considered themselves firmly established, they had met
with another check as formidable as any of the former.
King James, at the instigation of the royal favourite,
Buckingham, was induced to demand the Charter-House
revenues for the payment of the army. Sir Edward Coke,
who had on a former occasion been instrumental in de-
feating the arguments of Mr. Baxter's counsel, now stood
forward, and successfully resisted the royal aggression.
Thus were the wishes of Sutton carried out, and his
" The imitation of things that be evil doth for the most
part exceed the example, but the imitation of good things
HOWARD HOUSE, AND THE HOSPITAL. 105
doth most commonly come far short of the precedent ; but
this work of charity hath exceeded any foundation that
ever was in the Christian workl, nay the eye of time
itself did never see the like. The foundation of this Hos-
pital is opus sine exemplo."
CHARTER-HOUSE AS IT NOW EXISTS.
" Yet lot the liaiul of desolating time
These sinking towers and mouldering walls revere,
For not with useless pride they rose suhlime,
For Science stored iier choicest treasm*es there."
Of the officers of the Charter-House, the principal are
the Governors, who, selected from amongst those who
administer the Government, are appointed to regulate its
affairs. They are in number nineteen, inclusive of the
Master, who is a Governor by virtue of his office. They
consist at present of the following :
The Queen Dowager.
The Prince Albert.
Archbishop of Canterbury.
The Lord Chancellor.
Archbishop of York.
Duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry.
Duke of Wellington.
Earl of Devon.
CHARTER-HOUSE AS IT NOW EXISTS. 107
Earl of Liverpool.
Earl of Harkowby.
Earl of Ripon.
Bishop of London.
Lord John Russell.
Sir Robert Peel, Bart.
The Master. — Archdeacon Hale, B.D.
We extract from Heme's " Domus Cartliusiana " the
following rules, which, with many others of a like cha-
racter, hardly of interest enough to transfer, are still
essential regulations : —
" There shall be two set and certain Assemblies, one in
December, to take the year's accompt, view the state of
the Hospital, and determine and order any business oc-
curring : The other in June or July, to dispose of the
scholars to the universities or trades, to make election
both of poor men and poor scholars into places vacant,
as also to determine and order any other business.
" If the major part of the Governours meet at an assem-
bly, and the greater part of them present determine and give
order for any thing propounded, then that Assembly shall
stand good, and those orders shall be in force, otherwise
not : And also all elections and expulsions made at such
a full assembly shall stand good, otherwise they shall be
108 CHRONICLES OF CHARTER-HOUSE.
held unlawful, and it shall be the Master's duty to dis-
avow them till the Governor's pleasure he further known
the next Assembly.
" All grants, leases, and presentations, and all elections
of all Officers mentioned in the Charter-House, and like-
wise of the register, receiver, auditor, chappel-clerk, or-
ganist, and manciple, as also of all poor men and poor
scholars, shall be in the power of the Governors only, and
they shall not elect above eighteen poor men, or eighteen
poor scholars, at any one assembly.
" No patent or fee shall be granted for life to any
officer whatsoever, but durante beneplacito.
" No poor man or poor scholar shall be admitted but
into the next place after him that is or shall be pre-elected,
and they shall not come one over the other's head, any
powerful means or importunity to the contrary notwith-
" The orders and constitutions of every Assembly shall
be ingrossed in the Assembly-book by the Register, and
signed by the Governors present at that Assembly within
forty days : all which orders and constitutions the Master,
Register, and other Members, Officers, Ministers, and
Servants of the House, whom it may concern, shall observe
and obey, as they will answer the contrary at their peril.
*' Other Assemblies shall be accidentary, upon the
occasion of the death or resignation of a Governor, Officer
of the Foundation, or Incumbent upon any spiritual living
being of the patronage of the Hospital, to elect or present
CIIARTER-IIOUSE AS IT NOW EXISTS. 109
another in his place, wherein it is provided that the spirit-
ual livings be conferred upon persons capable, and such as
do, or have done actual service to the House, or have been
Members thereof, before any others.
" A Committee of five at the least shall be chosen for
the vv^hole year at the Assembly in December, whereof any
three, the Master being one, may proceed in any business
left to the Committees : And they shall yearly, between
Easter and Midsummer, assisted with some learned men,
make a Visitation of the School, and certify the table
at the Assembly following of the state thereof, and which
scholars, between the age of sixteen and eighteen, are
fit to be preferred to the Universities, and there main-
tained by the Hospital, which not.
" Those scholars sent to the Universities, if they con-
tinue there and follow their studies, shall be allowed each
of them sixteen pounds yearly pension, at the four usual
feasts, by even and equal portions, for eight years : but in
case they discontinue sooner, their pension shall cease ;
provided always they shall not exceed the number of four-
and-twenty such pensioners at any one time.
" Such as are to be bound Apprentices, shall have
sixteen pounds a-piece in gift towards their setting out,
whereof four marks shall be to apparel the Apprentice,
and twenty marks to his Master, which money, both for
maintenance at the Universities, and putting out to trades,
shall be disbiu'sed by the surviving Executor of the
Founder, during his life, and after by such as the Govern-
no CHRONICLES OF CHARTEE-HOUSE.
ors shall appoint in tliat behalf; provided that the trades-
man shall first enter into thirty pounds bond to the
Governors for good usage of the Apprentice, and teaching
him his trade.
" Such scholars as the Governors at an Assembly shall
appoint to Universities or trades, with the allowance be-
fore specified, their parents or nearest friends that are
able, shall be sent unto to provide them of places accord-
ingly, before Michaelmas-day then next following, and if
they shall fail therein, upon lawful warning given them,
then those scholars shall be dismissed, and made uncapable
of any allowance in or from the Hospital : concerning such
scholars whose parents or friends are unable, the House
shall provide places for them.
" Lastly, the said Committees shall take in their con-
sideration all business of importance referred unto them
by the Governors at an Assembly ; as also all such things
as the Master of the Hospital shall conununicate unto
them for their advice and assistance, to digest and prepare
them, that they may be presented in writing to the
Solicitor, and propounded at the next meeting of the
" Election shall be made of a Master that is a learned,
discreet, and meet man, according to the express words
of the Foundation, umnarried, and aged above forty
CIIARTER-ITOUSE AS IT NOW EXISTS. Ill
" He shall neither have, nor accept of any place of
preferment or benefit, either in Church or Commonwealth,
whereby he may be di'awn from his residence, care, and
charge of the Hospital ; and if he do, in such case, he
shall leave that place, or be displaced if he refuse to leave
" He shall have the economical government of the
house and household, during the Governor's pleasvu'e, and
to put upon any Officer a mulct, not exceeding the value
of a week or fortnight's commons, which shall be con-
tinued, unless the Governors or the next Assembly, shall
see cause, and give order to the contrary : and also to
fine any poor brother at four shillings fourpence, or eight
shillings eightpence, upon any misdemeanour, in his dis-
cretion deserving the same, any further punishment he
shall not inflict ; but, upon continuance of their trans-
gression and incorrigibility, he shall inform the Governors
at the next assembly, by them to be more severely and
condignly chastised by way of mulct, expulsion, or other-
wise, as to their wisdoms shall seem best and most just for
the offender's correction, and terror of others.
" All other inferior servants of the household shall
be put in or out at the discretion of the Master, but
he shall have this power in subordination to the Govern-
ors, and his actions shall be alterable by their censure
and revocation upon just cause of complaint.
" He shall not increase or decrease any diets, stipends,
fees, or wages, in the House or School, under or above
112 CHRONICLES OF CHARTER-nOUSE.
the rates set down in our establishment hereafter ensuing,
as he will answer the contrary upon pain of paying the
surcharge himself, and incurring the Governor's displea-
sure in case any allowance be shortened." *
The office of Master of the Hospital is now filled by
The Venerable William Hale Hale, B. D., Archdeacon of
LIST OF MASTERS SINCE THE FOUNDATION.
The Reverend John Hutton, M.A., who resigned upon
being presented to the Vicarage of Dunsby, Lincolnshire.
1G14. Andrew Perne, A.M.
1615. Peter Hooker, B.D.
1G17. Francis Beaumont, Esquire, appointed
by the King.
1G24. Sir Robert Dalhngton, A. M.
1637. George Garrard, M. A.
1650. Edward Cressett, Esquire.
1660. Sir Ralph Sydenham.
1671. Martin Clifford, Esquire.
1677. William Erskine, Esquire.
1685. Thomas Burnett, M. A.
1715. John King, D.D.
1737. Nicholas Mann, Esquire.
1753. Philip Bearcroft, D.D.
1761. Samuel Salter, D.D.
CHARTER-PIOUSE AS IT NOW EXISTS. 113
1778. William Ramsden, D.D.
1804. Philip Fisher,' D.D.
1842. The Venerable Ai'chdeacon Hale, M.A.
" He shall be qualified, both for his learning and good
conversation of life, to be callable and fit for the place,
aged about thirty years, a Master of Arts of seven years'
standing at the least, and one that hath been a preaching
Minister the space of four years or more.
" The first and chiefest care and charge that we im-
pose upon the Master and him is, for the service of God,
that they, and all the Officers, poor Brothers, Scholars,
and Servants of the Household, frequent the chappel
daily at the accustomed time of di\ine service : the like
shall be observed by the Schoolmaster, Usher, and poor
Scholars of the Foundation, upon every Sunday, Holyday,
and Vigil in the afternoon ; and that there be a sermon
every Sunday at morning prayer, either by him the said
Preacher, or some other deputed by him.
" The Master and Preacher shall have in care and
charge to see that the whole Household, and those of the
School of the age of sixteen years and upwards, shall
receive the Blessed Sacrament yearly at the thi-ee so-
lemn feasts of Christmas, Easter, and Whitsuntide, unless
they be satisfied by some lawful excuse and just cause
of their failing ; otherwise the party denying or delaying
1]4 CHRONICLES OF CHARTER-HOUSE.
shall be liable to the Master's chastisement, and the
Governors' further censure.
" The Master and Preacher shall have superintendency
over the Chappel Clerk, Organist, and Sexton, to see
if each of them carefully perform the duties of his place ;
the one, in reading of divine service at the horu's accus-
tomed, assisting the Preacher at the Communion, and bury-
ing the dead ; the second, in teaching the poor Scholars to
sing, and playing on the organ at set times of divine
service ; the third, in keeping the chappel in a cleanly,
comely, and decent manner, and carefully performing
all other services belonging to such a place : otherwise
they, and every of them, shall be subject to the Master's
PREACHERS SINCE THE FOUNDATION.
1613. The Reverend Humphrey Hartness, M. A.
1616. The Reverend Anthony Parker.
1618. The Reverend William Ford, B.D.
1619. The Reverend Perceval Burrel, M. A.
16^8. The Reverend William MidcUeton, M.A.
1630. The Reverend Daniel Toutville, M.A.
1643. The Reverend Peter Clarke, M.A.
164*5. The Reverend William Adderley, M.A.
1648. The Reverend George Griffith, M.A., ejected by
the Act of Uniformity.
CHARTER-HOUSE AS IT NOW EXISTS. 115
IGGl. Tlie Reverend Timothy Sliircross, D. D.
1671. The Reverend John Patrick, D. D.
1695. The Reverend John King, D.D.
1715. The Reverend Emanuel Langford, D.D.
1724. The Reverend PhiHp Bearcroft, D.D.
1754. The Reverend Samuel Salter, D.D.
1761. The Reverend John Nichols, D.D.
1774. The Reverend Thomas Sainsbury, D.D.
1787. The Reverend William Lloyd, M. A.
1809. The Reverend Wilfred Clarke, M. A.
1812. The Reverend James Currey, B.D.
1823. The Reverend William Hale Hale, M. A.
1842. The Reverend Henry Budd Whittaker Cluu-ton,
1844. The Reverend Folliot Baugh, M.A.
" He shall be qualified with the degree of a Doctor
in that profession, and shall have his yearly fee of twenty
pounds confirmed unto him ; he shall make choice of his
Apothecary, and not exceed the sum of twenty pounds
a year for physick bills, according to the rate set down
in our Establishment ; otherwise the Governors reserve
the power to themselves to make choice of another that
will accept of these conditions, or to determine whether
they will have any Physician in ordinary fee, or not." *
116 CHRONICLES OF CHARTER-HOUSE,
PHYSICIANS SINCE THE FOUNDATION.
1614. Thomas Barker.
1617. William Barker.
1624. Laurence Wright.
1643. George Bate.
1656. Gabriel Beauvoir.
1673. Dr. Castle.
1673. Walter Needham.
1691. Charles Goodhall.
1713. Henry Levett.
1725. Charles Ball.
1730. Abram Hall.
1752. Thomas Hawes.
1763. John Hadley.
1765. James Grewe.
1773. Edward Dowsett.
1774. Nathaniel Hulme.
1807. Arthin- Daniel Stone-
1823. John Vetch.
1840. Benjamin Guy Babington.
A resident Medical Officer was first appointed in 1835.
The office was filled by Henry Cromwell Fiekl, Esquire,
who, dying in 1840, was succeeded by John Miles, Es-
CHARTER-HOUSE AS IT NOW EXISTS. 117
THE REGISTRAR AND SOLICITOR.
" He shall be lodged and dieted in the Hospital, a
man of good conversation, well practised in following
Law Causes, a good penman, ready, diligent, and faithfnl
in all such emjiloyments as the Governoiu's or Master
shall put him upon.
" His imployment shall be to summon all Assemblies,
to register their orders and decrees in the Assembly Book,
to draw all patents and leases, make them ready for the
Common Seal, and enroll them in the Book of Entries,
to di-aw all leases for the Governors, and wait upon them
for the signing and dispatch ; to attend the Hospital
Council, and take their direction upon any occasion of
law business, and, ha\dng the Master's warrant, to follow
the same with all dexterity and diligence ; to call in
arrearages of rents, and make seizure or re-entry for
default of payment by warrant of the Governours ; to
take all petitions and present them to the table ; to take
bond for the teaching, well using, and maintenance of
poor Scholars made Apprentices ; and by the Master's
order and direction to put in suit the bonds forfeited,
either for non-payment of debts, non-performance of co-
venants, or for any other cause whatsoever ; and to pro-
secute and answer all suits in law whatsoever for and
concerning the said House and Hospital.
" He shall not directly nor indirectly contract for the
118 CHRONICLES OF CHARTER-HOUSE.
preferring of poor men or boyes into the Hospital, nor
with any of the tenants for renewing their leases ; such
business shall immediately be preferred by petition to
the Governovu's only, and then presented by him to the
Table: and if he be a transgressor herein, he shall forfeit
" He shall not cancel or deface any orders concluded
at an Assembly and signed by the Govemours there
present, upon peril of losing his place.
" He shall not j)resume to receive or meddle with
any monies accrueing due to the Hospital by way of
fine, rent, or debt however."*
REGISTRARS SINCE THE FOUNDATION.
1612. Thomas Hey ward.
1621. Samuel Martyn.
1643. John Brent.
1650. Edward Cressett.
1651. John Holland.
1654. William Taylour.
1666. William Massey.
1669. Mr. Spelman.
1674. Mr. Lightfoot.
1699. William Hempson.
1739. Conway Whithorn.
CIIARTEK-IIOUSE AS IT NOW EXISTS. Ill)
1747. Tliomas Mclinotli.
1767. Henry Sayer.
1789. Thomas Ryder.
The offices of Registrar and Receiver are now merged
The first person who held the double office was in
1835. Thomas Gatty, who was succeeded by
1838. Archibald Keightley.
" He shall not enter into the execution of his office
before he give good security by ten several bonds of two
hundred pounds apiece, wherein himself, with two suffi-
cient sureties in every bond, shall stand bound to the
Governours for the faithful executing his place and
discharging liis accompt ; he shall deliver out no monies
but only to the Manciple for diet, unless he have
order and warrant from the Master.
" He shall, according to such letters of attorney as
are or shall be made in that behalf, make publique de-
mand of rents due by the Hospital tenants, upon the
dayes expressed in the conditions of their leases, and shall
take witness thereof that such fvu'ther coiu'se may be
taken for satisfaction as shall seem good to the Governours.
" At Michaelmas every year, when his accompt shall
be given up, he shall have two hundred pounds imprested
to him by the Master out of the surplus remaining that
120 CHRONICLES OF CHARTER-HOUSE.
year, or out of the House Stock, which imprest shall
be for expense for clyet and other charges till Michaelmas
rent come in, repaying the said money into the iron chest
of the Hospital Stock at or between the end of November
then next coming." *
RECEIVERS SINCE THE FOUNDATION.
1614. Francis Smith.
1617. David Lewis.
1621. John Clark.
1643. Andrew Hill.
1654. Alexander Lawsou.
1660. John Payn.
1676. Mr. Payn.
1718. Ambrose E}T:e.
1739. John Spencer Colepeper.
1779. Herbert Croft.
1786. Thomas Ryder.
1789. Robert Barber.
AUDITORS SINCE THE FOUNDATION.
1613. John Wotton.
1636. Henry Wotton.
1645. Henry Pla^^ord.
1670. Richard Spoiu-.
1716. George Davidson.
CIIARTER-IIOUSE AS IT NOW EXISTS. 121
1744. Thomas Melmoth.
1747. John Fotherby.
1776. Thomas Mehnoth.
1783. Clmstopher Hargrave.
1785. Joseph Smith Hargrave.
1807. Henry Jenkinson Sayer.
1820. Thomas Gatty.
" He shall put in bond of one hundred pounds, with
one sufRcient surety, for discharging himself by a just
and allowed accompt of all such sums of money as the
Receiver shall from time to time imprest upon him, upon
the Master's warrant, for the affairs of the Hospital.
" He shall attend his service in the Kitchen till all
the tables be served and taken away, and then he shall
take his meals with the inferior Officers and Grooms at
their accustomed table and rate established in these our
" He shall keep a book of the weekly expense in
dyet, carry it to the Auditors to be examined ; he shall,
within four days after the week is expired, bring it to
the Master to be perused and signed by him, and whom
else he will call.
" He shall not disburse or lay out any sum or sums
of money for any provisions for the Hospital (save only
the provision of dyet) without the Master's warrant.
122 CHRONICLES OF CHARTER-HOUSE.
wherein also he shall not exceed the rates set down in
our Establishment ensuing ; nor shall he buy any such
provisions in the Market or elsewhere, but with ready
money : and if he shall disburse anything contrary to
these orders, it shall not be allowed him upon his ac-
compt ; besides, he shall be answerable for his disobe-
" He shall take a true and perfect Inventory twice
in every year of all the Goods, Moveables, and Utensils
of and throughout the Hospital, and give accompt thereof
to the Master, that he may lay the imbezelling or loss
to every Officer, Groom, or poor Brother to whom it
was intrusted, satisfying the House out of their wages
at his discretion, and giving order for repairing and re-
newing such stuff as shall be so lost, or by long wearing-
become no more useful." *
There was formerly a Steward of the Courts, but this
office is now merged in the Manciple's.
The office of Organist to the Hospital is now filled by
Williiim Horsley, Esq., Mus. Bac. Oxon.
THE POOR BRETHREN.
" They shall not exceed the number of fourscore.
" They shall not be holden qualified and capable of
the place, unless they be such as are within the inten-
CHARTER-HOUSE AS IT NOW EXISTS 123
tion of the King's Letters Patent of tlie Foundation,
namely, gentlemen by descent and in poverty ; soldiers
that have borne arms by sea or land ; merchants decayed
by piracy or shipwreck ; or servants in houshold to the
King or Queen's Majesty, and none of these to be under
the age of fifty years at the time of their admission ;
and it shall be the Master's charge to certify the Table,
when they are propounded at an Assembly, if he know
anything of any man standing in election to the con-
" He that hath been maimed in the wars, either at
sea or land, and not in any fray or private quarrel, being
also a subject of the King's dominions, shall be capable
of the place at forty years age or upwards ; but if he
be not maimed, though otherwise well deserving, he shall
not be capable of the place unless he be fifty years old
at the least : nor shall any be admitted whose body is
tainted with any leprous, unclean, or infectious disease.
" None shall be admitted or elected that hath com-
petent means to sustain him ; and if at or after his ad-
mittance he shall be found to have an estate in value
worth two hundred pounds a-coming in, \iis et modis,
to the value of four-and-twenty pounds per annum during
his life, his place shall be void.
" No poor brother shall have leave to pass the seas
vipon what pretence soever but by petition to the Go-
vernoui's, and signed with six of their hands ; in which
case and time of absence he shall only be allowed his
124 CHRONICLES OF CHARTER-HOUSE.
wages, and have his place reserved for him ; other allow-
ances for commons he shall not have.
" They shall not go into the country to visit friends,
or upon any other business, without the Master's leave,
and that but for two months at the farthest ; in which case
and time of absence they shall be allowed two third parts
of their commons in money, but no part of their wages
shall be abated ; but if they go abroad, either with leave
or without, and fall under arrest, or any other danger
whereby their return is stayed, in such case they shall
have no means or allowance from the Hospital, either
for commons or wages, only their place shall be reserved
for them till the Governours' pleasure be further knowai :
and, moreover, no brother shall presume to pass the
out gates of the Hospital in their livery gowns, upon pain
of paying a month's commons out of their quarter's
" They shall not undertake the following of other
men's causes and suits, nor procure the molestation,
trouble, or expence of other the King's subjects, by their
suggestions or informations, upon pain of paying what
mulct the Master, by these our Ordinances, can impose
upon them, and abiding the Governours' further plea-
" All other duties to be performed after their admission,
as daily frequenting the chapel, reverent behaviour at
prayers, civil fashion of feeding, cleanly and decent
clothing, neat and wholesome lodging, friendly and bro-
CHARTER-HOUSE AS IT NOW EXISTS. 125
therly conversing and living together, shall be referred
to the Master's discretion to direct, and to the power
we have given him to correct."*
The annual allowance to each Pensioner is 261. \2s.,
wdiich is paid in quarterly instalments.
" The Scholars of the Foundation shall not exceed
the number of forty ; f nor shall any be admitted but such
as the Schoolmaster shall find and approve to be well
entred in learning, answerable to his age at the time of
" The Schoolmaster shall be of twenty-seven years of
age at the least, a Master of Arts, of good reputation,
both for his life and learning in the Latin and Greek