_January 22nd and 23rd_. - Violent south-east winds during the day;
abating at night.
_February 4th_. - Arrived at Hurreekee, having halted on the previous
day at Mokhoo, a small village, with the usual style of mud fort. The
marches were as follows: from Loodianah to Ghosepoora is eight miles; to
Boondree, eight miles; Tiraia, ten miles; to Durrumkote, ten miles; to
Futtygurh, ten miles; to Hurreekee, ten miles. Thus Hurreekee is at
least eighteen miles from Durrumkote, although we had been told it was
only five. The country near Loodianah, and, perhaps as far as
Durrumkote, is occasionally very sandy, but beyond that it is easily
traversed by hackeries. Being much less cultivated and overrun with
grasses, among which Andropogons are the most numerous and conspicuous,
these grasses are either coarse and stout or wiry and fine, should afford
excellent cover for game, which however, does not seem to be very
abundant. Very few trees are visible in any direction, and although
neither very much cultivation nor many villages are visible, it would
appear from charts that the country is very populous. The most
interesting plant was a species of Fagonia.
Durrumkote is the largest of the villages we passed, and has a
respectable looking mud and brick fort. Inside the village is filthy;
the houses wretchedly small, and the streets very narrow. It is much the
same sort of village as other Seikh ones. In the bazars cocoanuts were
noticed. All the Seikhs eat opium, and very often in a particular way by
infusing the poppy-heads, from which the seeds have been extracted by a
hole in the side; great numbers of these are found in the bazars.
Hurreekee is on Runjeet's side. I crossed the Sutledge, which is between
400 to 500 yards broad with a sufficiently rapid stream, by a bridge of
boats built by the Seikhs, under the superintendence of Mr. Roobalee. It
contained 65 boats, placed alternately up and down the river; the boats
were moored to posts: over them were placed, both lengthwise and across,
timbers, then grass, then soil; many elephants passed over, until it gave
in, but was quickly repaired, and since many more hundreds of camels,
horses, and thousands of people have passed. The right bank is thirty
feet high, the left low and sandy. The country where uncultivated, is
clothed with grasses, and the only trees visible are perhaps the Pipul;
the _Jhow_ occurs but not the Parhass; a few Bukeens are visible,
Ricinus, Salvadora, which is occasionally a climber, especially at
Tiraia. The river rose suddenly on the night of the 6th and carried away
the bridge. The Himalayas had been seen very distinctly throughout the
day, so that the rain must have been local: the height of the rise was
We left Hurreekee on the 8th at 10 A.M., the river up to this time (9th)
presents the same monotonous appearance - sandy banks clothed with
grasses, intermixed with _Jhow_ here and there, and occasionally
AEschynomene, and Typha. Very few villages have been passed, nor does
the rare occurrence of topes indicate that there are many near it. The
channel has been throughout much subdivided, and flats are of frequent
occurrence. Yesterday we passed two busy ferries, at which two or three
boats were unceasingly employed, and there was an obvious demand for
more. Black partridges were heard frequently, black-bellied tern,
herons, cormorants, etc. The stream averages three miles an hour.
Parkinsonia was seen near Hurreekee. Reached Ferozepore at 12.5 on the
9th; it is a very busy ghat, more so than that of Hurreekee: two large
godowns were passed on the Company's side. The river is wider by 100
yards than at Hurreekee.
_10th_. - Reached Mamdot at 9.5 A.M. The fort appears of good size, with
high walls: it is about half a mile from the river. The country
continues the same. Some wheat cultivation, in which Fumaria, Anagallis,
Medicago are abundant; Calotropis Hamiltonii common; some grapes; _doob_
grass wherever there is or has been cultivation. The only trees I see
are Babooloid, but not the true _Babool_, which has very odorous flowers,
and is always an arbuscula, a shrubby _Bheir_, spina una erecta, altera
recurvo also occurs; among the fields, Lathyrus, Aphaca, and a Compositae
which has the leaves of a thistle, are common.
Halted at Buggeekee, which is, I imagine, the Pajarkee of Tassin's Map.
_11th_. - Continued passing down, breakfasting at Attaree: few signs of
villages, but a good deal of cultivation. Persian wheels not
unfrequently employed in raising water from the river: a short channel
having first been cut in the bank, and the banks, when loose, propped up.
Wheat, radishes, etc. Grasses appear to be much less common, while the
_Jhow_ is increasing much. The river is much subdivided, and the actual
banks are scarcely discernible owing to the want of trees. The soil and
current remain the same: no impediments have been met with by our boats,
nor have I yet observed any to tracking, the grass jungle being easily
overcome, and very unlike that of the Brahmapootra, and the _Jhow_ not
reaching that height necessary to make it troublesome. The Nawab of
Mamdot visited the Envoy today, accompanied by a small party of horsemen.
Only two alligators have been seen thus far: no game even to be heard,
and but few living creatures visible.
_12th_. - The river becomes even less interesting than before; the channel
is occasionally much narrowed by sands, over one of which we found
yesterday evening some difficulty in passing; it is much more spread out
and subdivided, and from this circumstance, will occasion difficulty in
tracking up. The banks are low and generally within reach of inundation:
scarcely a village is to be seen; and _Jhow_ is the most uniform feature.
Yesterday evening saltpetre was visible in abundance on some of the
higher banks, and on these _Phulahi_, _Jhow_, a Composita, and Salsola?
or Chenopodium were observed. Since the 10th, the few boats seen are of
different structure from those to which we had been accustomed; they are
flat, less wide, and much better fastened together, elevated at both
ends; they are propelled as well as guided by the rudder, which is
curved, so as to bring it within reach of the helmsman, who is on a level
with the bottom of the boat. Very little cultivation: Tassin's Map of
but little use, as few of the names are recognised by the boatmen or
Paukputtea was passed to-day; it is the shrine of a _fakeer_, and one in
great repute, as passing through a particular gate is supposed to
authorize one to claim admittance into Paradise. The Moulavee
consequently has proceeded there in full faith and extravagant joy: with
natives of the east such absurdities are to the full as much believed by
the educated as by the uneducated; indeed the former are much the more
bigoted of the two. The _fakeer_ alluded to, not only lived for years on
a block of wood carved into the likeness of a loaf, but subsequently
suspended himself for several years in a well, without even the wooden
loaf. He is then said to have disappeared, and is no doubt now enjoying
all the pleasures of a Mohammedan paradise. We were detained by strong
winds at a small village opposite Paukputtea, which is situated on rather
high ground, as far as could be judged from the distance.
_13th_. - The cultivation round this village consists of wheat, radishes,
a sort of mustard cultivated for its oily seeds, and the Mehta of
Hindoostan. Among the fields I picked up a Melilotus, a Melilotoid, and
a genuine Medicago, which is also found at Loodianah, both these last are
wild, and their occurrence is as curious as it is interesting; the latter
being a decidedly boreal form. In connection with these annuals I have
to observe, that most flower about January or February, at which time the
mornings and nights are the coldest: also observed Lathyrus cultivated, a
Chenopodium was also found, Calotropis, a large Saccharoid, Amaranthaceae,
were the most common plants, Gnaphalium, Lippia; _Purwas_, occurs
_14th_. - Detained till 12 P.M. by bad weather. Sissoo not uncommon but
small, _Babool_, the true sweet scented sort. The Colocynth seen in
fruit much like an apple, not ribbed; it has the usual structure of the
order, viz. 3-carpellary with revolute placentae, so much so, that they
are placed near the circumference; seeds very numerous, surrounded with
pulp, not arillate: no separation taking place; oval, brown, smooth. In
fields here, a wild strong smelling Umbellifera occurs, called _Dhunnea_,
used as a potherb, and esteemed very fragrant by the natives. Besides
the absence of an arillus, there is another anomaly about the above
Colycynth, which is, that between each placenta a broad partition
projects from the wall of the fruit, usually provided with 3-septa, so as
to be divided into two chambers, these contain seeds, the funiculi
passing completely through them; seeds are also contained between the
outermost septa and the placentae themselves.
Passed two or three villages. The Persian wheels continue in vogue;
their site is always on a sufficiently high and tenacious bank. I
observed some wells, communicating with the river by an archway in the
bank. Most of the cattle are blinded by the conical blinkers or hoods
over the eyes.
_15th_. - Halted at a village partly washed away, surrounded by a good
deal of wheat and radish cultivation. The mango tree and Moringa also
occur here with the larger _Babool_, which invariably has long white
thorns. The small Sissoo still occurs. Snake bird seen, black crowned
The river remains most uninteresting; the banks are low and covered
chiefly with _Jhow_. In many places recent shells are very abundant, but
do not appear to be composed of more than three species. Reseda,
Oligandra in fields.
_16th_. - No change in the country. Heavy fog yesterday morning; to-day
strongish north-east winds. Grass and _Jhow_ about equal.
_17th_. - Cloudy, drizzling, raw weather; river more sluggish; more
villages and more cultivation: Phascum, and Gymnostomum common on
tenacious sand banks.
_18th_. - Weather unsettled; windy and rainy. _Jhow_ and grass jungle
continue, Tamarisk, _Furas_ fine specimens, Fumaria continues in fields,
Capparis aphylla, which has something of a Cactoid habit, and whose
branches abound with stomata, Reseda.
_19th_. - Weather finer but still cloudy, north-east wind still prevalent,
and impeding our progress in some of the reaches very much. Salvadora,
Capparis aphylla, _Phulahi_, _Bheir_, large _Babool_, _Furas_, Ranunculus
sceleratus: _Jhow_ and grass jungle are the prevailing features. Current
much the same, only occasionally sluggish. Pelicans, black-headed
adjutants, (Ardea capita,) wild geese, ducks very numerous in the jheels
formed by alteration in the course of the river; the country is more
cultivated, but as dreary looking as imaginable. Phoenix becoming more
frequent and finer, P. acaulis? likewise occurs occasionally, rather
young _Khujoors_. We passed Khyrpore about 3 P.M., it seems a straggling
place, stretching along the bank of the Sutledge; there are a great many
_Khujoor_ trees about it, and indeed about all the villages near it. A
little below this large tract, the banks were covered with a thick
_Sofaida_ shrubby jungle, which looked at a distance like dwarf Sissoo.
The country is much improved, and there is a great deal of cultivation,
especially on the left bank.
_20th_. - Continued - the river is very winding, and its banks present the
same features: the immediate ones being covered with short _Jhow_ or
grass, or both intermixed, the extreme ones well wooded, and well
peopled. _Khujoor_ very common. Yesterday near Khanpore, caught a
glimpse of the descent, and to-day again the ground appears uneven, and
almost entirely barren. It must be within a mile of the Sutledge. The
left bank continues well cultivated. In some of the fields I noticed
Medicago vera, Anagallis, Fumaria, Chenopodium cnicoideus, Prenanthoid,
the _Furas_, larger _Babool_, and Calotropis Hamiltonii continue.
Radishes very common, as also _Teera Meera_.
_21st_. - Halted about 8 coss from Bahawulpore. The Khan's son, a boy of
8 years, came to see Mr. Macnaghten, and saluted him with "good night,"
he was attended by about twelve indifferent pony _suwars_, or horsemen.
The river is very tortuous, both banks a good deal cultivated; there
appear to be a good many canals, which have high banks owing to the
excavated soil being piled up: they are 8 or 10 feet deep, and about 20
feet wide, at this season they are nearly dry, becoming filled during the
rains. The same plants continue - _Furas_, _Jhow_, Chenopodia 2, Reseda,
Linaria, Malva, Boraginea, Lactucoidea. The wheat throughout these
countries is sown broadcast. Irrigation is effected by means of small
ditches, and squares formed in the fields - each partition being banked
in, so as to prevent communication; when one is filled, the water is
allowed to pass off into its neighbour, and so on. Irrigation is
entirely effected by Persian wheels; the cattle are hoodwinked in order
to keep them quiet: besides from not seeing, they are led to imagine that
the driver is always at his post, which is immediately behind the oxen
and on the curved flat timber which puts the whole apparatus in motion.
Saw a man cross the river by means of a _mushuk_ or inflated skin. The
very common bushy plant with thorns and ligulate leaves which commences
to appear about Hazaribagh and continues in abundance throughout the
sandy north-west, is, judging from its fruit, which is a moniliform
legume - a Papilionacea; the fruit are borne by the short spine-terminated
branches: the stalk of the pod is surrounded for the most part by a
cupuliform membranous calyx. I have only seen however withered
specimens. Reached Bahawul ghat at 1 P.M. The Khan visited Mr.
Macnaghten in the afternoon, his visit was preceded by one from his
Hindoo minister, and another man, Imaam Shah, who is a very fat ruffianly-
looking fellow. The Khan was attended by numerous _suwarries_; he is a
portly looking, middle-aged man.
_22nd_. - We returned the visit to-day, the Khan having provided us with
one horse and two bullock _rhuts_: we traversed the sandy bank of the
river for about a mile before we reached the town, the suburbs of which
are extensive, but very straggling, and thinly peopled. The inner town
seemed to be of some extent, the streets narrow, the houses very poor,
and almost entirely of mud; there were a number of shops, and the streets
were lined with men and a few old women. There is very little
distinction in appearance between the Khan's residence and any other
portion of the town, and I did not see a defence of any kind. The Khan
received us on some irregular terraces; near his house, the street
leading to the private entrance was lined with his troops, as well as
that leading to the terrace, and this was surrounded with his adherents,
variously and well-dressed. The troops, for such appeared, were decent,
and those forming one side were dressed in white, in imitation of our
Sepoys, and the other side were in red and blue, _more proprio_ I
imagine: they were armed with muskets; the red ones for the most part
having muskets of native workmanship. A royal salute was fired when the
meeting took place, which was on the terrace, and as we proceeded up the
street, a band made a rude and noisy attempt at 'God save the King.'
Having had a private consultation, Mr. Macnaghten withdrew with similar
honours, presenting arms, etc. The presents were a handsome native
rifle, with a flint lock, and the fabrics of the city, some of which
called Kharse, were very creditable.
There are a good many trees about the place, indeed these form the chief
mark when seen from the ghat: the principal are mangoes, _Khujoors_,
Moringas, oranges. The natives are rather a fine race, but dirty: some
of the women wore the _Patani_ veils, or hoods, with network over the
Continued down the river; though much delayed by strong south-east winds.
The vegetation, etc. continue the same, Potentilla sp. in flower, Phascum
_23rd_. - Nothing new has occurred: the current is stronger than above
Bahawulpore: the channel continues very winding, and sandbanks very
frequent. _Furas_, Salvadora, _Phulahi_ very common. The boats
accidentally separated, and we went without dinner in consequence: came
into the Pungnud. The mouths of the Chenab seem to be two, both
apparently of no great size, yet the Pungnud is a noble river, and
although much subdivided by sand banks, is a striking stream, the waters
are very muddy, and when agitated by a strong wind become almost reddish.
The jungle continues much the same: the Sissoid jungle again occurred to-
day, the natives call it _Sofaida_; it has a very curious habit, and is
gemmiferous, the gemmae abounding in gum. Quail, black-grey partridge,
hares, continue; a goat-sucker (Caprimulgus,) was seen.
_24th_. - The boats joined early this morning: we were delayed the whole
day by strong north-east winds; the whole country was obscured by the
_26th_. - The wind abated towards evening, and occurred again in gusts
during the night. This morning we came in sight of the southerly portion
of the Soliman range, by which name however, these mountains do not
appear to be known hereabouts; their distance must be forty miles at
least, yet they appear to be of considerable height: the range runs north
and south nearly. Wheat is here sown in rows. _Khujoor_, large
_Babool_, Fagonia, continue, _Jhow_ very common. Towards evening we came
to a subdivision of the stream following the smaller one in which the
current was very strong; in some places, apparently six knots an hour. We
came to for the evening at a village on the limits of the Bahawul
_27th_. - We came on the Indus early in the morning and stopped opposite
Mittunkote until 2 P.M., awaiting the arrival of Mr. Mackeson. The
mouths of the Attock river are scarcely more striking than those of the
Chenab; neither is the combined river immediately opposite Mittunkote of
any great size: certainly the stream we followed was not more than 800 or
900 yards wide, the extreme banks are at a considerable distance; and
half a mile below Mittunkote the surface of the water must be one and a
half to two miles in breadth; the river is much subdivided by banks, and
shallows are frequent, yet some of the reaches are of great extent.
The banks are low and rather bluff, the vegetation continues the same,
but _Jhow_ is far the most common plant. _Bheir_, _Babool_, and the
_Seerkee_ Saccharum continue; the cultivation is the same; Calotropis
Hamiltonii. Mittunkote appears, from a distance of two coss, a place of
some size, with a somewhat conspicuous dome. Immediately behind it are
the Soliman Hills, of no great altitude; and, except at the bases, which
are covered with black patches of forest, they appear uniformly brown,
otherwise there is nothing to vary the monotony of the scene, scarcely
any trees being visible. On stopping for breakfast, a general scene of
embracing among the dhandies or boatmen and their friends occurred; women
were also embraced in the usual way, but with apparently less tenderness
or warmth than the men. The boats tracking up, have masts, but the goon
or rope is seized with both hands, a plan far less advantageous than that
adopted on the Ganges and Bramahpootra, where the principal tracking is
exercised by a bamboo placed over the shoulder, farthest from the goon.
_28th_. - No change worth noticing. The current continues rapid. The
hills visible, running parallel to the river, and ending very gradually.
Typha is very common, and in some places Arundo.
_29th_. - We remain in sight of, and generally continuing in the same
direction as the hills, which run out very gradually indeed. Scarcely a
tree is to be seen, and very few villages. The country continues to have
some vegetation. The _Sofaida_ is now found in flower, it is the _Ban_
of the natives of these parts; the former name indicates in Persian, a
tree, said to be wild Poplar, with which this has an obvious affinity.
Saccharum _Seerkee_ very common, growing in tufts and covering extensive
tracts. Scarcely any cultivation is to be seen along the river, and
altogether a very small proportion is rendered available. River very
much subdivided: towards evening the sky is obscured to leeward by the
smoke arising from burning jungle. Waterfowl are very common along the
Indus; especially wild geese, which frequent open streams, whereas ducks,
etc. haunt places which only communicate with the main streams during
floods: myriads of _Bogulas_, (the general name for herons,) were seen
yesterday in a compact body. The Soliman mountains are by no means
rugged, and this only in one or two places, where they become peaked. In
Mr. Elphinstone's account of a Journey to Cabul, the limestone said to be
found in the desert contains shells; it would be most interesting to
compare this with the limestone of Churra more especially. Mr. E. also
mentions a wild rue as forming part of the very scanty vegetation of the
desert; the chief plants being _Kureel_, which is a Capparis; Phoke - -
and _Bheir_. Mr. E. also says that the material of which the tope of
Manikyalah is built, resembles petrified vegetable matter, an observation
to be kept in view. The mottled kingfisher occurs throughout, but is
commoner in southern latitudes of India.
Alligators abounded to-day, and it was curious to see them basking in the
sun with flocks of herons so close, that at a little distance they
appeared to be perching on the backs of the alligators, or rather
crocodiles. Again saw a man swim the Indus by means of a _mushuk_ or
inflated skin: he swam very rapidly, and with great ease; half his body
nearly being out of the water; he reclined on the skin and kept the
aperture by which it is inflated in his mouth, carrying his clothes on
his head. Passed Chuck about 4.5 P.M. The country appears populous
_30th_. - We have seen a good many boats today employed in carrying grain
to the camp; the smaller ones are not unlike Bengal boats, having a high
stern; all on the Indus however have square bows and flat bottoms.
The _Jhow_ has increased in size in some places as has _Sofaida_, which
is occasionally a moderate tree, and it is now more advanced in
flowering: the temperature having visibly increased. The river puts on
the same features and is much subdivided; the channels by which we have
come, are not above 400 to 500 yards in breadth, yet there is often seen
to be a waste of low sand banks stretching to a great extent, and the
extreme banks are very remote, so as generally not to be visible.
_31st_. - Arrived at Uzeeypore about 9 A.M. Here we found horses and
camels for our conveyance to Shikarpore. Uzeeypore appears to be a well
frequented passage of the river, although we did not see any ferry boats.
Bukkur is visible from it, apparently occupying a hill almost to the
extreme right of a low range running south-west; it is seven or eight
coss distant. We left for Shikarpore about 2.5 P.M. and reached about 7
P.M.: the distance is said to be twenty-four miles; the road is generally
very sandy, although the sand is not very deep; the substratum being
solid. We passed some cultivation and a few villages, at one of which
(Khye) there is a neat sort of fortification; here we changed horses. The
jungle throughout consisted of Furas, Tamarisk, Salvadora, _Phulahi_
parva, the prickly Leguminosa, with the habit of Fagonia, Calotropis
Shikarpore is not visible until one reaches the clearing around the town;
in the twilight it appears to be a very large place.
_February 2nd_. - We do not proceed to Larkhanu, as daily news from
Hyderabad is expected. I see nothing likely to interest me about this
place; there is absolutely not a flower to be got any where. The jungles
consist of _Jhow_, small _Furas_, _Rairoo_, a small arbusculoid Mimosa,
_Kureel_, and Ukko, Calotropis Hamiltonii; _Bheirs_ shrubby; one of the
most abundant plants is the _Joussa_ or prickly Leguminosa, with the
habit of Fagonia; some of the saline loving Compositae, No. 51, frutex 2-
3 pedalis, foliis carnosis lanceolato-spathulatis, sessilibus. Corymbis
et Cymi axillaribus et terminalibus pauci capitat. Floscules
inconspicuis, also occurs. Near the Shah's tents there is a grove of
_Phulahi_, all more or less demolished, and a good many _Khujoors_. Hares