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THE



NATTJBAL HISTOET



OF



GAME-BIRDS.



ILLUSTRATED BY THIRTY-ONE PLATES, COLOURED ;

WITH MEMOIR AND PORTRAIT OF

SIR T. STAMFORD RAFFLES.



BY

SIR WILLIAM JARDINE, BART.

F.R.S.E., F.L.S., ETC. ETC.




EDINBUEGH:

W. H. LIZARS, 3, ST. JAMES' SQUARE ;

S. HIGHLEY, 32, FLEET STREET, LONDON ; AND

W. CURRY, JUN., AND CO., DUBLIN.

1844.



BIOLOGY

LIBRARY

G



PRINTED BY W. H. LIZAUS, EDINBURGH.



CONTENTS

OF
VOLUME FOURTH.



PAGE

MEMOIR OF Sm THOMAS STAMFORD RAFFLES, . 1 7
Natural History of Gallinaceous Birds, . . 89

Tetraonidae or Grouse.

Genus PERDIX, 93

The Common Partridge.

Perdix cinerea, var. montana. Plate I. . 95
The Mountain Partridge.

Perdix cinerea. Plate II. . . . 101

The Painted Partridge.

Perdix picta. Plate III. . . .103

The Rock or Barbary Partridge.

Perdix petrosa. Plate IV. ... 105
The Chukar Partridge.

Perdix chukar. Plate V. . . .107

The Common Francolin.

Perdix Francolinus. Plate VI. . . 110

The Sanguine Partridge.

Perdix cruentata. Plate VII. . . . 1 12
The Coromandel Quail.

Coturnix textilis. Plate VIII. 116



CONTENTS.

PAGE
The Common Quail.

Coturnix Dactylisonans, . . . . 118
Latreille's Attagis.

Attagis Latreilki. Plate IX. , 121

The Virginian Quail or Partridge.

Ortyx Virginianus. Plate X. . .123
The Californian Ortyx.

Ortyx California. Plate XI. . .126

The Long-tailed Ortyx.

Ortyx macroura. Plate XII. . . . 128

GROUSE, 130

The Wood Grouse or Capercailzie.

Tetrao urogallus. Plate XIII. . . 131

The Canadian Grouse.

Tetrao Canadensis. Plate XV. . . 147
The Ruffed Grouse.

Tetrao umbellus* Plate XIV. . . .149
The Pinnated Grouse.

Tetrao cupido, 152

The Sharp- Tailed Grouse.

Centrocercus phasianellus. Plate XVI.* . 158
The Cock of the Plains.

Centrocercus urophasianus* Plate XVII. 162

GROUSE- PTARMIGAN, .166

The Red Grouse- Ptarmigan.

Lagopus Scoticus. Plate XVIII. . . 167
The Common Ptarmigan.

Lagopus mutus. Plate XIX. Plumage of Win-
ter XX. Young, .... 172
The Common Black Grouse.

Lyrurus tetrix. Plate XXI. Male XXII.

Female 175



CONTENTS

PAGE

Pallas's Sand Grouse.

Syrrhaptes Pallasii. Plate XXIII. . . 182
The Banded Sand Grouse.

Pterocles arenarius. Plate XXIV. Female.

XXV. Male, 184,

The Crowned Cryptonix.

Cryptonix coronata. Plate XXVI. . . 187
The White- Spotted Ortygis,

Ortygis Meiffrenii. Plate XXVII. . . 189
Black-Necked Ortygis.

Ortygis nigricollis. Plate XXVIII. . . 191
The Guazu.

Crypturus rufescens. Plate XXIX. . . 193
The Tataupa.

Crypturus tataupa. Plate XXX. . . 195

PORTRAIT OF SIR THOMAS STAMFORD RAFFLES, . 2
Vignette Title-page. Red Grouse, Male, Female, and

Young, ....... 3



In all Thirty-two Plates in this Volume*



MEMOIR



OF

SIR THOMAS-S^AMEORD RAFFLES.*




THE intention oi-thesa-fteCessarily short memoirs
being to sketch the character, and detail the labours,
of those men who have advanced the science of Na-
tural History, some passages will not be deemed in-
appropriate, which have been collected from the ca-
reer of one, whose zeal for the advancement of this
study was ever shewn, when a short leisure from
the more important administration of his public duties
would allow ; and to whom the British Naturalist is
indebted for a Zoological establishment, which has
already rivalled the utility, and emulated the magni-
ficence, of the Continental institutions.

The name of SirT. STAMFORD RAFFLES is inti-
mately connected with the political history of the
East, and it is no less so with that of its natural pro-

* We are indebted to the kindness of Lady Raffles for
permission to copy the portrait, from a bust by Chantrey,
which accompanies her interesting history o^ the Life and
public services of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles.

VOL. VIII. B



18 MEMOIR OF

ductioj* It will now be our endeavour to review
his discoveries and researches in the Natural History
of these interesting countries, separated as far as
possible from the details of his arduous and import-
ant public services. For this purpose we have been
indebted chiefly to the interesting volume, published
some years since under the superintendence of his
amiable widow, and which has furnished those parts
introduced from his correspondence, with the de-
scriptions of his excursions in the interior of Suma-
tra ; while the History of Java, and the various papers
which Sir Thomas has himself published, have af-
forded materials for the other parts. In the progress
of the sketch it will be seen that the researches of
this naturalist were not confined to one branch of
the science, but that every department, both of the
history of the inhabitants of those islands, and their
natural productions, were carefully studied. We
have alluded to the different objects introduced, with-
out any system or arrangement but as they seemed
to have occurred to the notice of the individual.
Some of them are well known by his own descrip-
tions, or illustrate the beautiful works of his friends
and companions in research and administration * ; and
but for the awful and overwhelming catastrophe
which occurred on the eve of his departure, many
an unknown production of that rich archipelago
would have assisted in the embellishment of the
extensive works which he contemplated. Having

Horsfield, Wallich, &c.



SIR THOMAS STAMFORD RAFFLES. 19

thus detailed our plan, we have, before commencing,
to entreat those friends by whom this imperfect
sketch may be seen, that they will forgive any inac-
curacies or misrepresentations ; nor attribute to any
motive except that of doing justice, whatever may be
said of the character of an individual, whose writings
had conveyed a very high impression, which was still
farther confirmed by a short but lively remembered
intercourse, for a few months previous to his untimely
decease.

THOMAS STAMFORD RAFFLES, the son of Ben-
jamin Raffles, one of the oldest Captains in the West
India Trade, was bora at sea on the 5th July 1781,
off the harbour of Port Morant, in the Island of Ja-
maica. Little appears to be known of his family
except its antiquity, and that its earlier members
passed through life with unblemished reputation.
Of his youth previous to the age of fourteen, when
he entered into active business, few traits seem to
have been recollected, beyond a sedateness of tem-
per, and perseverance in his studies superior to that
of his schoolfellows, with a vivid apprehension of the
incidents which occurred. During this period he
studied under the charge of Dr Anderson, who kept
a respectable academy near Hammersmith ; and, at
the early age we have mentioned, he was placed as
an extra clerk in the East India House.

When we consider the very short portion of his
early life, wherein he could regularly gain the rudi-



20 MEMOIR OF

ments of a common education, we must be surprised
at the variety of acquirements which he afterwards
displayed, or rather, perhaps, at the industry by
which they were attained. During his sedentary
occupation as a clerk, he employed his leisure in at-
tending to several branches of literature, and he ob-
tained a tolerable knowledge of French, which a re-
tentive memory enabled him to retain, and after-
wards to use with much advantage, in his various
duties of diplomacy. His power of acquiring lan-
guages was great, and in his after engagements gave
him advantages and influence over the native powers
of the East, which could not have been obtained un-
less by a free intercourse, and which a knowledge of
their language could only give.

This very close application to business and study,
however, excited symptoms of disease in a frame and
constitution never very robust, and alarmed his
friends for his health. Relaxation was recommend-
ed, and he employed a short leave of absence, by
making a pedestrian excursion through Wales, which
while it gave him renewed strength, gave him also
information of the mining districts, which was after-
wards of advantage to his researches in Java.

It would scarcely have been expected that a young
man, placed in so apparently friendless a situation,
should have made to himself patrons. A friend had,
however, marked him and upon the occurrence of a
vacancy in the establishment of the East India House,
the appointment was given to the young and studi-



SIR THOMAS STAMFORD RAFFLES. 21

ous Raffles, in preference to many who were thought
at least to have possessed more interest. In 1805
the Directors determined upon sending out an esta-
blishment to Penang ; and Mr Ramsay, then secre-
tary, having observed his talents for diplomacy, his
application, and his quickness, recommended him to
the office of assistant secretary. In September fol-
lowing Mr Raffles first set foot in the East, the
theatre in which his acquirements and industry were
to be shown forth. During the voyage out he had
nearly mastered the Malayan language; and, from the
.llness of the secretary, he was at once obliged to en-
ter upon all the duties and difficulties of his office, a
task of great responsibility, but which he executed
to the satisfaction of his employers.

The great exertions and application necessary to
carry on the duties of the government, with the
effects of the climate on a constitution not yet
inured to it, were too much for Mr Raffles, and he
was thrown into bad health, and an illness so seri-
ous, that relaxation and change of air to Malacca
were recommended. Hence his anxiety to benefit
the government brought him back almost before he
was able to undergo fatigue. He made the voyage
in the long boat of an Indiaman, and again reached
Penaug in time to send off despatches, and to for-
ward many objects which could scarcely* have been
accomplished without him.

While at Malacca he first saw and mixed with
the varied population of the Eastern Archipelago,



22 MEMOIR OF

heard the dialects, and became interested in their
origin ; and to this singularity and variety may be at-
trib ited the first desire to investigate the history and
antiquities of this people. In these pursuits he was as-
sisted by the researches which now occupied Mr
Marsden, whose constant application upon the occur-
rence of difficulties, and innumerable queries, forced
and kept up the interest of a subject to which he
was already deeply attached. It was at Malacca,
also, where he first gained the acquaintance and
friendship of Dr Leyden.

About this period the affairs of the East were in
considerable confusion. The conquest of Java was
contemplated, and there was little time to be spared
for the pursuits of literature, researches into the an-
tiquities of the country, or into its natural history.
The stolen moments which could be spared, were,
however, all devoted to these studies, and the very
information which was to be acquired in forwarding
the objects of the government, increased his know-
ledge, and laid the basis for many of his after disco-
veries As, however, we wish to avoid the details
of hit political career, we shall pass over the period
until the capture of Java ; suffice it to say, that he
exhibited as much perseverance and presence of mind
in the diplomatist and soldier, as he had before in
the more peaceful researches of antiquities and lite-
rature.

The capture of Java was terminated in 1811, and
by all, much of the merit of planning and conduct-



SIR THOMAS STAMFORD RAFFLES. 23

ing the expedition is attributed to Mr Raffles. The
services which he had performed were so highly
judged of by Lord Minto, the performance of any
trust to he reposed in him was so confidently anti-
cipated that he at once appointed Mr Raffles
Lieutenant-Governor of Java and its dependencies.
" The charge was of the most extensive, arduous,
and responsible nature, comprising on the island of
Java alone, a population of six millions, divided in-
to thirty-six residencies, under powerful chiefs, who
had long been desirous of throwing off the European
yoke, and who were by no means disposed to sub-
mit quietly to the rule of their new governors."

Lord Minto remained in the island for six weeks
superintending the new arrangements, after whicn
the whole charges were resigned to the care of Mr
Raffles, who now removed to Buitenzorg, the seat
of government, distant from Batavia about forty
miles. For some time his cares and duties were so
heavy, that eveiy moment was required for their
fulfilment, but ere long the pursuits of natural history
and antiquities began to fill his moments of leisure.
In a letter to his first and old friend Mr Ramsay,
written in the same year with his establishment in
the government, after mentioning the surmounting of
several difficulties, he says, " By the next oppor-
tunity I shall have the satisfaction of forwarding to
the authorities in England, several reports from Dr
Horsfield, and other scientific gentlemen, on tVie
natural history of the island ; and as the Batavian



%4 MEMOIR OF

Literary Society have solicited that I should take
that institution under the protection of government,
I trust that by uniting our efforts with those of the
Asiatic Society in Bengal, very considerable light
may be shortly thrown on science and general know-
ledge. The numerous remains of Brahminical struc-
tures in every part of the island, prove beyond a
doubt, that a colony of Hindus settled on this island
about the first century of the Christian era ; and
the materials of which they are constructed, induce
the belief that this colony must have emigrated from
the Coromandel coast. The beauty and purity of
these structures are entirely divested of that redun-
dancy of awkward and uncouth ornaments and sym-
ools which are found in India." His time was thus
constantly occupied either in official employments or
literary researches. In the latter he was assisted by
the talents of Dr Horsfield, ami together they ac-
complished one of the most important measures for
promoting their researches, the re-establishment of
the Society of Arts at Batavia, of which Mr Raffles
was appointed president. This had been the first
Eastern Literary Society established by Europeans,
and under his fostering care it revived, and was of
much consequence to the history of these countries,
during the few short years which they remained
under the sway of the British arms, and the superin-
tendence of an active and enlightened governor.

A short notice of the rise of a society of such
consequence in the East, arid so intimately connect-



SIR THOMAS STAMFORD RAFFLES. 25

ed with the history of its natural productions, may
not here be misplaced, particularly as we are obliged
for it to the address of its President upon his first
instalment in office after its re-establishment. " Pre-
vious to the establishment of the Batavian Society,
Mr Kadermacher, a gentleman of distinguished ta-
lents, and a zealous promoter of the Christian reli-
gion and of science, with a few friends of Batavia,
conceived the idea of assembling together a number
of persons of consideration and ability, with the view
of encouraging the arts and sciences in this capital,
and the other Indian establishments then dependent
on Holland. They considered that in India, as in
Europe, where for two centuries the reformation in
letters preceded that in religion, a taste for the arts
and sciences must be introduced previously to the
general adoption of the Christian religion in the East ;
but they were aware of the difficulties to be en-
countered, under the circumstances in which the
colonies of Holland were then placed, and a con-
siderable period elapsed before the design was car-
ried into effect.

" At length, in the year 1777, when Mr Kader-
macher and his father-in-law, the Govern or- General
de Klerk, were newly elected directors of the Haer-
lem Society, a program me appeared, which contained
the plan of extending the branches of that Society
to the Indies. The distance and extent of the
Dutch colonial possessions in the East did not, how-
ever, admit of this plan being realized ; but the idea



26 MEMOIR OF

being thus brought forward to public notice, a se-
parate society was formed, by the unremitting perse-
verance of Mr Kadermacher, who may be called the
founder of the institution established at Batavia.

" On the 24th of April 1778, this society was duly
established, under the authority of Government, and,
after the example of Haerlem, took for its motto,
* The public utility! On its first organization, the
Society consisted of 192 members, the Governor-
General being chief director, and members of the
High Regency directors. The Society selected as
objects of research and inquiry, whatever could be
useful to agriculture, commerce, and the welfare of
the colony; it encouraged every question relating to
natural history, antiquities, and the manners and
usages of the native inhabitants : and in order the
better to define the objects and contribute to their
accomplishment, a programme was from time to time
printed and circulated abroad."

The Society v/as no sooner fully established, and
its proceedings generally known, than it received
from all quarters various acquisitions to its cabinet
and library. Mr Kadermacher himself presented
the Society with a convenient house, and eight cases
of valuable books, &c. ; and by the liberality of Mr
Bartto, it was enabled to form a botanical establish-
ment, in a garden presented by that gentleman. In
1779 the first volume of transactions was printed,
in 1780 the second, and the third in 1781 ; and be-
fore 1792 six volumes had appeared. At this pe-



SIR THOMAS STAMFORD RAFFLES. 27

riod the revolutions and war in Europe interfered
with the interests of the Society ; it was found im-
practicable to complete the seventh volume, and it
was suggested that, by adopting a more limited mode
of proceeding, the views of the Society might still be
forwarded. The Society was placed under this new
organization in 1800, and continued in this state
until the change of government in 1811, when its
interests were again actively taken up, in the man-
ner we have just seen, by Mr Raffles.

In each succeeding year a new address was de-
livered by the president, giving a review and account
of the progress of the different inquiries which had
come under the notice of the Society, and of disco-
veries which had been made. These all shew the
uncommon pains taken by Mr Raffles in promoting
its objects, but would occupy too much room in our
present sketch, and could not be done justice to by
mutilation.

During the last few years which the island of
Java remained in possession of the British, Mr
Raffles remained in much uncertainty, and often
felt considerable difficulties in giving his orders. It
was unknown whether the island was to be given
up to the Dutch, to be kept under the British crown,
or continue in the hands of the Company. In any
change, however, it was possible that Mr Raffles
might foe superseded and lose the advantages which
he was now reaping in his high and important situa-
tion. He was howevei prevented from suffering, by



28 MEMOIR OF

the kind attentions of his patron Lord Minto, whc
before leaving the East to his successor Lord Moira,
procured for him the residency of Fort Marlborough,
which gave him the chief rank at Bencoolen *. Before
his settlement, however, in this new residency, many
vicissitudes of his lot occurred, and we have particu-
larly to notice one incident, the first which had af-
fected or had appeared to place any blot upon the
bright character and fame of Mr Raffles.

Though at first intimate friends, and acting ap-
parently in concert for the interest of the Eastern
islands, some differences of opinion had existed
between Mr Raffles and General Gillespie ; and af-
ter the appointment of the former gentleman to the
governorship, the breach seems to have widened.
Some acts of administration were complained of,
which ended in specific charges being made by the
General to the Bengal Government, by whom they
were forwarded to Mr Raffles for reply. These
charges coming somewhat unexpectedly and per-
fectly unmeritedly, were deeply felt. Writing to Lord
Minto regarding their want of foundation, he says,
" My feelings of the injury I have sustained are not
the less acute that I have been denied the means of
knowing the charges, until all the influence of a
first and ex-parte statement could be exerted, and the
current of public feeling allowed to flow unrestrained,
until the reports obtained an unmerited credit from
the very want of contradiction ;" but he adds, in con-

The Commander of the Troops at the reduction of Java.



SIR THOMAS STAMFORD RAFFLES. 29

fidence of his fidelity, " My cause, my honour, my
public reputation and private character are now be-
fore the supreme government, and I only ask a patient
hearing. Errors in judgment may be found in the
complicated administration with which I am en-
trusted ; measures of policy depend in a consider-
able degree ou opinion, and there may be some dif-
ference of opinion perhaps, with regard to those
which have been adopted by this government ; but
the accusations against my moral character must
be determined by facts, and on this ground I will
challenge my accusers to produce any one act of
government, in which I have been actuated by cor-
rupt motives, or guided by views of sinister advan-
tage to myself."

In addition to the feelings of a character un-
deservedly attacked, were now added those of deep
affliction in the loes of his dearest connections.
Soon after the delivery of the charges, he suffered
a severe bereavement in the death of Mrs Raffles,
which was followed by the intelligence of the de-
cease of Lord Minto, to whom he might be said to
be indebted for all his worldly prosperity, besides the
free intercourse and sympathy of friendship. He
had, however, on receipt of the charges, and imme-
diately before these great losses, written out replies,
which, though they could not, after the institution of
the proceedings by General Gillespie, be taken as ex-
culpation, shewed plainly to his judges that little
was to be dreaded in Mr Raffles, from a double or



SO MEMOIR OF

deceitful government. But the afflictions which had
thus multiplied upon him, so affected his health that
a change of scene was necessary, and the tour of the
island was commenced with the view to his recovery,
and the employment of his mind in the examination
of various subjects in which he was much interested.
These exertions, however, though they occupied his
mind for the time, did not add to his health or ge-
neral strength, and he removed to Ciceroa in a more
upland district, in the hope that the purer air might
assist his constitution ; but here also the weakening
symptoms continued, and here it was that he heard
he was superseded in his government. In this act
he felt himself unjustly used, but he bore it with
firmness, and without experiencing the bad effects
which his medical advisers anticipated. These at-
tempts, by change of air and scene, to recover health
were, however, unavailing, and it was judged neces-
sary that he should return to England as the only
hope of restoring his constitution. This proposal
he would not listen to, until the arrival of the new
governor ; for he felt, that, however aggrieved he might
have been, his successor Mr Tindal had nothing to
do with it, and it was his duty to see every atten-
tion and honour paid to him upon his arrival. Per-
haps, also, feelings for the interests of his old friends
and companions in office had their sway, for his be-
nevolent disposition would have made any sacrifice
for those in whom he was interested, and whom he
knew deserved his assistance ; while his patriotic



SIR THOMAS STAMFORD RAFFLES. 31

love for Java, and desire for the welfare of the na-
tives, were points which assumed an interest of no
ordinary kind. He accordingly remained until the
arrival of Mr Tindal, introduced him to Buitenzorg,
to his own officers and staff, and to the most worthy
inhabitants in the island ; doing every thing in his
power to render the situation of his successor agree-
able, and to bend his views to the importance of the
prosperity and improvement of the natives. Ha-
ving done this, he resigned his office, and retired to
the house of Mr Cronsent with whom he remained
until his embarkation.

When it became known that Mr Raffles had de-


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