foliis ellipticis basi cordatis punctato
lepidotis, Salix, Berberis, Pyrus aria, Bambusa, Tetranthera.
In wet sheltered spots, Iris angustifolia, Aconitum, foliis aconitoideum,
on the sward Euphorbia radians. Below this a little, woods commence
chiefly of Bogh Pata, Cerasus, Salix, Rosa fructibus hispidis, Acers,
Abelia? Viburnum niveum, Hydrangea arbuscula, non-scandens, Berberis
integrifolia. The woods are open, the open spaces occupied by remains of
last summer's vegetation, as Compositae, Umbelliferae, Aquilegium, a
plant five or six feet high, folii aconitoidie, etc. Epilobium.
Among these in the woods, Trillia sp., Saxifraga reniformis, Liliacea
Brodidoid, Viola, Primula purpurea, a lovely species, Aconiti sp.,
Papaveracea hirsuta foliis, Aconitoid very common, Orchideae, Ribes
sanguina, Composita penduliflora, Arenaria pusilla of above Telagoung,
Polygoni sp., pusilla repens hirsuit foliis cordata ovatis, vel
reniformibus subtus purpurescent, Salvia nubicola? Euphorbia coccinea.
Abies densa appears, as also close to the Gylong village, from this
elevation upwards, it is common.
Abies spinulosa common on north face at 9,000 feet, Abies pendula ascends
on south side as high as 9,300 feet, but is stunted beyond 9,000 feet, it
does not exist on north face.
Primula Stuartii throughout, very abundant.
The plants most limited were Papaveracea, Aconitum folium aconitoideum,
Saxif. reniformis, Primula purpuria, Euphorbia radians, Rhododendron
cereum, mentioned above, and another at 9,800 feet with similar leaves,
but normal flowers, Abelia, Cerasus, Trillii sp., Anemona, Iris,
Bistorta, Ribes, A. densa.
The most dispersed are Euphorbia coccinea, Salix, Bogh Pata, Mespilus
microphyllus, Cyperus fuscus, Primula Stuartii, Rhododendron
Hordeum hexastichum gives fine produce here; nothing can exceed it in
appearance, oats also occur mixed with it, but is not sown, at least, it