the axis again in D, and a tangent is drawn to the circle at

D : if two tangents be drawn to the circle from any point in

the conic they will intercept between them a constant length

of the former tangent.

117. If the lines which bisect the angles between pairs of

tangents to an ellipse be parallel to a fixed straight line,

prove that the locus of the points of intersection of the

tangents will be a rectangular hyperbola.

118. An hyperbola, of given eccentricity, always passes

through two given points; if one of its asymptotes always

pass through a third given point in the same straight line

with these, prove that the locus of the centre of the hyperbola

will be a circle.

119. A, P and B, Q are points taken respectively in two

parallel straight lines, A and B being fixed, and P, Q variable.

Prove that if the rectangle APBQ be constant, the line PQ

will always touch a fixed ellipse or a fixed hyperbola, ac-

cording as P and Q are on the same or opposite sides of

AB.

120. If two plane sections of a right cone be taken, having

the same directrix, the foci corresponding to that directrix lie

on a straight line which passes through the vertex.

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121. Give a geometrical construction by which a cone may

be cut so that the section may be an ellipse of given eccen-

tricity.

CONIC SECTIONS. 139

122. Given a right cone and a point within it, there are

but two sections which have this point for focus ; and the

planes of these sections make equal angles with the straight

line joining the given point and the vertex of the cone.

123. If the curve formed by the intersection of any plane

with a cone be projected upon a plane perpendicular to the

axis, prove that the curve of projection will be a conic section

having its focus at the point m which the axis meets the

plane of projection.

124. If F be the point where the major axis of an elliptic

section meets the axis of the cone, and be the centre of the

section ; prove that

CF : C'S :: AA' : AO + A'O,

being the vertex of the cone.

SECOND SEPJES.

1. If OQ, OQ' be tangents to a parabola, and OF" drawn

parallel to the axis meet the directrix in K and QQ' in l r ,

and QQ' meet the axis in X, OKXS shall be a parallelo-

gram.

2. G is the foot of a normal at a point P of a parabola, Q

is the middle point of SG, and X is the foot of the directrix,

prove that

QX 2 - QP- 2 = 4AS\

3. Through any point tangents are drawn to a parabola ;

and through straight lines are drawn parallel to the normals

at the points of contact, prove that one diagonal of the

parallelogram so formed passes through the focus.

4. Two parabolas have their foci coincident, prove that the

common chord passes through the intersection of the direc-

trices, and that they cut one another at angles which are half

the angles between the axes.

140 CONIC SECTIONS.

5. A circle is drawn through the point of intersection of

two given straight lines and through another given point,

prove that the straight line joining the points, where the

circle again meets the two given straight lines, touches a fixed

parabola.

G. Common tangents are drawn to two parabolas which

have a common directrix and intersect in P, Q ; prove that

the chords joining the points of contact in each parabola are

parallel to PQ ; and the part of each tangent between its

points of contact with the two curves is bisected by PQ

produced.

7. The tangents at two points Q, Q' in the parabola meet

the tangent at P in P, P' respectively, and the diameter

through their point of intersection T meets it in K\ prove

that PR = KB' and that if QM, Q'M/ TN be the ordinates

of Q, Q,' T respectively to the diameter through P, PNis a

mean proportional between PM and PM' .

8. P and p are points on a parabola on the same side of

the axis and PN, pn the ordinates; the normals at P and p

intersect in Q ; prove that the distance of Q from the axis

_ 2 P N. pn{PN + p n)

(latus rectum) 2

Deduce the value of the radius of curvature.

9. Two equal parabolas have a common focus, and from

any point on the common tangent another tangent is drawn

to each ; prove that these tangents are equidistant from the

common focus.

10. From an external point two tangents are drawn to a

parabola, and from the points where they meet the directrix

two other tangents are drawn meeting the tangents from at

A and B.

Prove that AB passes through the focus S, and that OS is

at right angles to AB.

CONIC SECTIONS. 141

11. Given two tangent lines to a parabola and the focus,

show how to determine the eurve.

12. Inscribe in a given parabola a triangle having its sides

parallel to those of a given triangle.

13. Normals at P, p the extremities of a focal chord of a

parabola meet the axis in G and g. The tangents meet in T.

Prove that the circles about the triangles SPG, Spg intersect

on T 8 produced at a point P such that S bisects P T.

14. A circle and parabola touch one another at both ends

of a double ordinate to the parabola, prove that the latus

rectum is a third proportional to the parts into which the

abscissa of the points of contact is divided by the circle either

internally or externally.

15. PQ is a chord of a parabola normal at P; QR is

drawn parallel to the axis to meet the double ordinate PP'

produced in B; then the rectangle contained by PP' and

P' Pi is constant.

16. OP, OQ are two tangents to a parabola, and OM is

drawn perpendicular to the axis ; if R be the point where

PQ cuts the axis, MP is bisected by the vertex.

17. A parabola, whose focus is 8, touches the three sides of

a triangle ABC, bisecting the base EC in D ; prove that

A 8 is a fourth proportional to A D, A B, and A 0.

18. If the chord of contact be normal at one end, the

tangent at the other is bisected by the perpendicular through

the focus to the line joining the focus to the external point.

19. Two parabolas have a common focus, and from any

point on their common tangent are drawn two other tangents

to the parabolas; prove that the angle between them is

equal to the angle between the axes of the parabolas.

20. If tangents be let fall on any tangent to a parabola

from two given points on the axis equidistant from the focus,

the difference of their squares is constant.

142 ccmc SECTIONS.

21. If a quadrilateral be inscribed in a circle, one of the

three diagonals of the quadrilateral passes through the focus

of the parabola which touches its four sides.

22. A chord of a parabola is drawn parallel to a given

straight line, and on this chord as diameter a circle is de-

scribed ; prove that the distance between the middle point of

this chord, and of the chord joining the other two points of

intersection of the circle and parabola will be of constant

lenoth.

23. Through any point P of an ellipse a line is drawn

perpendicular to the radius vector CP meeting the auxiliary

circle in R, R' : prove that RE' is equal to the difference of

the focal distances of the extremity of the diameter conjugate

to CP.

24. An ellipse and parabola whose axes are parallel, have

the same curvature at a point P and cut one another in Q ;

if the tangent at P meet the axis of the parabola in T prove

that PQ is four times PT.

25. A triangle is inscribed in an ellipse so that each side

is parallel to the tangent at the opposite angle : prove that

the sum of the squares on the sides is to the sum of the

squares on the axes as nine to eight.

26. In an ellipse the perimeter of the quadrilateral formed

by the tangent, the perpendiculars from the foci and the trans-

verse axis, will be the greatest possible, when the focal dis-

tances of the point of contact are at right angles to each other.

27. Two given ellipses in the same plane have a common

focus, and one revolves about the common focus, while the

other remains fixed ; prove that the locus of the point of

intersection of their common tangents is a circle.

23. Perpendiculars SY, S r Y' are drawn from the foci upon

a pair of tangents TY, TY' ; prove that the angles STY,

S J TY' are equal or supplementary to the angles at the base

of the triangle formed by joining F, Y' to the centre of the

ellipse.

CONIC SECTIONS. 143

29. With the centre of perpendiculars of a triangle as

centre, are described two ellipses, one about the triangle, and

the other touching its sides : prove that these ellipses are

similar and their homologous axes at right angles.

30. Through a point P of an ellipse a line PDE is drawn

cutting the axes so that the segments PI) and PE are equal

to the two semi-axes respectively ; perpendiculars to the axes

through D and E intersect in ; prove that PO is a normal.

31. If the focal distance SP of an ellipse meet the con-

jugate diameter in E ; then the difference of the squares on

UP and SE will be constant.

32. The chords of curvature through any two points of an

ellipse in the direction of the line joining them are in the

same ratio as the squares of the diameters parallel to the

tangents at the points.

33. From the extremities of the diameter of an ellipse,

perpendicular to one of the equi-conjugate diameters, chords

are drawn parallel to the other. Prove that these chords are

normal to the ellipse.

34. An ellipse of given semi-axes touches three sides of a

given rectangle ; find its centre and foci.

35. If P, Q be any two points on a fixed ellipse, whose foci

are S, //and if JSI\ II Q intersect within the ellipse at R,

prove that two ellipses can be drawn touching each other at

It, the one having 8 for focus and touching the given ellipse

at Q, the other having II for focus and touching the given

ellipse at P.

If the major axis of one of the variable ellipses be given

find the loci of their other foci, and of their point of contact.

36. Find the positions of the foci and directrices of an

ellipse, which touches at two given points P, Q, two given

straight lines PO, QO, and has one focus on the line PQ,

the angle PO Q being less than a right angle.

144 CONIC SECTIONS.

37. If Pp be drawn parallel to the transverse axis of a

given ellipse, meeting the ellipse in P,p, and the circle whose

diameter is the conjugate axis in B, r, then shall

Pp : Br :: QQ f : PP'.

38. Through any point P of an ellipse are drawn straight

lines APQ; A' P R meeting the auxiliary circle in Q, B, and

ordinates Qq, Br are drawn to the transverse axis; prove

that, L being an extremity of the latus rectum

Aq . A'r : At . A'q :: AC 2 : SL 2 .

39. Two ellipses whose axes are equal, each to each, are

placed in the same plane with their centres coincident, and

axes inclined to each other. Draw their common tangents.

40. If S, S' be the two foci of an ellipse ; and $ Y the

perpendicular from S upon any tangent, prove that /S' Y will

bisect the corresponding normal.

41. OB is a diagonal of the parallelogram of which OQ,

OQ', tangents to an ellipse, are adjacent sides : prove that if

R be in the ellipse, will lie on a similar and similarly

situated concentric ellipse.

42. A circle passes through a focus of an ellipse, has its

centre on the major axis of the ellipse, and touches the

ellipse : shew that the straight line from the focus to the

point of contact is equal to the latus rectum.

43. If the focus of an ellipse be joined with the point

where the tangent at the nearer vertex intersects any other

tangent, and perpendiculars be drawn from the other focus on

the joining line, and the last mentioned tangent, prove that

the distance between the feet of these perpendiculars is equal

to the distance from either focus to the remoter vertex.

44. A parallelogram is described about an ellipse ; if two

of its angular points lie on the directrices, the other two will

lie on the auxiliary circle.

CONIC SECTIONS. 145

45. PS is the focal chord of a point on an ellipse ; CR is

a radius of the auxiliary circle parallel to PS, and drawn in

the direction from P to S] SQ is a perpendicular on OR;

shew that the rectangle contained by SP and QR is equal to

the square on half the minor axis.

46. From the extremity P of the diameter PQ of an ellipse

the tangent TPT is drawn meeting two conjugate diameters

in T, T. From P Q the lines PR, QR are drawn parallel to

the same conjugate diameters. Prove that the rectangle under

the semi-axes of the ellipse is a mean proportional between

the triangles P QR and CTT.

47. If CP and CD be equal conjugate diameters of an

ellipse, and the tangent and normal at P meet the major axis

in T and G respectively, prove that TC . TG = 20 P\

48. An ellipse is inscribed in a triangle having its centre

at the centre of the circumscribed circle of the triangle ;

prove that the perpendiculars from the corners of the triangle

on the opposite sides will be normals to the ellipse.

49. Tangents are drawn from any point on the auxiliary

circle to the ellipse ; prove that the line joining one of the

points of contact with one of the foci is parallel to the line

joining the other point of contact with the other focus.

50. From a point P without an ellipse, P Q is drawn

parallel to the major axis, Q being either of the points in

which it meets the curve ; then the straight line bisecting

PQ at right angles, the tangent at Q, and the line which

joins the middle points of PK, PL (the tangents drawn

from P) meet in a point.

51. CP and CD are conjugate semi-diameters of an ellipse ;

PQ is a chord parallel to one of the axes ; shew that DQ is

parallel to one of the straight lines which join the ends of

the axes.

52. A series of ellipses pass through the same point and

have a common focus and their major axes of the same

length ; prove that the locus of their centres is a circle.

What are the limits of the eccentricities of the ellipses ?

L

146 CONIC SECTIONS.

53. A parallelogram is inscribed in an ellipse, and from

any point on the ellipse two straight lines are drawn parallel

to the sides of the parallelogram ; prove that the rectangles

under the segments of these straight lines, made by the sides

of the parallelogram, will be to one another in a constant

ratio.

54 If the tangent and normal in an ellipse meet the axis

in T and G respectively, and Q be the corresponding point of

the auxiliary circle, then

TQ : TP :: BC : PG.

55. POP' is a diameter of an ellipse, CD conjugate to

CP; prove that PD, DP' are inversely proportional to the

diameters which bisect them.

56. If PJFhe one side of a parallelogram described about

an ellipse, having its sides parallel to conjugate diameters,

and the lines joining E, F to the foci intersect in 0, 0', shew

that 0, 0' and the foci will lie on a circle.

57. If the normal at any point of a hyperbola meet the

conjugate axis in g, and S be the focus, Pg will be to Sg in a

constant ratio.

58. In the rectangular hyperbola, if circles be described

passing through the centre of the hyperbola and the points

of intersection of the tangent with the pairs of conjugate

diameters, their centres will lie on a fixed straight line.

59. A chord of a rectangular hyperbola is drawn perpen-

dicular to a fixed diameter and the extremities of the chord

and diameter are joined by four straight lines ; then the line

joining the two fresh points of intersection of these lines will

be parallel to a fixed line.

60. A series of confocal ellipses is cut by a confocal hyper-

bola ; prove that either focal distance of any point of inter-

section is cut by its conjugate diameter with respect to the

particular ellipse in a point which lies on a circle.

CONIC SECTIONS. 147

61. If from any point on the hyperbola a tangent be drawn

to the circle described on the transverse axis as diameter, its

length is equal to the semi-minor axis of the confocal ellipse

through the point.

62. With one focus of a given hyperbola as focus, and any

tangent to the hyperbola as directrix, is described another

hyperbola touching the conjugate axis of the former ; prove

that the two will be similar.

63. Two tangents are drawn to the same branch of a

rectangular hyperbola from an external point ; prove that

the angles which these tangents subtend at the centre are

respectively equal to the angles which they make with the

chord of contact.

64. A circle is described through P, P' , the extremities of

any diameter of a rectangular hyperbola, and cutting the

tangent at P and T: prove that P'T and the tangent to the

circle at P meet on the hyperbola.

Go. A fixed hyperbola is touched by a concentric ellipse.

If the curvatures at the point of contact are equal, the area

of the ellipse will be constant.

66. Two equal circles touch a rectangular hyperbola at a

point 0, and intersect it again in P, Q ; P\ Q' respectively;

prove that the points may be so taken that PP', QQ' each

subtend a right angle at 0, and that the straight lines joining

P', Q' to the centre of the circle OPQ will trisect OP, OQ

respectively.

67. In a central conic given a focus, the length of the

transverse axis, and that the second focus lies on a fixed

straight line ; prove that the conic will touch two fixed

parabolas having the given focus for focus.

68. In a hyperbola a circle is described about a focus as

centre, with radius one-fourth of the latus rectum ; prove

that the focal distances of the points of intersection with the

hyperbola are parallel to the asymptotes.

L 2

148 CONIC SECTIONS.

G9. Prove that the angles subtended at the vertices of a

rectangular hyperbola by any chord parallel to the conjugate

axis are supplementary.

70. A line moves in such a manner that the sum of the

spaces on its distances from two given points is constant ;

prove that it always touches an ellipse or hyperbola, the square

on whose transverse axis is equal to twice the sum of the squares

on the distances of the moving line from the given points.

71. The eccentricity of a hyperbola is 2. A point D is

taken on the axis, so that its distance from the focus 8 is

equal to the distance of S from the further vertex A', Pbein^

any point on the curve, A'P meets the latus rectum in K.

Prove that DK and SP intersect on a certain fixed circle.

72. In a hyperbola if PIT, PK be drawn parallel to the

asymptotes, and a line through the centre meet PH, PK

in R, T, and the parallelogram PRQT be completed, Q is a

point on the hyperbola.

73. If an ellipse and hyperbola have their axes coincident

and proportional, points on them equidistant from one axis

have the sum of the squares on their distances from the other

axis constant.

74. In the hyperbola prove that (see fig. Prop. XXIII.)

MD : PN :: AG : EG :: GN : CM.

75. A parabola and hyperbola have the same focus and

directrix, and SPQ is a line through the focus S to meet the

parabola in P, and the nearer branch of the hyperbola in Q ;

prove that PQ varies as the rectangle contained by 8P and

8Q.

7G. If two hyperbolas have their transverse axes parallel,

and their eccentricities equal, they will have parallel asymp-

totes. Does the converse hold ?

77. PP r is any diameter of a rectangular hyperbola, Q any

point on the curve, PR, P'R' are drawn at right angles to

PQ, P' Q respectively, intersecting the normal at Q in R, R' :

prove that QR and QR' are equal.

CONIC SECTIONS. 149

i

'$. In a hyperbola a line parallel to BC, through the inter-

section of the tangent at P with the asymptote, meets DP,

CA produced in the same point, CD and CP being con-

jugate.

70. From a given point in a hyperbola draw a straight

line such that the segment intercepted between the other

intersection with the hyperbola and a given asymptote shall

be equal to a given line. When does the problem become

impossible 1

80. A tangent is drawn from any point on the transverse

axis of a hyperbola to the auxiliary circle ; if the anglu

between this tangent and the ordinate be called the eccentric

angle, shew that the eccentric angles at the points of inter-

section of an ellipse with two hyperbolas, confocal with itself,

are equal.

81. Two unequal parabolas have a common focus and axes

opposite ; a rectangular hyperbola is described touching both

parabolas and having its centre at the common focus ; prove

that the angle between the lines joining the points of contact

to the common focus is 60°.

82. The tangent and normal at any point of a hyperbola

intersect the asymptotes and axes respectively in four points

which lie on a circle passing through the centre of the hyper-

bola ; and the radius of this circle varies inversely as the

perpendicular from the centre upon the tangent.

83. Prove that the rectangular hyperbola which has for its

foci the foci of an ellipse, will cut the ellipse at the extremities

of the equal conjugate diameters.

84. ABC is a given triangle. CA, CB produced are the

asymptotes of a hyperbola cutting AB in P. Find the

position of P when the sum of the squares on its axes is the

greatest possible.

85. From the point of intersection of an asymptote and a

directrix of a hyperbola a tangent is drawn to the curve ;

prove that the line joining the point of contact with the focus

is parallel to the asymptote.

150 CONIC SECTIONS.

86. Find, the position and magnitude of the axes of a

hyperbola which has a given line for asymptote, passes

through a given point, and touches a given straight line in a

given point.

87. Prove that a hyperbola can be described passing

through the extremities of any two diameters of a given

ellipse, having diameters conjugate to these for its asymp-

totes.

88. P Q is a normal at a point P of a rectangular hyperbola

meeting the curve again in Q ; prove that P Q is equal to the

diameter of curvature at P.

89. P is a point on a hyperbola whose foci are S and //;

another hyperbola is described whose foci are S and P, and

whose transverse axis is equal to SP — 2PII; shew that the

hyperbolas w 7 ill meet only at one point, and that they will

have the same tangent at that point.

90. The tangent at any point on a hyperbola is produced

to meet the asymptotes, thus forming a triangle ; determine

the locus of the point of intersection of the straight lines

drawn from the angles of this triangle to bisect the opposite

sides.

91. The extremities of the latera recta of all conies which

have a common major axis lie on two parabolas.

92. Having given three points, prove that there are four

straight lines such, that with any one of them as directrix,

and. any one of the given points as focus, a conic section may

be described passing through the other two given points.

93. In any conic section if P G, pg, the normals at the ends

of a focal chord intersect in 0, the straight line through

parallel to Pp bisects G<j.

94. The normal at P to a central conic meets the axes in G

and g ; GK and gh are perpendicular to the focal distance

SP; then PK and Pk are constant.

If hi parallel to the transverse axes meet the normal at P

in C, then hi will be constant.

CONIC SECTIONS. 151

95. A focal chord PSQ of a conic is produced to meet the

directrix in K, and KM, KN are drawn through the feet of

the ordinates PM, QN of P and Q.

If KN produced, meet PM produced, in R, prove that

PR is equal to PM.

96. The normals at the extremities of a focal chord PSQ

of a conic intersect in K, and KL is drawn perpendicular to

PQ; KF is a diagonal of the parallelogram of which SK,

SL are adjacent sides ; prove that KF is parallel to the

transverse axis of the conic.

97. With any point on a given circle as focus and a given

diameter as directrix, is described a conic similar to a given

conic ; prove that all such conies will touch the two similar

conies to which the given diameter is a latus rectum.

98. Every conic section passing through the centres of the

four circles which touch the sides of a triangle, is a rect-

angular hyperbola ; and the locus of the centre of this system

of rectangular hyperbolas is the circle circumscribing the

triangle.

99. Find the locus of the centres of plane sections of a

right cone drawn through a fixed point on the axis of the

cone.

100. Shew how to cut a given cone, so that the section may

be a parabola of given latus rectum.

101. If sections of a right curve be made, perpendicular to

a given plane containing the axis, so that the distance

between a focus of a section and that vertex which lies on

the same generating line in the given plane be constant, prove

that the transverse axes, produced if necessary, of all the

sections will touch one of two fixed circles.

102. Find the position of the vertex and axis of a cone of

given vertical angle, in order that a given parabola may be a

section of the cone.

152 CONIC SECTIONS.

103. Two right cones liave a common vertex ; shew how