William Horatio Barnes.

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HISTORY OF CONGRESS,



THE



Forty-first Congress



OF THE



UNITED STATES,



6



10 Q— 1011.



9-10 ji



By WILLIAM HORATIO BARNES, A.M.



WITH PORTRAITS ON STEEL.



(:



J^o

o, 1879. cJ*^



NEW YORK:
W. H. BARNES & CO., PUBLISHERS,

3 7 PAEK ROW.
WASHINGTON, D. C. : • PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE.

1873.






Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1870, by
WILLIAM H. BARNES,

in the Office of the Librarian of Congress at "Washington.



PEEFACE.




!HIS volume contains the legislative and personal history
of Members of the Congress of the United States for the
two years ending March 4, 1871. Of the three hundred
and twenty-eight men whose records are here given,
one hundred and seventy-five were members of the Fortieth Con-
gress, and their biographies are begun in a preceding volume of
this series and continued in this. Biographical sketches de novo
are given in this volume of those who made their appearance in
national legislation for the first time in the Forty-first Congress.

A preliminary chapter presents a resume, of the doings of the
Forty-first Congress which have a general interest and a national
importance. The subjects which are here merely mentioned, or
not even referred to, may frequently be found fully set forth, with
important views relating to them, under the names of such Senators
and Representatives as were their originators or chief advocates.
The extracts given are generally concise illustrations of the opin-
ions and the style of the speakers, and will be found worthy of
perusal as specimens of recent American oratory.

The plan of the work now appears fully developed in this and
the preceding volumes. It is designed to publish a biennial
volume, giving a history of the Congress for each successive term
of two years. The biography of a Senator or Eepresentative who
was a member of the Fortieth Congress is found, with as full
details as could be given, in the History of Congress for 1867-
1869. So long as he may remain in Congress his record may be
traced through the succeedins; volumes of this series.

For important material used in the work the author is indebted
to numerous private letters from friends of the subjects, to the



4: ■ PREFACE.

lociil newspapers, wln'cli in manj instances published biographies
of members of Congress when they were candidates, to the Con-
gressional Globe, and to the Directory of Congress. Appleton's
invaluable Cyclopaedia and Harper's Magazine have also furnished
useful material. In some instances whole volumes of biography
have been condensed into brief sketches which follow.

Although using every eifort to secure the utmost accuracy, the
author cannot flatter himself tliat he has escaped errors, and that
he has avoided important omissions. As it is the purpose of the
author to make as nearly as possible a perfect work, all errors
and oversiii'hts which mav come to his notice in this edition will
be. corrected in the next.

A most attractive feature of this work is the steel portraits, of
which it contains a larger number than any publication ever before
issued. No care, labor, or expense has been spared to make it a
portrait gallery worthy of the great national subject which it
illustrates. The portraits are by the best engravers from approved
photographs, and may be relied upon as life-like and accurate.

Each sketch is separately paged ; for the book, as a whole, no
folios are used. The sketches and portraits are to be found in
alphabetical order — the Senators preceding the Representatives.



BIOGllAPHIES AND PORTRAITS.



^■»



THE se:n"ate.



|§ K^CHUTLER COLFAX, Yice-Peesldext of the United States.



%0 ABBOTT, JOSEPPI C.
Z/li<A.MES, ADELBERT
22 ANTHONY, HENRY B.
2^ BAYARD, THOMAS F.
■2.4 ^ BLAIR, FRANCIS P., Jr.
Z7t^B0REMAN, ARTHUR I.
2Jf Jv^BROWNLOW, WILLIAM G.
3t/ ^..-BUCKINGHAM, WILLIAM A.
J 6 CAMERON, SIMON
3.S "t-^CARPENTER, MATTHEW H.
^^ CASSERLY, EUGENE
^^ CATTELL, ALEXANDER G.

CHANDLER, ZACHARIAH

COLE, CORNELIUS

CONKLING, ROSCOE

CORBETT, HENRY W.

CRAGIN, AARON H.

DAVIS, GARRETT

DRAKE, CHARLES D.

EDMUNDS, GEORGE F.
5^ l^ FENTON, REUBEN E.
^ FERRY, ORRIS S.
^ FESSENDEN, WILLIAM
j^3V^FLANAGAN, J. W.
jj}- FOWLER, JOSEPH S.
<<:t,u-^GILBERT, ABIJAH
6S GRIMES, JAMES
^^yv<HAMILTON, MORGAN
y'^ HAMILTON, WILLIAM
■7/uHAMLIN, HANNIBAL

HARLAN, JAMES '

HARRIS, JOHN S.
-•• .^HILL, JOSHUA
-v HOWARD, .JACOB M.
•-, : HOWE, TIMOTHY 0.
S* 1,-^EtOWELL, JAMES B.

, K..<IOHNSTON, JOHN W.
9'5 KELLOGG, WILLIAM PITT
<^^ (^LEWIS, JOHN F.



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McCREERY, THOMAS C.

Mcdonald, Alexander
.^ .; morrill, justin s.
'^^ morrill, lot m.'

morton, oliver

y^ NORTON, DANIEL
>r. NYE, JAMES W.

OSBORN, THOMAS

PATTERSON, JAMES W.

POMEROY, SAMUEL C.

POOL, JOHN
/oj'iHPRATT, DANIEL D.
/t7 RAMSEY, ALEXANDER

REVELS, HIRAM R.

RICE, BEN.TAMIN F.

ROBERTSON, THOMAS J.

ROSS, EDMUND G.

SAULSBURY, WILLARD



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SAWYER, FREDERICK A.



IIS ti^^SCHURZ, CARL

; -J ■? V^COTT, JOHN



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SHERMAN, JOHN
SPENCER, GEORGE E.
SPRAGUE, WILLIAM
STEARNS, OZORA P.
STEWART, WILLIAM
STOCKTON, JOHN P.
SUMNER, CHARLES
THAYER, JOHN M.
'THURMAN, ALLEN G
TIPTON, THOMAS W.
TRUMBULL, LYMAN
VICKERS, GEORGE
WARNER, WILLARD
WILLEY, WALTMAN
WILLIAMS, GKORGE
WILSON, HEMRY
STATES,- RICHARD.



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EEPEESEE"TATIYES.

/SXn JAMES G. BLAINE. Speaker.



/SS AD. A MS, GEORGE M.
/Sr^ ALLISON, WILLIAM B.
fiO AMBLER, JACOB A.

AMES, OAKES

fif ARCHER, STEVENSON
\C^ t-' ARMSTRONG, WILLIAM H.
/^ ARNELL, SAMUEL M.
I SS' ^' ASPER, JOEL P.
)yO «.- ATWOOD, DAVID
/ -» ^ AXTELL, SAMUEL B.
IJS ' AVER, RICHARD S.
1 2 ^ BAILEY, ALEXANDER H.
/77 BANKS, NATHANIEL P.
- - -. BARNUM, WILLIAM H.

;?8r L- BARRY, HENRY W.
/^/ BEAMAN, FERNANDO 0.

/^•^' BEATTY, JOHN
/5Y BECK, JAMES B.

I SS" BENJAMIN, JOHN F.

/S'6 i>BENNETT, DAVID S.
f V7 BENTON, JACOB

/^ BIGGS, BENJAMIN T.

iSy BINGHAM, JOHN A.

f^fl' BIRD, JOHN T.

'/i?l. BLAIR, AUSTIN

M^ BOLES, THOMAS

/- BOOKER, GEORGE W.

/ ^' BOWEN, CHRISTOPHER C.

/ y ^ ^ » BOYD, SEMPRONIUS H.
J cj Cj BROOKS, GEORGE M.

•l!tc> BROOKS, JAMES

1^1 I BUCK, ALFRED E.
1^(^ BUCKLEY, CHARLES W.

■2-0-4^ l_,-BUFFINGTON, JAMES
7cy u- BURGH ARD, HORATIO C.
2 Oh C-^URDETT, SAMUEL S.
7<^ BURR, ALBERT G.

11 BUTLER, BENJAMIN F.

"I /-' BUTLER, RODERICK R.

Ti CAKE, HENRY L.

2,/y- CALKIN, HERVEY C.

.W5-' CESSNA, JOHN



1f^ CHURCHILL, JOHN C.
V/^*^LARK, WILLIAM T.
J,/f CLARKE, SIDNEY

2 jO*<!LEVELAND, ORESTES

Z-i-y- COBB, AMASA

22ivC0BB, CLINTON L.

1-2 -7 COBURN, JOHN

2.,>H^NGER, OMAR D.

^30 CONNER, JOHN C.

23/ COOK, BURTON C.

,7J2, COVODE, JOHN

'3.3yC0WLES, GEORGE W.

2-3Si7C0X, SAMUEL S.

13;. CREBS, JOHN M.
SCf CULLOM, SHELBY M.
-:Li^<9H)ARRALL, CHESTER B.

/Y/ DAVIS, NOAH

a-Vi- DAWES, HENRY L.

2-Vy DEGENER, EDWARD

ZMi" DEWEESE, JOHN T.

2'^h DICKEY, OLIVER J.

2.V7 DICKINSON, EDWARD P.
'2%'*-^IX0N, JOSEPH

Zv/^ DIXON, NATHAN F.

•lSO DOCKERY, OLIVER H.

2S\ DONLEY, JOSEPH B.

2ir3 DOX, PETER M.

2,5V DUKE, R. T. W.

^ .7 DUVAI^r ISAAC H.
l^J^i-^TYER, DAVID P.

;;5<i ELA, JACOB H.

IS^, ELDRIDGE, CHARLES A.

;4/ FARNSWORTII, JOHN F.

2^3 FERRISS, ORANGE

2 ^t/ FERRY, THOMAS W.

7 <5" FINKELNBURG, GUSTAVUS A.

-^yi: FISHER, JOHN
'V:,yb^'FlTGR, THOMAS

-77/ FOX, JOHN

v^ Z-GARFIELD, JAMES A.

-r7VGETZ, J. LAWRENCE

2^rGIBS0N, JAMES K.



BIOGRAPHIES AND PORTRAITS.



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^-i^ILFILLAN, CALVIN W.

GRISWOLD, JOHN A.

IIAIGKT, CHARLES

HALDEMAN, RICHARD J.
« - ^HALE, EUGENE

HAMBLETON, SAMUEL

TIAMELL, PATRICK

HAMILTON, CHARLES M.
i,. HARRIS, GEORGE E.

HAWKINS, ISAAC R.

HAWLEY, JOHN B.

HAY, JOHN B.

HAYS, CHARLES

HEFLIN, ROBERT S.

HILL, JOHN

HOAG, TRUMAN H.

HOAR, GEORGE F.
t-^OGB, SOLOMON L.

HOLMAN, WILLIAM S.

HOLMES, CHARLES H.

HOOPER, SAMUEL

HOPKINS, BENJAMIN F.

HOTCHKISS, GILES W.

INGERSOLL, EBON C.

JENCKKS, THOMAS A.

JOHNSON, JAMES A.

JONES, ALEXANDER H.

JONES, THOMAS L.

JUDD, NORMAN B.

JULIAN, GEORGE W.

KELLEY, WILLIAM D.
L-^ KELLOGG, STEPHEN W.

KELSBY, WILLIAM H.

KERR, MICHAEL C.
- — KETCH AM, JOHN H.
iP^KNAPP, CHARLES

KNOTT, J. PROCTOR

LAFLIN, ADDISON H.

LASH, ISRAEL G.

LAWRENCE, WILLIAM

LEWIS, JOSEPH H.

LOGAN, JOHN ^.
t - LONG, JEFFERSON F.

LOUGHRIDGE, WILLIAM.

LYNCH, JOHN

MANNING, JOHN, Jr.

marshall, samuel s.
mayham, steriien l.
maynard, horace
McCarthy, de^nis



f'A






3^f

3S^



33s'



33^



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McCORMICK, JAMES R.

McCRARY, GEORGE W.

McGREW, JAMES C.

McKEE, GEORGE C.

McKENZIE, LEWIS

McNEELY, THOMPSON W.

MERCUR, ULYSSES
3wi^*-'-1!a:iLNES, WILLIAM, Jr.
3^7 tv - MOORE, ELIAKIM H.
9,^/^9 4, MOORE, JESSE H.

MOORE, WILLIAM

MORBY, FRANK

MORGAN. GEORGE W.

MORPHIS, JOSEPH L.

MORRELL, DANIEL .J.

MORRILL, SAMUEL P.

MORRISSEY, JOHN

MUNGEN, WILLIAM

MYERS, LEONARD

NEGLEY, JAMES S.

NEWSHAM, JOSEPH P.

NIBLACK, WILLIAM B.

O'NEILL, CHARLES

ORTIT, GODLOVE S.

PACKARD, JASPER

PACKER, JOHN B.

PAINE, H ALBERT E.

PALMER, FRANK W.

PECK, ERASMUS D.

3'^ - • PERCE, LEGRAND W.
't.-yo PETERS, JOHN A.
37^' *^PHELPS, DARAYIN
3^ ( - PLATT, JAMES H.
^^''f POLAND, LUKE P.
Z Sb t-^OMEROY, CHARLES
i, • PORTER, CHARLES H.
t - POTTER, CLARKSON N.

price' avilliam p.

<f CVjl^-PROSSER, WILLIAM F.
/^/3e,^-RAINEY, JOSEPH H.
;>.,,■ J (.^RANDALL, SAMUEL J.
REEVES, HlfNRY A.
RICE, JOIIN^M.
RIDGEWAY, Ir^BERT
ROGERS, ANTHONY A. 0.
ROOTS, LOGAN H.
I7 ' ■ ^-^ANFORD, STEPHEN
^SARGENT, AARON A.
. SAWYER, PHILBTUS
:, , ,- SCHENCK, ROBERT 0.









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8



BIOGRAPHIES AND PORTRAITS.



U "to



SCnUMAKER, JOHX G.
SCOFIELD, GLEXXI W.
SIIAXKS. JOHX P. C.
' - ■ SIIELDOX, LIOXEL A.

yilELDOX, PORTER

^ZJ^ SnOBER,' FRAXCIS E.
//?A fJ-BLOCUM. HEXRT W.

SMITH, JOHX A. COtx-^^I-

SMITH, JOSEPH S.

SMITH, AVILLIAM J.

SMITH, WORTHIXGTOX C.

SMYTH, -WILLIAM

STARKWEATHER, HEXRT H.

STEVEXS, AARON F.

STEYEXSOX, JOB E.
^3f ''-'UTILES. JOHX D.
V'/Z- STOKES, WILLIAM B.
7^5 STOXE, FREDERICK

^ V '*'*'"' STOUGHTOX. WILLIAM L.
VV5" t-«TRADER, PETER W.
U Lj'^i ^ - STRICKLAXD, RANDOLPH
H S2, ' — STROXG, JULIUS L.
^ ^ J'-^WAXX, THOMAS
/, ^N S\YEEXEY, WILLIAM N.

SYPHER, J. HALE

TAFFE, JOHX

TAXXER, ADOLPHUS H.

TAYLOR, CALEB N.

TILLMAX, LEWIS

TOWXSEXD, WASHIXGTOX



/o.



/






TRIMBLE, LAWREXCE S.

:;' ,- TWICHELL, GIXERY
^,.^i TYXER, JAMES X.
,'^^t 1:7PS0X, WILLIAM H.
X— TAX AUKEX, DAXIEL M.
i/7'^VAX HORX, ROBERT T.
Uy/ TAX TRUMP, PHILADELPH
qjtJ' VAX WYCK, CHARLES H.
S, DAXIEL W.
WALLACE. ALEXAXDER S.
WARD, HAMILTON



"^ I pi/v^OORHEES



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iy;,.^WASHBURX, CADWALADER C.

6S;^/WA.SHBURX, WILLIAM B.

<^5Z-WELKER, MARTIN
i^ S S'/^WELLS, ERASTUS
4 S5'»WHEELI:R, WILLIAM A.

'■/-^l WHITELEY, RICHARD H.
/St'-^IIITMORE, GEORGE W.

'i'rc WHITTEMORE. B. FRANK



Af/-



i-WILKIXSOX, MORTOX S.
oWILLARD, CHARLES W.



>y ?X"^ILLIAMS, WILLIAM
^cV^'ILSOX^, EUGEXE M.
.y^t> 'V\-ILSOX, JOHX T.
tf'ff WIXAXS, JAMES J.
^■: WIXCHESTER, BOYD
To/ WITCHER, JOHX S.
:f2'2-W0LF, WILLIAM P.
^^•3 WOOD, FERX^AXDO
<"<:'S' WOODWARD, GEORGE



W.



iyvYOUXG,



PIERCE M. B.



DELEGATES.

SD^ i-^-'SELUCIUS GARFIELDE,
Kf J ^ - TYILLIAM H. HOOPER,

c /: t^^iiicHARD c. Mccormick.



THE FOETY-FIEST CO^GEESS.



^^'



pcMf^IIE Forty-first Congress assembled at noon on tlie 4:tli of
f M March, 1869. There were present fifty-eight Senators, of



?|3 whom fifty w^ere Eepnblicans and eight were Democrats.
In the Honse of Representatives one hnndred and ninet}-
three answered to their names, of Avhora one hundred and thirty-six
were Republicans and fifty-seven were Democrats. Alabama, Con-
necticut, and New Hampshire had not yet chosen representatives.
Georgia, Mississippi, Texas, and Yirginia not having been recon-
strncted, were without representation.

Hon. Schuyler Colfax, Yice-President of the United States, took
the chair as President of the Senate. In the House of Representa-
tives Hon. James G. Blaine, of Maine, was elected Speaker, receiv-
ing one hundred and thirty-five votes against fifty-seven for Hon.
M. C. Kerr, c^f Indiana. The organization of committees in both
the Senate and the House being in the hands of the same political
majorit}", was similar to that of the preceding Congress.

The work of reconstruction, which this Congress had the good
fortune to complete, early occupied its attention. On the Tth of
April the President sent to Congress a message, stating that it was
desirable to restore the States which were engaged in the Rebel-
lion to their proper relations to the Government and the country
at as eai'ly a period as the people of those States should be
found willing to become peaceful and orderly communities, and to
adopt and maintain such constitutions and laws as would effect-
ually secure the civil and political rights of all persons within their
borders. The President suggested that, in regard to Virginia, a
law should be enacted authorizing an election, to decide upon the
acceptance of the Constitution adopted by a convention on the 17th
of April, 1868. He also submitted whether the Constitution



10 THE FORTY-FIRST CONGRESS.

framed in Mississippi, and rejected, might not be again submitted
to the people of that State.

A bill was framed, which passed both Houses, and was approved
by the President on the 10th of April, providing that the President
might submit the proposed Constitution of Virginia to a vote of the
registered electors, and that at this election State officers and mem-
bers of Congress miglit be voted for. If the Constitution should be
ratified, the bill provided that the Legislature should assemble on
the fourth Tuesday after the official promulgation of such ratifica-
tion by the military officer commanding in the State. Essentially
the same provisions were adopted with regard to Mississippi and
Texas. It was also provided that, before these States respectively
should be admitted to representation in Congress, their several Leg-
islatures should ratify the Fifteenth Article proposed as an amend-
ment to the Constitution of the United States. The proceedings
in any of the States should not be deemed final, nor operate as a
complete restoration thereof, until tlieir action should be approved
by Congress.

At the beginning of the second session, December, 1869, the
President's Message called attention to the fact that seven of the
States lately in rebellion had been fully restored to their places in
the Union, while the eighth, Georgia, although complying in other
respects with the requirements of Congress, had, in violation of its
own Constitution, ex])elled the colored members of its Legislature,
tind admitted some members who were disqualified by the Four-
teenth Amendment.

The subject was promptly acted upon by Congress, both Houses
passing a bill for the reconstruction of Georgia, which provided for
the convening of the old Legislature, excluding such as were ineli-
gible under the Fourteenth Amendment, but none on account of
race or color ; and empowering the President to enforce the act,
using the army and navy if necessary.

On the 10th of January, 1870, the joint resolution for the admis-
sion of Virginia came up in both Houses, and was debated at length
in the Senate. Those objecting to the immediate admission of the



THE FORTY-FIRST CONGRESS. H

State did so on the ground that a large proportion of the members
of tlie Legislature could not take the test oath. The opinion of At-
torney-General Hoar, that the oatli might be legally dispensed with,
was strongly opposed. On the 11th a bill was reported froui the
Keconstruction Committee in the House admitting Virginia to rep-
resentation on certain conditions. Mr. Bingham moved to strike
out all after the enacting clause, and insert that Virginia is en-
titled to representation in the Congress of the United States. This
substitute was adopted by the House, January 1-1, by a vote of
ninety-eight to ninety-five. In the Senate, several amendments
prescribing conditions having been adopted, the bill passed, January
21, by a vote of forty-seven to ten. Three days later, the bill as
amended by the Senate was adopted by the House by a vote of one
hundred and thirty-six to fifty-seven, and, without delay, received
the approval of the President.

Bills to admit Mississippi were introduced into both Houses Jan-
nary 31, 1870. The House of Representatives, on the 3d of Feb-
ruary, passed a bill with terms essentially tlie same as those of the
Virginia bill. The bill passed the Senate February 17, and im-
mediately became a law by Executive approval. The Senators
from Mississippi were then admitted, one of them, Mr. Eevels, a
colored man, taking the seat formerly held by Jefferson Davis.

On the 7th of March a bill was introduced in the Senate for the
admission of Texas, which passed that body on the 29th. The
bill passed the House on the 30th, and on the following day the
Senators and Representatives from Texas w^ere admitted to their
seats.

The bill for the admission of Georgia came up in the House
March 5, 1870, and two days later passed that body. After a pro-
tracted discussion in the Senate, a bill passed that body on the
19th of April, 1870, tnrning the State over to military I'ule again,
and providing for an election for a new Legislature in the followinir
November. The bill was returned to the House of Representatives
on the 20th, and, on motion of Mr. Butler, was referred to the
Committee on Reconstruction.



12 THE FORTY-FIRST CONGRESS.

It was not until the 24:th of June that tlie Georgia bill was finally
passed in the House declaring the State entitled to representation,
a leo-al Legislature having ratified the Fourteenth and Fifteenth
Amendments. It was as late as the 16th of January, 1871, that
the Representatives from Georgia were admitted to their seats, one
of these, Mr. Long, being a colored man. A Senator from Georgia
was admitted February 1st. The great work of Eeconstruction
was then complete.

Thouo-h the final restoration of the last of the States was so long
delayed, through its failure to fulfill the conditions iuiposed, the
crowning act of reconstruction was achieved at a much earlier date,
the President having, on the 15th of March, 1870, sent to Congress
a messao-c inclosing a communication from the Secretary of State,
announcing that thirty States had, up to that date, ratified the
Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution.

Following close upon the consummation of reconstruction came
measures to do away with certain disabilities and restrictions which
had hitherto been deemed necessary. In the Senate a bill was in-
troduced by Mr. Sawyer, which passed tliat body without a divis-
ion, April 22d, to abolish the test oath as applicable to those who
are not disqualified from holding oftice under the Fourteenth
Amendment, providing that such persons should take the oath pre-
scribed for those whose disabilities have not been removed. This
bill finally passed the House, February 1, 1871, by a vote of one
hundred and eighteen to ninety. The President allowed this bill
to become a law without his signature, explaining his conduct
afterward in a special message, wherein he objected to the partial
api)lication of the law.

A measure having a bearing upon the subject of reconstruction
was a bill to enforce the Fifteenth Amendment, which was intro-
duced in the House February 21, 1870, and passed May 16, by a
vote of one hundred and thirty-one to fortj'-four. After receiving
numerous amendments, it passed the Senate May 21 by a vote of
forty-three to eight. A Committee of Conference was appointed,
whose report was adopted by the Senate May 25, and by the



s



THE FORTY-FIRST CONGRESS. 13

House on the daj fullowino;. Tlje law is general in its application,
desimied to enforce the ri<>;ht of citizens to vote in the several States
who have hitherto heen denied that right on account of race, color,
or previous condition of servitude.

Finance was next to reconstruction in importance among the
subjects of legislation in the Forty-first Congress. On the 10th of
December, 1860, the House, by a vote of one hundred and twent}'-
four to one, passed a resolution setting the seal of its condemnation
upon any and all propositions to repudiate any portion of the debt
of the United States. A resolution, offered by Mr. McNeely, to.
pay the five-twenty bonds in greenbacks, was tabled l)y a vote of
one hundred and twenty-two to forty-one. The opposition of the
Senate to an inflation of the currency was indicated by the ado])tion
in that body, without a division, February 2-1, 1870, of a resolution
that, in the opinion of the Senate, the volume of the currency
ought not to be increased.

A bill (known as Sherman's Currency Bill) passed the Senate
February 2d providing for the issue of $45,000,000 more bank cur-
rency, to be put forth l)y new banks against the same amount of
three percent, certificates, which were to be cancelled, and after this
issue it provided for a distribution of $20,000,000 of bank currency
among the States which had less than their proportion of the
$300,000,000 afloat — this sum to betaken from those States having
more than their proportion, the object of the bill being to supply
the West and South wnth needed capital. This bill was passed in
the House, with an amendment, June 15th, which made it neces-
sary that a Connnittee of Conference should be appointed. This
Connnittee reported, on the 6th of July, in favor of adopting the
bill as passed by the Senate, with the modification fixing the
amount of additional currency to be issued at $54,000,000. The
bill which, in accordance with the report, was adopted provided for
the immediate distribution of this additional sunj of currency
amono; the several States, and for a redistribution after the census
of 1870. The bill in this form became a law.

The most important financial measure of the Forty-first Congress



14 THE FORTY-FIRST CONGRESS.

was the bill for funding the national debt. This bill was reported
in the Senate as early as the 11th of January, 1870. After pro-
tracted discussion, it passed the Senate March 11, 1870, by a vote
of thirty-three to ten. The House adopted a bill of its own, as an
amendment, July 1st, by a vote of one hundred and twenty-eight
to forty-three. A Committee of Conference was appointed, but their
report was rejected. A second Committee was more fortunate,
their report being adopted, and, as modified by them, the bill
passed, July 13, 1870.

The relations of the Foi'ty-first Congress to the Executive were
far more cordial than were those of its predecessor. Yery early in
this Congress an effort was made to remove tlie restrictions which
liad been placed upon the President's power of appointment to
office and removal. The House voted to repeal the Tenure-of-
Office Law absolutely. The Senate, jealous of its prerogative, re-
fused to concur, but passed important modifications. A Commit-
tee of Conference was created, and a bill agreed upon, ostensibly to
amend, but really almost a repeal, which passed in the Senate by a
vote of fortj'-two to eight, and in the House by one hundred and
eight to sixty-seven.

The Forty-first Congress also did something toward defining the
position of the third branch of the Government — the Judiciary.
At an early stage of the proceedings a bill was passed to amend the
judicial system of the United States, which received the approval
of the President. It provided that the Supreme Court of the
United States shall consist of the Chief-Justice and eight Associate
Justices, of whom six shall constitute a quorum. For each of the
nine existing Judicial Circuits there shall be appointed a Circuit
Judge, who shall reside in the Circuit. Any Judge who has held
his commission for ten years, and has attained the age of seventy
years, may resign, and shall receive during his life the same salary
that was. payable to him at the time of his resignation.



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