none from the fruit or seeds; two products in most orders very fruitful
in discriminating marks. This leads one to the idea that in
monocotyledonous plants, the fruit is very generally of limited powers of
variation; witness Orchideae, Gramineae, Smilacineae, etc. this idea
deserves to be followed out as much as possible. The river at the ferry
is 100 yards wide, and twelve feet in the deepest part, the current five
miles an hour, but confined to one and a half towards its centre.
_November 1st_. - Marched ten miles: the road from the camp extended up
an acclivity, the ground becoming more broken than usual to the mouth of
the ghat, which is four miles distant; thence up to the ghat which
resembles much the Bolan Pass, it extends up an inclined plane over a
shingly road. The ghat is rather wide throughout, and all the features
are the same as the Bolan Pass, slate rocks most common. We passed on
the way a large and a deep but dry well, ascribed to the _kafirs_; and
near it the ruins of a fort built half-way up a small mountain, the top
of which is level with the ghat.
Vegetation to the ghat unchanged. In the ghat Capparis as before,
Lycioides, Chamaerops, Andropog. albus, Schaenanthus, _Bheir_, Nerioides,
Pommereullioid, Andropogonea, appear at once, AErua, Asparagus.
At 300 feet up, Mimosae sp., foliis tomentosis, occurring here and there.
Heliotropium flavum, Plectranthus lavandulosus, Scrophulariae sp.
At 500 feet, Dodonaea: this is very common, and being very green, gives
the ghat a pretty appearance.
At 600 feet, a curious pomaceous looking Rhamnaceous plant is found.
The most common plants are Nerioides, Andropogon albus, _Bheir_,
The bed of the ghat is formed of debris from the boundary hills, this bed
is very thick, and the particles have the appearance of being carried to
their present situation by water.
Our halting place is a confined irregular piece of ground, water
abundant, but no grass, except coarse Andropogon; no fodder, except
_Bheir_ and Mimosa.
I ascended in the evening the ridge to the south, and which is 1,200 feet
above the road, to the ruins that run along the summit. The ridge, like
all others in this neighbourhood, is rugged and much distorted, the top
is limestone, much varied and weathered; then slate masses of greenstone
occur towards the base.
The vegetation is chiefly at the summit. Schaenanthus, Periploca,
Dodonaea, an arbuscula nova, Euonymus, Chenopodiaceae. Below this, (but
the elevation is scarcely sufficient to form any difference,) and along
the water, Euonymus, Adhatoda, Buddlaea cana or Syringia, Rhamnacea,
Periplocea, Linaria, Labiatae, 2-3, Pistacea, Roylea, Acanthoides,
_Urticea_! habitu, U. penduliflorae, Vitex, Convolvulus spinosus of
Bolan, Sempervivum, Stapelioides used as a vegetable, and for fever by
Hindoos, Artemisiae, Solanum sp.
Along water, Adiantum, Mentha, Epilobium, Verbena officinalis, Solanum
nigrum, Jacquinifol. pinnatif. spinosus about cultivation.
On slaty rocks which form the bed of the ravine or ghat, Dodonaea,
Hyoscyamus, and Cyrthandracea are found.
The building consists of a wall near the edge of a ridge, which
terminates some twenty feet from the steep precipice of 300 to 500 feet:
it is 200 to 300 yards in length, and is terminated at either end by two
towers, both of which are ruinous, it is built of slabs and rough blocks
of limestone, between which are layers of slate, much like the Bactrian
pillar, and very superior to modern buildings: what its use was, it would
be difficult to conjecture as it is out of musket shot of the ghat, which
it only commands by being above it. There is no water on the top, nor is
there any well-marked path up to it: curious mortar-like excavations were
observed in a mass of limestone just below, probably for pounding rice.
Up the ravine are remains of terraces formerly used for cultivation, but
now mostly disused. At 700 to 800 feet above the ghat the ravine abounds
with the Ficus of Gundamuck; this and the Adhatoda or _Rooss_ are perhaps
cultivated: the ravine is pretty well entangled with Ficus and brushwood.
It consists of metamorphosed rocks and excavated limestone; some mosses
occur, and Adiantum abounding.
From the ridge, a rather extensive view to the south is obtained,
extending to the Khyber fort, which is of the ordinary square form, and
just below it, a tower and house. To the east, and all around a good
deal of cultivation occurs; also several high ridges, say 7,000 feet; one
terminating 4,000 feet above us, presents a very rugged outline with the
appearance of rather large trees. The road up to the ghat is visible, as
well as the _Choky_ and a fort, with a small sheet of cultivation to the
eastward. Beyond this a ravine, then two other ridges, of which the
nearer one is high. The Cabul river passes to the NNW., and Lalpoor lies
to the north. One peak and a small piece of ridge of Hindoo-koosh, white
with snow, is seen very distinctly though distant, it must therefore be
very lofty; far more so than any part we have seen to the westward.
[Khyber Pass: p425.jpg]
_Description of the annexed map of the Khyber Pass_.
A. Kumdhukta. By this is Abkhanah route.
B. Little Khyber ghat, on Peshawur side.
C. Khyber ghat, entrance on the Jallalabad side.
D. Kurraha route.
E. Direction of Sofaid-Koh in the distance.
F. Flagstaff in the middle of the Pass.
The ground between the dotted lines and river, on the south, is, or has
been cultivated. The ground near the river on the north side is covered
here and there with brown grass. About the Flagstaff, sand and short
dried up grass occur.
The general character of the hills in every direction except the snowy
range, is bluffly rounded, very bare, and brown, with here and there a
That which Burnes calls Noorgil, is the range of Kareaz, and is distinct
from Koonur. Kashgur lies beyond the snowy range.
The inhabitants of the mountains, like those of Lalpoor, wear sandals
made of the fibres of Chamaerops, which is common: one plant of Ephedra
used _for snuff_?
_3rd_. - Proceeded to one mile beyond Ali-Musjid. The ascent commences
immediately where the _Choky_ is seen from the camp, by a very good road
cut out of slate rock; the rocks are steep on both sides, and very zig-
zag; a short partial descent in one place occurs to a small pool of
water. From the _Choky_, a descent takes place by a similar road for
perhaps two miles, until the ravine which we left at camp is turned; this
is thence followed, occasionally leaving it where the road is bad and
runs through low rugged hills. The road then after passing some of the
old ruins opens out into a space with cultivation. Close to this is the
highest spot of the pass, surrounded by low hills, none higher than 500
feet. Cultivation occurs especially at Lal-Ghurry Beg, a space of some
size, containing several villages, of the usual Khyberry form, namely,
surrounded by low, quadrangular walls, with a thin square tower and very
broadly projecting eaves. A short distance from its summit, just after
passing the villages, and before entering the ravine which leads us to
our present camp is a Khyberry tower, built on a fine Bactrian tope,
which is nearly half ruined; on the top of this a dome of good
proportions is built on a double-terraced foundation.
This gives a rude idea of what the tope was originally, now half the dome
has fallen down.
[A Khyberry tower: m426.jpg]
The entrance to the ravine gradually becomes narrower, the bed is stony,
very winding, and narrow. Bold precipices of limestone cliffs ascend on
either side of Sir-i-Chushme; then a little below, very copious springs
issue from limestone. The temperature of the principal spring is 75
degrees; it contains abundance of fish - a loach and cyprinoid. Passed
some ruined fortifications on the right, leading down to water, evidently
_kafir_ works; then we enter a narrow but short gorge, occupied by the
stream; a few more turns and you come on Ali-Musjid. No change occurs in
the vegetation, bare rocks at the summit of which the Bar. stood at
26.72. Andropogons and Artemisiae are the chief plants.
In the gorge downwards, Acacia occurs in abundance, with Adhatoda, and
otherwise the shrubs of Lundyakhana occur in abundance, and Adiantum
about the spring.
After passing the fort, the rocks open out into a ravine, with low
undulated hills on every side, covered with the usual vegetation;
Astragalus one species.
At Lal-Ghurry Beg, one Khinjuck tree, Elaeagnus, occurred; and grass in
very small stacks, well pressed and covered with a thatch of bushes and a
layer of dirt.
There is excellent fishing in the stream. Loaches, Perilamps, and
especially an Oreinus? swarming at Sir-i-Chushme, and taking worms very
No forests whatever visible in this direction; the arborescent vegetation
being confined to scattered and small trees.
_5th_. - We halted near Jumrood, after a march of ten miles and one
furlong. This place is situated at the mouth of the pass, within sight
of the Seikh camp at Jumrood. Marched down to the ghat, which is
generally speaking narrow and very strong, opening out here and there,
into easier parts extending down the stream all the way; this stream
loses itself suddenly, but after a little distance it is replaced by
another from the right, where ravines enter: here the pass is well
adapted for pillage, elsewhere the sides are so steep, that robbers could
not dispose of their plunder. At the mouth, the pass opens out into a
good breadth, with an even, small, shingly bottom. At Kuddun the Seikh
troops were drawn up to compliment the C. in C., one regiment met us
shortly before to protect the baggage. Maize cultivated. At the mouth,
the Khyber is more difficult than any other pass, except the Bolan:
perhaps it is much narrower than that, except just above Sir-i-Bolan.
No change in vegetation, one or two new plants occurred, viz. a Labiata,
and a treelet, foliis linearibus oppositis, Jasminacea aspectu, Baloot,
Vitex common, Salix, and shrubs as before, Veronica, etc.
The Khyber mountains viewed from the mouth of the pass are brown, and
dotted with peculiar looking trees.
_6th_. - Proceeded six and a half miles to near the ruins of an old tope;
first, down the nullah, then by the fort of Futtygurh, a Hindoostanee mud
fort with high parapets, two lines of works, and a _pucka_ citadel with
embrasures for guns on a commanding mound: thence we passed over a gentle
slope with a good many scattered _Bheirs_, _Kureels_, AErua, Mudar, etc.
to camp, where the ground is very rough and stony, abundant water
obtained from a cut with sheets of maize cultivation. Fossil shells,
Pterocles, found in arenaceous limestone (Durand).
_7th_. - To Peshawur, eight and a half miles, over a sandy plain; road
bad, intersected with cuts and ravines; three canals had to be crossed by
small bridges which occasioned a good deal of delay to the camels. Passed
the Seikh lines, between the fort and north face of town, and encamped on
east face opposite the Governor's house: three gibbets were passed, with
twelve persons hanging from them, some of old date.
In the evening we had a gay party at M. Avitabili's, who is a fine
looking man, with an intelligent Italian countenance.
In a room gaudily decorated and painted, was the following very
appropriate motto -
Donec eris felix multos numerabis amicos.
Tempora si fuerunt nubila, solus eris.
If this was true in Rome, and is true in Europe, to what extent does its
truth not reach in this country. In the evening we were entertained with
dancing and fireworks; excellent dinner and admirable bread.
_14th_. - To-day the atmosphere is hazy, but the snowy range is not topped
with clouds. It is curious enough that the part which is most exposed to
our view, and which bears about north-east, is generally clouded
throughout the hotter parts of the day, while apparently equally high
peaks in other directions remain clear.
It is curious that in Khorassan remarkably few climbing plants occur, and
of these, the chief form is Cuscuta.
Botany here at this season is a non-entity, in the marsh close to the
fort, there occur some few plants, the chief European forms being
Veronica. Ranunculus sceleratus is now coming into flower, Typha
angustifolia abounds, with Arundo, also Sparganium, Sium, Butomus
trigonifolius common; otherwise Cyperaceae, _Epilobium out of_
_season_! Ranunculus aquaticus is most abundant; two species of Chara, or
rather 1 Chara, and 1 Nitella, the last a beautiful species, Marsilea in
profusion, Azolla common, Lemna two or three species, one _new_, a
floating Marchantiacia, Nelumbium occurs, but only as a cultivated plant.
Of two Boreal, or European forms found in sub-tropical countries, that
form is the most northern which flowers, etc. in the coldest season,
hence Veronica and Ranunculus are more northern than _Epilobium_ in this
particular district. The most elevational plant at Cabul is
Cardaminoidea, floribus luteis, this flowers at high altitudes in August
and September, and at Cabul shows no symptom of flowering even in
October; it is there a winter plant? The same is true of Hippuris, which
to flower at Cabul requires a greater degree of cold than is obtainable
during the summer months.
What I have said of Epilobium above, is true of Typha and Arundo, both
now passed flowering, and both found in India, to a considerable extent.
Royle's idea of the comparatively greater extent of distribution of water
plants is not I think correct, in the sense he seems to entertain it; to
be so, the species should be the same, which they are certainly not. It
is only with pre-eminently aquatic forms that the annual temperature can
be more equalised than obtains with strictly terrestrial plants. The
humidity which may appear connected with the rapid evaporation in these
countries, and which obtains? in the vicinity of all bodies of water, may
account for the appearance here of Arundo, etc. All genuine aquatic
types have leaves involute in vernation?
The least valuable of all northern forms, are those associated with
cultivation, especially if they be annuals, because in the first place
they may be acclimated species, a circumstance of great importance; and
in the second, because if annual, they are confined to the cold season.
All such forms have probably migrated into these countries, they have
come from the westward: this shows us why at almost equal elevations they
are most common, the nearer we approach to the elevated regions towards
the west, because it is self-evident that the nearer we approach the
regions whence they have migrated, the more abundant and diversified will
the migrating plants be, only particular species having the power of
extending the range of migration.
When all the Indian plants hitherto met with, have been tabulated; when
all their respective heights at which they have been found have been
determined; when their more strictly geographical sites have been fixed;
when we have some data as to the quantity of humidity pervading their
localities; then, and not till then, shall we be able to legislate for
the geography of Indian botany.
The Botanist who travels without the means of determining these points,
destroys half the value of his collections.
_December 16th_. - Yesterday was very raw and cloudy, to-day clear as
usual, towards 1 P.M. a strong north-east wind occurred for a short time
as usual, because once or twice before, it occurred after threatening
_Rationale_. - It blows from the nearest snow to supply the rarefied air
in the valley heated by the sun, even now tolerably powerful; it blows
for some days so long as a vacuum is formed, and discontinues when clouds
again appear; hardly so, as it before only blew for three or four days,
although several more elapsed before clouds re-appeared: it may however
be dependent on each fresh fall of snow in the hills.
_26th_. - Cloudy morning, forenoon fine, clear and calm.
Mosses are the analogues of Zoophytes; these analogies are to be looked
for in the most striking and most constant parts of the organization of
the divisions of nature.
Marchantiaceae are the representatives of radiate animals, another reason
why Jungermanniaceae are to be separated from them.
Hence, Radiata, = Marchantiaceae.
" Zoophyta, = Musci.
I am quite convinced that the true subordinate groups of Acotyledones are
far from being discovered.
Are the sheaths found on certain radicles strictly confined to
monocotyledonous plants. There is this certain about them, that they
depend on the presence of vascular tissue, from which the radicles or the
divisions of each root originate: see young Hyacinth roots, grown in
Although the sheaths cannot exist without a positive cuticle, their
existence does not depend so much on its presence as on the direction of
the adhesive powers of its component parts: witness certain forms of
Marchantiaceae, and the vaginate forms, as Azolla, Lemna, etc. Also the
sheath may not have adhesive powers at its apex to prevent the escape of
the radical at that point: witness Hyacinth roots? We may imagine a case
in which the primary radicle may be without a sheath, while its divisions
shall have them, this depending on the want of adhesion of the cuticle
over the original one.
The emerged and immersed leaves of plants are well worthy of examination,
since Microphytum proves that stomata do not depend on the presence of a
cuticle as Brongniart supposes: their presence is united with, or allied
to an amount of density in the cellular tissue, sufficient to prevent the
due aeration of the inner cellules, without direct communication with the
atmosphere. Vide Musci!! Hence the inner tubes of the leaves of the
generality of aquatic plants, (exception Eriocaulon fluitans.)
What is the cause of the plurality of radicles in certain species of
Lemna, and their blank in others? It will be necessary on this point to
examine well the sheaths of Azolla, and to look at the Mergui
The formation of Affghanistan is very curious: it consists of a wide
extent of country, variously elevated steppes being separated by ridges
usually very accessible, generally isolated. The mountainous part varies
as to its formation, but there is no variety in the declivities and
acclivities forming the lower elevations, which are composed of
conglomerate; nor is there much in the usually narrow strip at the lowest
portion of each steppe or valley, which is very generally the only
In the Khyber ghat the ridges are either of limestone or slaty rocks,
between which conglomerate occurs of various thicknesses; this being
dependent on the angle of the mountains forming the sides of the ghat: it
is from this conglomerate in such places consisting usually of a loose
texture that the very excellent roads (for mountainous passes) are
naturally made by the draining streams, which are only periodical. The
conglomerate consists of water-worn stones of all sizes, even boulders
are not unfrequent, yet the wearing is such as occurs in courses now
filling the beds of torrents. The conglomerate increases in density and
adhesion towards Lalpoor, and in many places is exceedingly hard.
Whatever the country may have been previously, one might explain its
present appearance by supposing it to have consisted of a tolerably level
extent of conglomerate, with here and there a strip of soil in the lowest
part of each portion, and that the elevation of the mountain ridges was
of subsequent occurrence: this would account for the formation of the
lower slopes, and the frequent isolation of small eminences of the same
character as the neighbouring mountains. It will account for the
appearance of the conglomerate in every ravine until the top of the
culminating point is reached.
As the mountains were elevated, portions of conglomerate would be
detached, and these resting again on all suitable places, would account
for the existence of conglomerate on certain parts which are flatter than
Whirlwinds are common about Cabul, commencing as soon as the sun has
attained a certain degree of power.
In all cases they assume the shape of a cone, the point of which being a
tangent on the earth's surface: the cone varies in shape, is generally of
a good diameter, occasionally much pulled out, some being 2,300 feet in
height, the currents are most violent at the apex.
They come and go in all directions, even after starting, not always
preserving the original direction. They are less common on days in which
winds prevail from any given direction, and vary much in intensity from a
mere breeze, lightly laden with dust and with no tortuosity, to a violent
cone of wind, capable of throwing down a _soldari_.
Northerly winds are prevalent here from 1 or 2 P.M. until 8 or 9 P.M.,
occasionally they only commence in the evening, when they are obviously
due to the rarefaction of the air of the valleys by the great heat of the
sun, amounting now to 100 degrees at 3 P.M., and the vacuum being
supplied by gusts from the high mountains to the north and north-east.
_From Peshawur to Pushut_.
_January 8th_. - At Ichardeh. Between Busoollah and Lalpoor are three
curious low ridges, none above sixty feet high, and all of small extent;
they are covered with fractured masses of rock of the same size as those
strewn so liberally about the shingly slopes; but they are much cleaner
or fresher looking, and appear to me less worn. Whence do they derive
their singular situation? They occur in such numbers, that one would at
first think they originated from a mass of ruins, but the ridges present
scarcely any surface for buildings to stand upon, certainly not to such
extent as would account for the abundance of these fragments.
About Huzarnow and on both sides, low ridges of sand occur. In this sand
graves are usually dug, and in some places to an extent indicating
dreadful devastations from disease, each grave is headed by a stone, and
about every ramification of the irregular size of the burial ground,
there is a building of the usual mud structure, designed for a mosque,
but not domed as is customary in Mussulman cemeteries, but ornamented
with flagstaffs bearing white bits of cloth. These low sand ridges are
often very much undulated; they consist of a very fine powder, and at
Huzarnow are evidently of the same nature as the cultivated soil: they
are neither in attachment as it were to the neighbouring hills, nor
distinct from them, but always have some communication with the shingly
slopes, to which they are evidently inferior.
So that the base of Khorassan may be taken to be the tillable portions,
over which occur, to a vast extent, the shingly very barren slopes, which
every section shows to be nothing but a mass of debris, resting on the
_9th_. - Ali-Baghan. To this the road is good, along the right bank of
the river, wherever it does not wind along over the spurs forming a
considerable part of the march. To the first point where this occurs, it
extends over the same sort of plain as that about Ichardeh; keeping
rather close to the bank of the river, it is good, also through the
valley of Gundikuss, and from near the _Choky_, to Ali-Baghan.
The first rocky ridge is about three-quarters of a mile in length, and is
not very difficult; at the end near Gundikuss, is a curious ruin built
into the stream, where the latter runs with violence on the rocky bank:
it consists of a broadish pathway, with a wall on the river side, breast
high; the masonry is good and solid, of the usual Bactrian materials, but
well cemented; it has mostly been ruined by the river, only one end being
perfect. Although the materials are _Bactrian_, the contour is
Mussulman, and I was told by some people that it was a Mussulman
erection: originally it perhaps extended all along this part, as slight
traces here and there are discernible; for what use the original
structure was intended I know not, as there are no remains visible of a
The inlet of Gundikuss is well cultivated, the village itself a large
straggling one, built close under a ridge.
From this to the _Choky_ the path is rocky, and in many places very bad,
consisting of a series of ascents and descents, and winding round spurs;
in the worst place, the path almost overhangs the river 200 feet above
its bed, and it is very hard and very rocky. The distance between ten or