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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

COLLEGE OF MEDICINE



61971

. CALIFORNIA 92664



MATERIA MEDICA,
PHARMACY, PHARMACOLOGY

AND

THERAPEUTICS.



MATER1A MEDICA,



PHARMACY, PHARMACOLOGY



AND



THERAPEUTICS.



W. HALE WHITE, M.D., F.R.C.P.,

PHYSICIAN TO AND LECTURER ON MEDICINE AT GUY'S HOSPITAL, LONDON ; AUTHOR OP
A TBXT-BOOK OF GENERAL THERAPEUTICS.



EDITED BY

REYNOLD W. WILCOX, M.A., M.D., LL.D.,

PROFESSOR OF MEDICINE AND THERAPEUTICS AT THE NEW YORK POST-GRADUATE MEDICAL

SCHOOL AND ATTENDING PHYSICIAN TO THB HOSPITAL; VISITING PHYSICIAN

TO ST. MARK'S HOSPITAL ; PRESIDENT OF THE AMERICAN THERAPEUTIC

SOCIETY ; FELLOW OF THB AMERICAN ACADEMY OF MEDICINE, ETC.



FIFTH AMERICAN EDITION

THOROUGHLY REVISED



PHILADELPHIA

P. BLAKISTON'S SON & CO.,
1012 WALNUT STREET.
1911.



Dr. J. Gayiord Goodrich






Copyright, 1901, by
P. BLAKISTON'S SON & CO.



PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION.



ENDEAVORING to keep this edition abreast of the times, I
have revised the whole and added twelve pages of ne.w matter.
To Dr. E. C. Perry and other friends I am indebted for having
directed my attention to some misprints.

[In presenting this edition the EDITOR would acknowledge
his indebtedness, for numerous and valuable suggestions, to the
many teachers, and especially to Dr. R. H. M. Dawbarn, who
have used the previous editions in their classrooms, to the re-
viewers who have courteously, but critically, examined the book,
and to Dr. Henry H. Rusby and the late Dr. Charles Rice for
important aid, particularly in regard to the definitions. The
writings of most American and foreign authorities have been
freely consulted. To bring this work up to date, his own journal
files, which comprise all the periodicals devoted to the subjects
upon which it treats, have been carefully studied. The unofficial
preparations have been reviewed after consideration of the re-
cent literature, and his practical experience with them. Not-
withstanding careful condensation this edition is forty pages
larger than its predecessor. For the convenience of the student
a very complete index has been prepared by Dr. Ernest V. Hub-
bard, who has also kindly read the proof. Brackets [ ] are used

throughout the book to indicate additions by the Editor.]

(5)



CONTENTS.



PACK

DEFINITIONS

PHARMACY

PHARMACOLOGY AND THERAPEUTICS, 3 8

Prescribing, .

Actions of Drugs, 4

Drugs acting on Processes outside the Body, . . 4

Drugs acting on the Blood, 5 1

Drugs acting on the Cardiac Mechanism, 55

Drugs acting on the Vessels, 59

Drugs acting on the Skin,

Drugs acting on the Urinary System

Drugs acting on Bodily Heat 7 1

Drugs acting on Respiration 74

Drugs acting on the Digestive Apparatus, 79

Drugs acting on the Nervous [and Muscular] Systems, ... 99

Drugs acting on the Organs of Generation, 1 12

Drugs acting on Metabolism

PHARMACOPCEIAL INORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA

GROUP I. Water, II6

II. The Alkaline Metals, . . . .122

III. The Alkaline Earths, X 55

IV. Lead, Silver, Zinc, Copper, Bismuth, Aluminum, . . 165

t OQ

V. Iron and Manganese,

VI. [Gold and] Mercury, 2O 9

VII. Arsenic, Antimony, Chromium, 223

VIII. Phosphorus 2 3 6

IX. Chlorine, Iodine, Bromine, 243

X. Sulphur [and its Compounds], 2 S$

XI. Acids 26 3

XII. Carbon and its Compounds, 2 7 6



8 CONTENTS.

PACK

FHARMACOPCEIAL ORGANIC VEGETABLE MATERIA MEDICA

GROUP I. Drugs acting on the Nervous System, . . . .349

II. Drugs acting on the Heart, ...... 420

III. Drugs acting on the Respiratory Organs, . . . 448

IV. Drugs which are Antiperiodic and Antipyretic, . . 463
V. Purgatives, 483

VI. Volatile Oils, 514

VIL Bitters, 580

VIII. Astringents, 592

IX. Demulcents 605

X. Parisiticides, 622

XI. Diuretics, . . . 631

XII. Drugs acting upon the Uterus, ..... 637

XIII. [Colchicura], 64$

XIV. Drugs Related to Volatile Oils, 648

XV. Drugs containing Important Acids, .... 654

XVI. [Flavoring Agents], 661

XVII. Coloring Agents, 664

XVIII. Drugs whose Action is Mechanical, .... 665

XIX. Drugs [acting on Metabolism], ..... 669
PHARMACOPCEIAL ORGANIC ANIMAL MATERIA MEDICA

[GROUP I. Drugs acting on the Nervous System, .... 679

II. Purgatives, 680

III. Digestants, 682

IV. Drugs which are also Foods, ..... 684
V. Emollients, ........ 690

VI. Coloring Agents, . 692

VII. Drugs whose Action is Mechanical, .... 692

VIII. Organic Extracts (not official), ..... 701

IX. Antitoxins and Serums (not official), .... 705]

APPENDIX I. VEGETABLE NATURAL ORDERS 713

[II. ANIMAL NATURAL ORDERS 718]

III. LATIN PHRASES USED IN PRESCRIPTIONS, . . . 719

INDEX, 721



MATERIA MEDICA
PHARMACY, PHARMACOLOGY

AND

THERAPEUTICS.



DEFINITIONS.

Materia Medica. [The materials used in the treatment of
disease.

Therapeutics. The application of remedial agents in the
treatment of disease. It includes :

General Therapeutics. The application of curative
agents other than drugs and medicines. E.g., diet,
climate, baths, venesection.

Rational Therapeutics. Therapeutics based upon
Pharmaco -dynamics. E.g., the use of digitalis for
mitral disease.

Empirical Therapeutics. Therapeutics based upon
clinical experiences only. E.g. , the use of colchicum
for gout.

In this work we shall consider only that part of Thera-
peutics which is concerned with drugs.

Pharmacology. The study of Materia Medica and Thera-
peutics, including the origin, history, properties and uses of
drugs and medicines. It includes :

Pharmacognosy. The study of the physical and
chemical characters of drugs, and the art of identify-

(9)



IO DEFINITIONS.

ing and selecting them in accordance with those char-
acters.

Pharmaco-Dynamics. The study of the action of
remedial agents upon the organism of man, or the
lower animals in a state of health.

Therapeutics. Although the correct definition of this
term is as given above, yet it is, for want of a better
one, often used as the name of the branch of study
which deals with Therapeutics. Therapo-Dynamics
has been used in the same sense, but is faulty. Expe-
rimental Therapeutics has been suggested, but is
not comprehensive.

Toxicology. The study of the nature, effects and detection
of poisons, substances which, introduced into the body inoppor-
tunely or in excessive amounts, are capable of destroying life.
Courses of study and treatises upon Toxicology are, for conveni-
ence, commonly made to include the subject of antidotes and
treatment, although this is, strictly speaking, a part of Thera-
peutics.

Pharmacy. The art of preparing drugs in a form suitable
for use as remedial agents and of dispensing them.

Pharmacopoeia. A code of remedial agents, usually with
descriptions, definitions or directions, prepared by experts ap-
pointed by an authority of some kind, and intended to serve
as a standard until superseded by a new one. By admitting
certain articles to its pages, it declares them to be of importance,
through the extent of their use, or to be entitled to confidence
because of their value, or both, in the practice of medicine, but
does not, necessarily, deny these properties to articles not ad-
mitted. It fixes their official title or titles, and often their lead-
ing synonym or synonyms. Usually it defines them, describes
them with sufficient completeness to provide for identification
and determination of the proper degree of purity, or strength,
or both, and details and recommends such operations in prepar-
ing them as pertain to a dispensing pharmacy. It may, in addi-
tion, fix or limit doses and provide rules, formulae, tables, and
other information and directions of importance in the practice



PHARMACY. 1 1

of pharmacy and medicine. It also fixes a date upon which its
authority shall commence. Everything contained in the United
States Pharmacopoeia (abbreviation " U. S. P.") is said to be
" official." " Not official," as used in this work, refers only to
the U. S. P. Many drugs and preparations are so designated
which are, however, official in the British Pharmacopoeia (abbre-
viation " B. P.")

The United States Pharmacopoeia is prepared by a
committee, meeting at the beginning of each decade, consisting
of delegates appointed by invitation extended by the President
of the preceding Convention, to all incorporated medical and
pharmaceutical societies and medical and pharmaceutical colleges,
and to the United States Army, Navy, and Marine Hospital
Service. By Congressional action the U. S. P. is made a legal
authority in the conduct of the Department of Customs, of the
Army, Navy, and Marine Hospital Service, and of the District
of Columbia and other Territories within the jurisdiction of the
United States laws. By legislative enactment it is also made a
legal authority within the jurisdiction of many States. With
these exceptions its authority is but moral. The last edition
became official on January i, 1894.]

PHARMACY.

[Pharmacy covers a field of nearly as much importance,
breadth and difficulty as that of medicine itself, and requires a
special, extensive and thorough preparation. It should never
be practiced by the physician, when the services of a competent
manufacturing or dispensing pharmacist can be utilized. The
physician should, however, be acquainted with the general prin-
ciples and most details of the science and art of Pharmacy, that
he may judge intelligently of the services rendered him by the
pharmacist, and also be prepared to act with safety himself in
cases of emergency. A pharmaceutical education to this extent,
accompanied by dispensary practice, should be provided for in
every thorough course of medical study. The more important
terms pertaining to Pharmacy are defined and explained below.



12 PHARMACY.

DEFINITION OF TERMS AS APPLIED TO SUBSTANCES OF
VEGETABLE ORIGIN.

Alkaloids. (Their English names terminating in ine, their
Latin names terminating in ina. ) Compounds of carbon, hydro-
gen and nitrogen, and usually containing also oxygen, either
existing in the plant as proximate principles, or being derived
from other alkaloids, having basic properties, and forming salts,
usually crystallizable, with acids, without displacing any of the
hydrogen of the latter. The chief characters are as follows :

(1) Either

(a) solid, mostly crystalline and colorless, non-volatile, or
(^) liquid and volatile.]

(2) They turn red litmus paper blue.

[(3) They are soluble in alcohol, chloroform, benzin, benzol, and often in
ether. They are insoluble in water, but not so their salts, while the latter are
insoluble in chloroform, ether, benzin and benzol.

(4) They are usually precipitated from saline solutions by alkalies.

(5) [One or more of the following will precipitate them : tannic, phospho-
molybdic or picric acid, potassio-mercuric iodide or auric chloride.]

(6) Their solutions are usually [intensely] bitter.

[Alkaloids are, as a class, the most energetic and important medicinal con-
stituents of plants. Examples in U. S. P. : Atropine, Morphine, Strychnine.

Glucosides. (Their English names terminating in in, their
Latin names terminating in inum. ) Bodies which, heated with
a diluted mineral acid and water, or by the action of a ferment,
split up into glucose and some other substances (alcohols, alde-
hydes, phenols). Examples in U. S. P. : Salicinum, Picrotoxinum.

Amaroids or Bitter Principles (their names ending in/*
and inum as above) are of such varied nature that they do not
admit of any chemical diagnosis. The term includes all distinctly
bitter extractives of definite chemical composition other than
alkaloids and glucosides.

Glucosides and Amaroids are not the only principles whose names end



Fixed Oils are ethers of the higher fatty acids which] at
ordinary temperatures remain liquid. The usual fatty acids



DEFINITIONS. 1 3

entering into the composition of fixed oils are oleic, palmitic,
and stearic.

Example : Olive oil consists of a mixture of a combination of oleic acid
(C 18 H 34 O 2 ) with glyceryl (C S H 5 ) and palmitic acid (C 16 H M O 2 ) with glyceryl.
That is to say, ordinary olive oil is a mixture of two^ils having the formulae
CjH 5 (C 18 H 33 O 2 ) 3 and C 3 H 5 (C 16 H 31 O.,) 3 respectively. When acted upon by
caustic alkalies or metallic oxides they form soaps (oleates, palmitates, or
stearates of metals) and glycerin. This process is called saponification, e.g.^
C S H 5 (C - H - 0,) r f3NOH=3^G vl H - p l +C,H,(OH) r

Sodium oleate ( Hard soap. ) Glycerin.

Fixed oils are obtained by expression or by boiling with
water and skimming off the melted oil, from the fruits or seeds
of plants, or from animal tissues. When pure they are usually
[colorless or pale] yellow ; they float on water and cause a greasy
mark on paper. They are called fixed because they cannot be
distilled without decomposition. They are soluble in ether,
chloroform, [turpentine and volatile oils.

ffi^W-

Those in U. S. P. are Oleum Amygdalae Expressum^ Lini, Morrhuse,
Olivae, Ricini x and Tiglii.] ^v^*r* VJU'X .

C%^fcrtljJl*
Fats are fixed oils which are solid at ordinary temperatures ;

if extracted by expression, sufficient heat to melt them must be

used.

Cfo*- d*ffo-f
[Examples in U. S. P. : Oleum Theobromatis, Adeps.

The same definitions will apply to fixed oils and fats of animal origin. ]

Waxes are chiefly composed of fatty acids combined with
monohydric alcohols homologous with methyl alcohol.

Volatile or Essential Oils only resemble fixed oils in
being soluble in the same media. They do not leave a greasy
mark on paper. They are mostly inflammable, and mostly lighter
than water. They are highly aromatic, and sufficiently soluble
in water to impart their odor and taste to it. Most are prepared
by distillation that is, by passing a current of steam through the
substance from which they are extracted, the steam is condensed,
and the oil either floats to the top or sinks to the bottom of the
water. A few, as oil of lemon, are obtained by expression.
Their composition varies [greatly, and they are of four classes :



14 PHARMACY.

(a) Terpenes, which consist of carbon and hydrogen ; e.g., Oil of tur-
pentine.

(6) Oxygenated, containing oxygen ; e.g., Oil of eucalyptus.

(c] Sulphurated, containing sulphur; e.g., Volatile oil of mustard.

(</) Nitrogenated, containing hydrocyanic acid ; e.g., Oil of bitter
almond. ]

They may contain aldehydes, phenol derivatives, ethers or
ethereal salts, alcohols or ketones, generally associated with
terpenes of varying composition.

[Elaeoptens, their names ending in ene, are liquid hydro-
carbons isomeric with terpene (C 10 H, 6 ).

Stearoptens, their names usually ending in ol, are oxidized
hydrocarbons, usually solid and crystalline.

Examples in U. S. P. : Camphora, Menthol. ]

Resins [are of very indefinite composition] . They are among
the products of oxidation of volatile oils, [being usually oxidized
terpenes. They are solid, most uncrystallizable, fusible, not
volatile, combustible, insoluble in water, mostly soluble in alka-
lies and volatile oils, and also in one or more of the following :
alcohol, ether, chloroform, and fixed oils. Since] they are in-
soluble in water, but not in alcohol, they may be prepared by
extraction with alcohol and precipitation with water. This is
the reason for the precipitate which falls when water is added to
a resinous tincture. Those which combine with alkalies form
resin soaps. Hence the alkali in Tinctura Guaiaci Ammoniata,
and Tinctura Valerianse Ammoniata. [When occurring nat-
urally, there are usually two or more resins mixed.

The U. S. P. resins are Resina Copaibse, Jalapae, Podophylli, and Scam-
monii, Pix Burgundica, and Mastiche.]

Oleoresins are natural solutions of resins in volatile oils.

[Those in the U. S. P. are Oleoresina Aspidii, Capsici, Cubebse, Lupulini,
Piperis, and Zingiberis.]

Balsam, [is a term used in several different ways. As to the
U. S. P. articles, they are liquid or soft products containing resin,
an odorous principle, and benzoic, or cinnamic acids, or both.



PHARMACEUTICAL PROCESSES. I 5

Those in U. S. P. are Balsamum Peruvianum, and Tolutanum, Benzoi-
num, and Styrax.

Resins containing benzoic or cinnamic acids are sometimes
called solid balsams.]

Gums, are exudations from plants, [having an insipid taste,
insoluble in ether and alcohol, in water either dissolving to form
a mucilage or swelling to form an adhesive jelly.] They consist
of one or more of [the following] :

(a) Arabin or soluble gums, e.g., Acacia.

(6) Bassorin or partially soluble gums, e.g., Tragacantha.

(6) Cerasin or insoluble gum.

Solutions of gum are precipitated by alcohol.

Gum-resins are exudations from plants consisting of a mix-
ture of [one or more] gums and [one or more] resins. When
they are rubbed with water the gum dissolves and the resin re-
mains mechanically suspended in the solution, [forming an
emulsion.

The U. S. P. gum-resins are Ammoniacum, Asafcetida, Cambogia, Myrrha,
and Scammonium.]

<z

PHARMACEUTICAL PROCESSES.

Many of these, as filtration, precipitation, etc., need no ex-
planation, but the following require a few words.

[Dialysis. The process of separating crystalloids from col-
loids by bringing them in a mixed solution, into contact with
one side of a membrane, such as a bladder, parchment or a parch-
ment paper, which has water in contact with its other side, and
resulting in the passage into the water of the crystalloid to form
the ' ' diffusate, ' ' the remainder constituting the ' ' dialysate. ' ' In
this way dialysed iron is prepared by diffusing the excess of the
crystalloid acid solution.

Displacement. Another name for Percolation.]

Elutriation consists in diffusing an insoluble powder in
water, letting the heavier part settle, then decanting the super-
natant fluid. The heavier powder in this is allowed to settle, the



1 6 PHARMACY.

*

fluid decanted, and so on until a fluid containing powder of the
required fineness is obtained.

Levigation consists in reducing a drug to powder by tritur-
ating it with a little water and drying the resulting paste.

Lixiviation consists in the extraction with water of the sol-
uble matter of the ashes of anything which has been ignited, the
solution being called a " lye."

Maceration. [The extraction of the soluble portions of a
substance which is not wholly soluble in the menstruum, by pro-
longed contact therewith.

Percolation. The extraction in a suitable vessel (the "per-
colator " ) of the soluble constituents of a powder by the descent
through it of a solvent (the "menstruum"), the resulting solution
being called the "percolate."] The marc is the material after
its exhaustion by maceration or percolation. [Percolation enters
into the manufacture of a great majority of the official prepara-
tions of organic drugs.]

Repercolation consists in using the liquid obtained by a
substance as the menstruum for percolating a second portion of the
same substance, and using the liquid from this second percolation
as a menstruum for percolating a third portion of the same sub-
stance, and so on as often as may be desired.

Scaling. Scale preparations are made by drying concentrated
solutions of drugs on glass plates. The solid left behind forms
a thin film on the plate, and this film is broken up. Some prep-
arations of iron are [obtained by scaling] .

Standardizing. [Specifying an upper or lower limit, or
both, of the active constituent which a drug or its preparation
must contain in order to be official, and prescribing an appro-
priate process for its determination. Satisfactory processes for
standardizing are extremely difficult to establish, and have been
adopted for the following only :

Cinchona, not less than 5 per cent, of total alkaloids.

Cinchona rubra, " 5 " " "

Extractum nucis vomicae, 15 " " "

Extractum nucis vomicae fluidum, 1 . 5 per cent, of total alkaloids.

Tinctura nucis vomicse, 0.3 per cent, of total alkaloids.



WEIGHTS, MEASURES AND SYMBOLS. I/

Opium, not less than 9 per cent, of crystallized morphine.
Opii pulvis, not less than 13 nor more than 15 per cent, of crystallized
morphine.

Extractum opii, 1 8 per cent, of crystallized morphine.

Tinctura opii,

Tinctura opii deodorati, }- 1.3 to 1.5 per cent, of crystallized morphine.]

Vinum opii, 44

^ K
WEIGHTS, MEASURES, AND SYMBOLS.

Weights [(Apothecaries' or Troy weight).

I grain symbol gr.

480 grains = one OUNCE " %

12 ounces = one POUND " ft]

The scruple (20 grains, symbol 9 ) is rarely used, and the drachm (60
grains, symbol 3) is commonly used.

Measures of Capacity.

I minim symbol, fl

60 minims = one FLUID DRACHM " 3

8 fluid drachms one FLUID OUNCE " ^

[16 fluid ounces = one PINT ... " O]

8 pints = one GALLON . . " C

Usually 3 and J are written fl 3 and fl J when they stand for fluid drachms
and fluid ounces.

Relations of Measures to Weights.

I minim is the measure of [O-95 grains of water.

I fluid drachm " " 56.96 " "

i fluid ounce " " 455-69 " "

I pint " " 7291.04] " "

A I per cent, solution is approximately a grain in no minims.
A fluid grain is the volume of one grain of water at 60 F. ; [15.5 C] ;
that is to say, it is a little over a minim [(1.05 ""I).]

In the pharmacopoeial description of the various proportions which several

parts of a compound bear to one another, the word parts means parts by weight ;

the term fluid parts signifies the volume of an equal number of parts of water.

Metrical System. This, which is as follows, is official on the Continent

and in the [U. S. P. and] B. P. for the making of drugs and preparations.

WEIGHTS.

I milligramme = o.ooi gramme.
I centigramme = o.oi "
I decigramme = o. I "

I gramme = weight of i cubic centimetre of distilled water at 4 C. ;

39.2 F. Abbreviation, gm.

2






1 8 PHARMACY.

I dekagramme = 10.0 grammes.

I hektogramme = 100.0 "

I kilogramme = looo.o " Abbreviation, kilo.

MEASURES.

I millilitre = I cubic centimetre ( abbreviation, c. c. ) = the measure of I
I centilitre = loc.c.= the measure of logm. of water, [gm. of water,
i decilitre = looc.c. " " 100 " "

I litre = ioooc.c.== " " 1000 " (i kilo of water).

Conversion of [United States] to Metrical System.
WEIGHTS.

I grain = 0.0648 gm.
[i ounce = 31.103 gm.
I pound = 373.250] "

MEASURES.

minim = [0.0616 c.c.

fluid drachm = 3.75 "
fluid ounce = 29.57 "
pint = 473. 18 "

gallon = 3785.43] "

Conversion of Metrical to [United States Weights and Measures.]

WEIGHTS.

I milligramme = 0.015432 grain.
I gramme = 1 5.43235 grains.
I kilogramme = 15432.356 "

MEASURES.

I cubic centimetre = [16.23 minims.
i litre ( 1000 c.c.) = 33.81 ] fluid ounces.
In prescribing on the Continent all liquids are weighed.
The weight used for liquids and solids is grammes, and this word is not
expressed. Thus

Magnesii sulphas 20.0 = 20 grammes of magnesium sulphate.

Hydrargyri chloridum mite 0.5 = half a gramme of mild mercurous chloride.
Tinctura rhei 1.5=3 gramme and a half of tincture of rhubarb.

Domestic Measures.

A TEA-SPOONFUL is about a fluid drachm, [4 c.c]. Usually it is a little
more, viz., nearly 5 c.c.

A DESSERT-SPOONFUL is about two fluid drachms, [8 c.c.].

A TABLE-SPOONFUL is about half a fluid ounce, [15 c.c. Usually it is
almost 20 c.c.].



PHARMACOPCEIAL PREPARATIONS AND DOSES. 19

A WINE-GLASSFUL is about one and a half to two fluid ounces, [45 to
60 c.c.].

A TEA-CUPFUL is about five fluid ounces, [150 c.c.].

A BREAKFAST-CUPFUL is about eight fluid ounces, [240 c.c.].

A TUMBLERFUL is about eleven fluid ounces, [330 c.c.].

A DROP is often taken as being a minim, but drops vary so much in size
that they should never be used for children, nor as a measure of powerful
drugs. For example, the number of drops in a fluid drachm of the United
States Syrup of Acacia is 44, of Water 60, of Alcohol 146, of Chloroform 250.

[Spoons, glasses and cups vary so much in capacity that it is never safe to
prescribe solutions of powerful drugs to be measured by them. The use of
glass graduates, which can be obtained accurately marked, should be insisted
upon. ]

PHARMACOPGEIAL PREPARATIONS AND THEIR DOSES.

Most drugs are not, in their natural state, suitable for administration. They
are either too bulky, too nauseous, or contain noxious principles. Preparations
suitable for administration are, therefore, prepared from them according to
"official" pharmacopoeial directions. The doses of the various drugs and
their preparations which may safely be given to an adult [are taken from the
"Tables for Doctors and Druggists," ad ed., compiled by Eli H. Long,



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