William H. (William Harrison) Ukers.

All about coffee online

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be made by any favorite method, cleared and strained, then combined
with the sugar, brought to boiling point, and boiled for two or
three minutes. It should be canned while boiling, in sterilized
bottles. Fill them to overflowing and seal as for grape juice or
for any other canned beverage.

[Illustration]




A COFFEE CHRONOLOGY

_Giving dates and events of historical interest in legend, travel,
literature, cultivation, plantation treatment, trading, and in the
preparation and use of coffee from the earliest time to the
present_

900[L] - Rhazes, famous Arabian physician, is first writer to
mention coffee under the name _bunca_ or _bunchum_.[M]

1000[L] - Avicenna, Mahommedan physician and philosopher, is the
first writer to explain the medicinal properties of the coffee
bean, which he also calls _bunchum_.[M]

1258[L] - Sheik Omar, disciple of Sheik Schadheli, patron saint and
legendary founder of Mocha, by chance discovers coffee as a
beverage at Ousab in Arabia.[M]

1300[L] - The coffee drink is a decoction made from roasted berries,
crushed in a mortar and pestle, the powder being placed in boiling
water, and the drink taken down, grounds and all.

1350[L] - Persian, Egyptian, and Turkish ewers made of pottery are
first used for serving coffee.

1400-1500 - Earthenware or metal coffee-roasting plates with small
holes, rounded and shaped like a skimmer, come into use in Turkey
and Persia over braziers. Also about this time appears the familiar
Turkish cylinder coffee mill, and the original Turkish coffee
boiler of metal.

1428-48 - Spice grinder to stand on four legs first invented;
subsequently used to grind coffee.

1454[L] - Sheik Gemaleddin, mufti of Aden, having discovered the
virtues of the berry on a journey to Abyssinia, sanctions the use
of coffee in Arabia Felix.

1470-1500 - The use of coffee spreads to Mecca and Medina.

1500-1600 - Shallow iron dippers with long handles and small
foot-rests come into use in Bagdad and in Mesopotamia for roasting
coffee.

1505[L] - The Arabs introduce the coffee plant into Ceylon.

1510 - The coffee drink is introduced into Cairo.

1511 - Kair Bey, governor of Mecca, after consultation with a
council of lawyers, physicians, and leading citizens, issues a
condemnation of coffee, and prohibits the use of the drink.
Prohibition subsequently ordered revoked by the sultan of Cairo.

1517 - Sultan Selim I, after conquering Egypt, brings coffee to
Constantinople.

1524 - The kadi of Mecca closes the public coffee houses because of
disorders, but permits coffee drinking at home and in private. His
successor allows them to re-open under license.

1530[L] - Coffee drinking introduced into Damascus.

1532[L] - Coffee drinking introduced into Aleppo.

1534 - A religious fanatic denounces coffee in Cairo and leads a mob
against the coffee houses, many of which are wrecked. The city is
divided into two parties, for and against coffee; but the chief
judge, after consultation with the doctors, causes coffee to be
served to the meeting, drinks some himself, and thus settles the
controversy.

1542 - Soliman II, at the solicitation of a favorite court lady,
forbids the use of coffee, but to no purpose.

1554 - The first coffee houses are opened in Constantinople by
Shemsi of Damascus and Hekem of Aleppo.

1570[L]-80[L] - Religious zealots in Constantinople, jealous of the
increasing popularity of the coffee houses, claim roasted coffee to
be a kind of charcoal, and the mufti decides that it is forbidden
by the law. Amurath III subsequently orders the closing of all
coffee houses, on religious grounds, classing coffee with wine,
forbidden by the _Koran_. The order is not strictly observed, and
coffee drinking continues behind closed shop-doors and in private
houses.

1573 - Rauwolf, German physician and botanist, first European to
mention coffee, makes a journey to the Levant.

1580 - Prospero Alpini (Alpinus), Italian physician and botanist,
journeys to Egypt and brings back news of coffee.

1582-83 - The first printed reference to coffee appears as _chaube_
in Rauwolf's _Travels_, published in German at Frankfort and
Lauingen.

1585 - Gianfraneesco Morosini, city magistrate in Constantinople,
reports to the Venetian senate the use by the Turks "of a black
water, being the infusion of a bean called _cavee_."

1587 - The first authentic account of the origin of coffee is
written by the Sheik Abd-al-Kâdir, in an Arabian manuscript
preserved in the Bibliothéque Nationale, Paris.

1592 - The first printed description of the coffee plant (called
_bon_) and drink (called _caova_) appears in Prospero Alpini's work
_The Plants of Egypt_, written in Latin, and published in Venice.

1596[L] - Belli sends to the botanist de l'Écluse "seeds used by the
Egyptians to make a liquid they call _cave_."

1598 - The first printed reference to coffee in English appears as
_chaoua_ in a note of Paludanus in _Linschoten's Travels_,
translated from the Dutch, and published in London.

1599 - Sir Antony Sherley, first Englishman to refer to coffee
drinking in the Orient, sails from Venice for Aleppo.

1600[L] - Pewter serving-pots appear.

1600 - Iron spiders on legs, designed to sit in open fires, are used
for roasting coffee.

1600[L] - Coffee cultivation introduced into southern India at
Chickmaglur, Mysore, by a Moslem pilgrim, Baba Budan.[M]

1600-32 - Mortars and pestles of wood, and of metal (iron, bronze,
and brass) come into common use in Europe for making coffee powder.

1601 - The first printed reference to coffee in English, employing
the more modern form of the word, appears in W. Parry's book,
_Sherley's Travels_, as "a certain liquor which they call coffe."

1603 - Captain John Smith, English adventurer, and founder of the
colony of Virginia, in his book of travels published this year,
refers to the Turks' drink, "coffa."

1610 - Sir George Sandys, the poet, visits Turkey, Egypt, and
Palestine, and records that the Turks "sip a drink called _coffa_
(of the berry that it is made of) in little china dishes, as hot as
they can suffer it."

1614 - Dutch traders visit Aden to examine into the possibilities of
coffee cultivation and coffee trading.

1615 - Pietro Della Valle writes a letter from Constantinople to his
friend Mario Schipano at Venice that when he returns he will bring
with him some coffee, which he believes "is a thing unknown in his
native country."

1615 - Coffee is introduced into Venice.

1616 - The first coffee is brought from Mocha to Holland by Pieter
Van dan Broecke.

1620 - Peregrine White's wooden mortar and pestle (used for
"braying" coffee) is brought to America on the Mayflower by White's
parents.

1623-27 - Francis Bacon, in his _Historia Vitae et Mortis_ (1623),
speaks of the Turks' "caphe"; and in his _Sylva Sylvarum_ (1627)
writes: "They have in Turkey a drink called _coffa_ made of a berry
of the same name, as black as soot, and of a strong scent ... this
drink comforteth the brain and heart, and helpeth digestion."

1625 - Sugar is first used to sweeten coffee in Cairo.

1632 - Burton in his _Anatomy of Melancholy_ says: "The Turks have a
drink called _coffa_, so named from a berry black as soot and as
bitter."

1634 - Sir Henry Blount makes a voyage to the Levant, and is invited
to drink "cauphe" in Turkey.

1637 - Adam Olearius, German traveler and Persian scholar, visits
Persia (1633-39); and on his return tells how in this year he
observed that the Persians drink _chawa_ in their coffee houses.

1637 - Coffee drinking is introduced into England by Nathaniel
Conopios, a Cretan student at Balliol College, Oxford.

1640 - Parkinson, in his _Theatrum Botanicum_, publishes the first
botanical description of the coffee plant in English - referred to
as "_Arbor Bon cum sua Buna_. The Turkes Berry Drinke."

1640 - The Dutch merchant, Wurffbain, offers for sale in Amsterdam
the first commercial shipment of coffee from Mocha.

1644 - Coffee is introduced into France at Marseilles by P. de la
Roque, who brought back also from Constantinople the instruments
and vessels for making it.

1645 - Coffee comes into general use in Italy.

1645 - The first coffee house is opened in Venice.

1647 - Adam Olearius publishes in German his _Persian Voyage
Description_, containing an account of coffee manners and customs
in Persia in 1633-39.

1650[L] - Varnar, Dutch minister resident at the Ottoman Porte,
publishes a treatise on coffee.

1650[L] - The individual hand-turned metal (tin-plate or tinned
copper) roaster appears; shaped like the Turkish coffee grinder,
for use over open fires.

1650 - The first coffee house in England is opened at Oxford by
Jacobs, a Jew.

1650 - Coffee is introduced into Vienna.

1652 - The first London coffee house is opened by Pasqua Rosée in
St. Michael's Alley, Cornhill.

1652 - The first printed advertisement for coffee in English appears
in the form of a handbill issued by Pasqua Rosée, acclaiming "The
Vertue of the Coffee Drink."

1656 - Grand Vizier Kuprili, during the war with Candia, and for
political reasons, suppresses the coffee houses and prohibits
coffee. For the first violation the punishment is cudgeling; for a
second, the offender is sewn up in a leather bag and thrown into
the Bosporus.

1657 - The first newspaper advertisement for coffee appears in _The
Publick Adviser_ of London.

1657 - Coffee is introduced privately into Paris by Jean de
Thévenot.

1658 - The Dutch begin the cultivation of coffee in Ceylon.

1660[L] - The first French commercial importation of coffee arrives
in bales at Marseilles from Egypt.

1660 - Coffee is first mentioned in the English statute books when a
duty of four pence is laid upon every gallon made and sold "to be
paid by the maker."

1660[L] - Nieuhoff, Dutch ambassador to China, is the first to make
a trial of coffee with milk, in imitation of tea with milk.

1660 - Elford's "white iron" machine for roasting coffee is much
used in England, being "turned on a spit by a jack."

1662 - Coffee is roasted in Europe over charcoal fires without
flame, in ovens, and on stoves; being "browned in uncovered
earthenware tart dishes, old pudding pans, fry pans."

1663 - All English coffee houses are required to be licensed.

1663 - Regular imports of Mocha coffee begin at Amsterdam.

1665 - The improved Turkish long brass combination coffee grinder
with folding handle and cup receptacle for green beans, for boiling
and serving, is first made in Damascus. About this period the
Turkish coffee set, including long-handled boiler and porcelain
cups in brass holders, comes into vogue.

1668 - Coffee is introduced into North America.

1669 - Coffee is introduced publicly into Paris by Soliman Aga, the
Turkish ambassador.

1670 - Coffee is roasted in larger quantities in small closed
sheet-iron cylinders having long iron handles designed to turn them
in open fireplaces. First used in Holland. Later, in France,
England, and the United States.

1670 - The first attempt to grow coffee in Europe at Dijon, France,
results in failure.

1670 - Coffee is introduced into Germany.

1670 - Coffee is first sold in Boston.

1671 - The first coffee house in France is opened in Marseilles in
the neighborhood of the Exchange.

1671 - The first authoritative printed treatise devoted solely to
coffee, written in Latin by Faustus Nairon, professor of Oriental
languages, Rome, is published in that city.

1671 - The first printed treatise in French, largely devoted to
coffee, _Concerning the Use of Coffee, Tea and Chocolate_, by
Philippe Sylvestre Dufour, purporting to be a translation from the
Latin, is published at Lyons.

1672 - Pascal, an Armenian, first sells coffee publicly at St.
Germain's fair, Paris, and opens the first Parisian coffee house.

1672 - Great silver coffee pots (with all the utensils belonging to
them of the same metal) are used at St.-Germain's fair, Paris.

1674 - _The Women's Petition Against Coffee_ is published in London.

1674 - Coffee is introduced into Sweden.

1675 - Charles II issues a proclamation to close all London coffee
houses as places of sedition. Order revoked on petition of the
traders in 1676.

1679 - An attempt by the physicians of Marseilles to discredit
coffee on purely dietetic grounds fails of effect; and consumption
increases at such a rate that traders in Lyons and Marseilles begin
to import the green bean by the ship-load from the Levant.

1679[L] - The first coffee house in Germany is opened by an English
merchant at Hamburg.

1683 - Coffee is sold publicly in New York.

1683 - Kolschitzky opens the first coffee house in Vienna.

1684 - Dufour publishes at Lyons, France, the first work on _The
Manner of Making Coffee, Tea, and Chocolate_.

1685 - _Café au lait_ is first recommended for use as a medicine by
Sieur Monin, a celebrated physician of Grenoble, France.

1686 - John Ray, one of the first English botanists to extol the
virtues of coffee in a scientific treatise, publishes his
_Universal Botany of Plants_ in London.

1686 - The first coffee house is opened in Regensburg, Germany.

1689 - Café de Procope, the first real French café, is opened in
Paris by François Procope, a Sicilian, coming from Florence.

1689 - The first coffee house is opened in Boston.

1691 - Portable coffee-making outfits to fit the pocket find favor
in France.

1692 - The "lantern" straight-line coffee pot with true cone lid,
thumb-piece, and handle fixed at right angle to the spout, is
introduced into England, succeeding the curved Oriental serving
pot.

1694 - The first coffee house is opened in Leipzig, Germany.

1696 - The first coffee house (The King's Arms) is opened in New
York.

1696 - The first coffee seedlings are brought from Kananur, on the
Malabar coast, and introduced into Java at Kedawoeng, near Batavia,
but not long afterward are destroyed by flood.

1699 - The second shipment of coffee plants from Malabar to Java by
Henricus Zwaardecroon becomes the progenitors of all the _arabica_
coffee trees in the Dutch East Indies.

1699 - Galland's translation of the earliest Arabian manuscript on
coffee appears in Paris under the title, _Concerning the First Use
of Coffee and the Progress It Afterward Made_.

1700 - Ye coffee house, the first in Philadelphia, is built by
Samuel Carpenter.

1700-1800 - Small portable coke or charcoal stoves made of
sheet-iron, and fitted with horizontal revolving cylinders turned
by hand, come into use for family roasting.

1701 - Coffee pots appear in England with perfect domes and bodies
less tapering.

1702 - The first "London" coffee house is established in
Philadelphia.

1704 - Bull's machine for roasting coffee, probably the first to use
coal for commercial roasting, is patented in England.

1706 - The first samples of Java coffee, and a coffee plant grown in
Java, are received at the Amsterdam botanical gardens.

1707 - The first coffee periodical, _The New and Curious Coffee
House_, is issued at Leipzig by Theophilo Georgi, as a kind of
organ of the first kaffee-klatsch.

1711 - Java coffee is first sold at public auction in Amsterdam.

1711 - A novelty in coffee-making is introduced into France by
infusing the ground beans in a fustian (linen) bag.

1712 - The first coffee house is opened in Stuttgart, Germany.

1713 - The first coffee house is opened in Augsburg, Germany.

1714 - The thumb-piece on English coffee pots disappears, and the
handle is no longer set at a right angle to the spout.

1714 - A coffee plant, raised from seed of the plant received at the
Amsterdam botanical gardens in 1706, is presented to Louis XIV of
France, and is nurtured in the Jardin des Plantes, Paris.

1715 - Jean La Roque publishes in Paris his _Voyage de l'Arabie
Heureuse_ (voyage to Arabia the Happy) containing much valuable
information on coffee in Arabia and its introduction into France.

1715 - Coffee cultivation is introduced into Haiti and Santo
Domingo.

1715-17 - Coffee cultivation is introduced into the Isle of Bourbon
(now Réunion) by a sea captain of St. Malo, who brings the plants
from Mocha by direction of the French Company of the Indies.

1718 - Coffee cultivation is introduced into Surinam by the Dutch.

1718 - Abbé Massieu's _Carmen Caffaeum_, the first and most notable
poem on coffee written in Latin, is composed, and is read before
the Academy of Inscriptions.

1720 - Caffè Florian is opened in Venice by Floriono Francesconi.

1721 - The first coffee house is opened in Berlin, Germany.

1721 - Meisner publishes a treatise on coffee, tea, and chocolate.

1722 - Coffee cultivation is introduced into Cayenne, from Surinam.

1723 - The first coffee plantation started in the Portuguese colony
of Pará, Brazil, with plants brought from Cayenne (French Guiana)
results in failure.

1723 - Gabriel de Clieu, Norman captain of infantry, sails from
France, accompanied by one of the seedlings of the Java tree
presented to Louis XIV, and with it shares his drinking water on a
protracted voyage to Martinique.

1730 - The English bring the cultivation of coffee to Jamaica.

1732 - The British Parliament seeks to encourage the cultivation of
coffee in British possessions in America by reducing the inland
duty.

1732 - Bach's celebrated _Coffee Cantata_ is published in Leipzig.

1737 - The Merchants' coffee house is established in New York; by
some called the true cradle of American liberty and the birthplace
of the Union.

1740 - Coffee culture is introduced into the Philippines from Java
by Spanish missionaries.

1748 - Coffee cultivation is introduced into Cuba by Don José
Antonio Gelabert.

1750 - Coffee cultivation is introduced into Celebes from Java.

1750 - The straight-line coffee pot in England begins to give way to
the reactionary movement in art favoring bulbous bodies and
serpentine spouts; the sides are nearly parallel, while the dome of
the lid is flattened to a slight elevation above the rim.

1752 - Intensive coffee cultivation is resumed in the Portuguese
colonies in Pará and Amazonas, Brazil.

1754 - A white-silver coffee roaster, eight inches high by four
inches in diameter, is mentioned as being among the deliveries made
to the army of Louis XV at Versailles.

1755 - Coffee cultivation is introduced into Porto Rico from
Martinique.

1760 - Decoction, or boiling, of coffee in France is generally
replaced by the infusion method.

1760 - João Alberto Castello Branco plants in Rio de Janeiro the
first coffee tree brought to Brazil from Goa, Portuguese India.

1761 - Brazil exempts coffee from export duty.

1763 - Donmartin, a tinsmith of St. Benoit, France, invents a novel
coffee pot, the inside of which is "filled by a fine flannel sack
put in its entirety." It has a tap to draw the coffee.

1764 - Count Pietro Verri publishes in Milan, Italy, a philosophic
and literary periodical, entitled _Il Caffè_ (the coffee house).

1765 - Mme. de Pompadour's golden coffee mill is mentioned in her
inventory.

1770 - Complete revolution in style of English serving pots; return
to the flowing lines of the Turkish ewer.

1770 - Chicory is first used with coffee in Holland.

1770-73 - Coffee cultivation begins in Rio, Minãs, and São Paulo.

1771 - John Dring is granted a patent in England for a compound
coffee.

1774 - Molke, a Belgian monk, introduces the coffee plant from
Surinam into the garden of the Capuchin monastery at Rio de
Janeiro.

1774 - A letter is sent by the Committee of Correspondence from the
Merchants' coffee house, New York, to Boston, proposing the
American Union.

1777 - King Frederick the Great of Prussia issues his celebrated
coffee and beer manifesto, recommending the use of the latter in
place of the former among the lower classes.

1779 - Richard Dearman is granted an English patent for a new method
of making mills for grinding coffee.

1779 - Coffee cultivation is introduced into Costa Rica from Cuba by
the Spanish voyager, Navarro.

1781 - King Frederick the Great of Prussia establishes state
coffee-roasting plants in Germany, declares the coffee business a
government monopoly, and forbids the common people to roast their
own coffee. "Coffee-smellers" make life miserable for violators of
the law.

1784 - Coffee cultivation is introduced into Venezuela by seed from
Martinique.

1784 - A prohibition against the use of coffee, except by the rich,
is issued by Maximilian Frederick, elector of Cologne.

1785 - Governor Bowdoin of Massachusetts introduces chicory to the
United States.

1789 - The first import duty on coffee, two and a half cents a
pound, is levied by the United States.

1789 - George Washington is officially greeted, April 23, as
president-elect of the U.S. at the Merchants coffee house in New
York.

1790 - Coffee cultivation is introduced into Mexico from the West
Indies.

1790 - The first wholesale coffee-roasting plant in the United
States begins operation at 4 Great Dock Street, New York.

1790 - The first United States advertisement for coffee appears in
the _New York Daily Advertiser._

1790 - The import duty on coffee in the United States is increased
to four cents a pound.

1790 - The first crude package coffee is sold in "narrow mouthed
stoneware pots and jars," by a New York merchant.

1792 - The Tontine coffee house is established in New York.

1794 - The import duty on coffee in the United States is increased
to five cents a pound.

1798 - The first United States patent for an improved
coffee-grinding mill is granted to Thomas Bruff, Sr.

1800[L] - Chicory comes into use in Holland as a substitute for
coffee.

1800[L] - De Belloy's coffee pot, made of tin, later of porcelain,
appears - the original French drip coffee pot.

1800[L]-1900[L] - There is a return in England to the style of
coffee-serving pot having the handle at right angle to the spout.

1802 - The first French patent on a coffee maker is granted to
Denobe, Henrion, and Rouch for "a pharmacological-chemical coffee
making device by infusion."

1802 - Charles Wyatt is granted a patent in London on an apparatus
for distilling coffee.

1804[L] - The first cargo of coffee - and other East Indian
produce - from Mocha, to be shipped in an American bottom, reaches
Salem, Mass.

1806 - James Henckel is granted a patent in England on a coffee
dryer, "an invention communicated to him by a certain foreigner."

1806 - The first French patent on an improved French drip coffee pot
for making coffee by filtration, without boiling, is granted to
Hadrot.

1806 - The coffee percolator (really an improved French drip coffee
pot) is invented by Count Rumford (Benjamin Thompson), an



Online LibraryWilliam H. (William Harrison) UkersAll about coffee → online text (page 98 of 117)