before you boil them ; when they are tender, which a mid-
dling-sized onion will be in about three-quarters of an hour,
drain them in a hair-sieve, take off the top skins till they
look nice and white, and put them with the tripe into a tureen
or soup-dish, and take off the fat if any floats on the surface.
Obs. Rashers of bacon (Nos. 526 and 527), or fried sau-
sages (No. 87), are a very good accompaniment to boiled
tripe, cow-heels (No. 198), or calf's feet, see Mr. Mich/
Kelly's sauce (No. 311*), or parsley and butter (No. 261),
or caper sauce (No. 274), with a little vinegar and mustard
added to them, or salad mixture (No. 372 or 453).
Tripe holds the same rank among solids, that water-
gruel does among soups, and the forme'r is desirable at
dinner, when the latter is welcome at supper. Read No.
Cow-Heel, (No. 18.*)
In the hands of a skilful cook, will furnish several good
meals ; when boiled tender (No. 198), cut it into handsome
pieces, egg and bread-crumb tnem, and fry them a light brown ;
lay them round a dish, and put in the middle of it sliced
onions fried, or the accompaniments ordered for tripe. The
liquor they were boiled in will make soups (No. 229, 240*,
or No. 555).
N.B. We give no receipts to boil venison, geese, ducks,
pheasants, woodcocks, and peacocks, &c. as our aim has
been to make a useful book, not a big one (see No. 82).
N.B. If the time we have allowed for roasting appears rather longer than what
is stated in former works, we can only say, we have written from actual experiments,
and that the difference may be accounted for, by common cooks generally being fond
of too fierce afire, and of putting things too near to it.
Our calculations are made for a temperature of about fifty degrees of Fahrenheit.
SLOW ROASTING is as advantageous to the tenderness and flavour of meat as slow
boiling, of which every body understands the importance. See the account of Count
Jlumford's shoulder of mutton.
The warmer the weather, and the staler killed the meat is, the less time it will re-<
quire to roa$t it.
Meat that is very fat, requires more time than we have stated.
BEEF is in proper season throughout the whole year.
Sirloin of Beef. (No. 19.)
THE noble sirloin* of about fifteen pounds (if much
thicker, the outside will be done 'too much before the inside
is enough), will require to be before the fire about three and
a half or four hours ; take care to spit it evenly, that it may
* This joint is said to owe its name to king Charles the Second, who, dining upon
a loin of beef, and being particularly pleased with it, asked the name of tlrc joint;
said for its merit it should be knighted, and henceforth called Sir-Loin.
not be heavier on one side than the other ; put a little clean
dripping into the dripping-pan, (tie a sheet of paper over it
to preserve the fat,*) baste it well as soon as it is put down,
and every quarter of an hour all the time it is roasting, till
the last half hour ; then take off the paper, and make some
gravy for it (No. 326) ; stir' the fire and make it clear : to
brown and froth it, sprinkle a little salt over it, baste it with
butter, and dredge it with flour ; let it go a few minutes
longer, till the froth rises, take it up, put it on the dish, &c.
Garnish it with hillocks of horseradish, scraped as fine as
possible with a very sharp knife, (Nos. 458 and 399*). A
Yorkshire pudding is an excellent accompaniment (No. 595,
or No. 554).
Obs. The inside of the sirloin must never be cutf hot, but
reserved entire for the hash, or a mock hare (No. 67*). (For
various ways of dressing the inside of the sirloin, No. 483 ;
for the receipt to hash or broil beef, No. 484, and Nos. 486
and 487; and for other ways of employing the. remains of a
joint of cold beef, Nos. 503, 4, 5, 6).
Ribs of Beef. (No. 20).
The first three ribs, of fifteen or twenty pounds, will take
three hours, or three and a half : the fourth and fifth ribs will
lake as long, managed in the same way as the sirloin.
* " In the present fashion of FATTENING CATTLK, it is more desirable to roast
away the fat than to preserve it. If the honourable societies of agriculturists, at
the time they consulted a learned professor about the composition of manures, had
consulted some competent authority on the nature of animal substances, the public
might have escaped the overgrown corpulency of the animal flesh, which every
where fills'the markets." Domestic Management, I2mo. 1813, p. 182.
"Game, and other wild animals proper for food, are of very superior qualities "to
the tame, from the total contrast of the circumstances attending them. They have
a free range of exercise in the open air, and choose their own food, the good effects
of which are very evident in a short, delicate texture of flesh, found only in them.
Their juices and flavour are more pure, and their fat, when it is in any degree, as
iu venison, and some other instances, differs as much from that of our fatted
animals, as silver and gold from the grosser metals. The superiority of WELCH
.MUTTON and SCOTCH BEEF is owing to a similar cause." Ibid, p. 150.
If there is more FAT than you think will be eaten with the meat; cut it off; it will
make an excellent PUDDING (No. 554) ; or clarify it, (No. 84) and use it fat frying:
for those who like their meat done thoroughly, and use a moderate fire for roasting,
the fat need not be covered with paper.
If your beef is large, and your family small, cut off the thin end and salt it, and
ut out and dress the fillet (i. e. commonly called the inside) next day as MOCK HARE
uVo. 67*) : thus you get three good hot dinners. See also No. 483, on made dishes.
For SAUCE for cold beef, see No. 359, cucumber vinegar, No. 399, and horseradish
vinegar, Nos. 399* and 458.
f " This joint is often spoiled for the next day's use, by an injudicious mode of
carving. If you object to the outside, take the brown off, and help the next : by the
cutting it only on one side, you preserve the gravy in the meat, and the goodly ap-
pearance also ; by cutting it, on the contrary, down the middle of this joint, all the
gravy runs out, it becomes dry, and exhibits a most unseemly aspect when brought
to table a second time." From UDE'S Cookery, 8vo. 1818, p. 109.
Paper the fat, and the thin part, or it will be done too much,'
before the thick part is done enough.
N.B. A pig-iron placed before it on the bars of the grate
answers every purpose of keeping the thin part from being
loo much done.
Obs. Many persons prefer the ribs to the sirloin.
Ribs of Beef boned and rolled. (No. 21.)
When you have kept two or three ribs of beef till quite
lender, take out the bones, and skewer it as round as possible
(like a fillet of veal): before they roll it, some cooks egg it.
and sprinkle it with veal stuffing (No. 374). As the meat is
more in a solid mass, it will require more time at the fire than
in the preceding receipt ; a piece of ten or twelve pounds
weight will not be well and thoroughly roasted in less than
four and a half or five hours.
For the first half hour, it should not be less than twelve
inches from the fire, that it may get gradually warm to the
centre : the last half hour before it will be finished, sprinkle
a little salt over it ; and if you wish to froth it, flour it, &c.
MUTTON.* (No. 23.)
As beef requires a large, sound fire, mutton must have a
brisk and sharp one. If you wish to have mutton tender, it
should be hung almost as long as it will keep ;j and then
* DEAN SWIFT'S receipt to roast mutton.
To GBMINIANI'S beautiful air" Gently touch the warbling fyre."
" Gently stir and blow the fire,
Lay the mutton down to roast,
Dress it quickly, I desire,
In the dripping put a toast,
That I hunger may remove;
Mutton is the meat I love.
41 On the dresser see it lie ;
Oh ! the charming white and red !
Finer meat ne'er met the eye,
On the sweetest grass it fed ;
Let the jack go swiftly round,
Let me have it nicely brown'd,
u On the table spread the cloth,
Let the knives be sharp and clean,
Pickles get and salad both,
Let them each be fresh and green.
With small beer, good ale, and wine,
O, ye gods ! how I shall dine !"
t See the chapter of ADVICK TO COOKS
**ood eight-tooth, i. e. four years old mutton, is as good eat-
ing as venison, if it is accompanied by Nos. 329 and 346.
The leg, haunch, and saddle will be the better for being
hung up in a cool airy place for four or five days at least ; in
temperate weather, a week ; in cold weather, ten days.
If you think your mutton will not be tender enough to do
honour to the spit, dress it as a "gigot de sept heures." See
N.B. to No. 1 and No. 493.
A Leg, (No. 24.)
Of eight pounds, will take about two hours : let it be well
basted, and frothed in the same manner as directed in No. 19.
To hash mutton, No. 484. To broil it, No. 487, &c.
~ : .' m A Chine or Saddle, (No. 26.)
(i. e. the two loins) of ten or eleven pounds, two hours and
a half: it is the business of the butcher to take off the skin
and skewer it on again, to defend the meat from extreme
heat, and preserve its succulence ; if this is neglected, tie a
sheet of paper over it (baste the strings you tie it on with
directly, or they will burn) : about a quarter of an hour before
you think it will be done, take off the skin or paper, that it
may get a pale brown colour, then baste it and flour it lightly
to froth it. We like No. 346 for sauce.
N.B. Desire the butcher to cut off the flaps and the tail
and chump end, and trim away every part that has not indis-
putable pretensions to be eaten. This will reduce a saddle:
of eleven pounds weight to about six or seven pounds.
A Shoulder, (No. 27.)
Of seven pounds, an hour and a half. Put the spit in close
to the shank-bone, and run it along the blade-bone.
N.B. The blade-bone is a favourite luncheon or supper
relish, scored, peppered and salted, and broiled, or. done in a
A Loin* (No. 28.)
Of mutton, from an hour and a half to an hour and three
quarters. The most elegant way of carving this, is to cut it
lengthwise, as you do a saddle : read No. 26.
* Common cooks very seldom brown the ends of necks and loins ; to have this
done nicely, let the fire be a few inches longer at each end than the joint that is
roasting, and occasionally place tiie spit slanting, so that each end may get sufficient
tire ; otherwise, after the meat is done, you must take it up, and put the ends before
N.B. Spit it on a skewer or lark, spit, and tie that on the
common spit, and do not spoil the meat by running the spit
through the prime part of it.
A JVeefc, (No. 29.)
About the same time as a loin. It must be carefully jointed,
or it is very difficult to carve. The neck and breast are, in
small families, commonly roasted together; the cook will
then crack the bones across the middle before they are put
down to roast: if this is not done carefully, they are very
troublesome to carve. Tell the cook, when she takes it from
the spit, to separate them before she sends them to table.
Obs. If there is more fat than you think will be eaten with
the lean, cut it off, and it will make an excellent suet pud-
ding (No. 551, or No. 554).
N.B. The best way to spit this is to run iron skewers
across it, and put the spit between them.
A Breast,-~(No. 30.)
An hour and a quarter
To grill a breast of mutton, see Obs. to No. 38.
A Haunch, (No. 31.)
(i. e. the leg and part of the loin) of mutton: send up two
sauce-boats with it ; one of rich mutton gravy, made without
spice or herbs (No. 347), and the other of sweet sauce (No.
346). It generally weighs about 15 pounds, and requires
about three hours and a half -to roast it.
Mutton, venison fashion. (No. 32.)
Take a neck of good four or five years old Southdown
wether mutton, cut long in the bones ; let it hang (in tempe-
rate weather) at least a week : two days before you dress it,
take allspice and black pepper, ground and pounded fine, a
quarter of an ounce each ; rub them together, and then rub
your mutton well with this mixture twice a day. When you
dress it, wash off the spice with warm water, and roast in
paste, as we have ordered the haunch of venison. (No. 63).
Obs. Persevering and ingenious epicures have invented
many methods to.give mutton the flavour of venison. Some
say that mutton, prepared as above, may be mistaken for
venison ; others, that it is full as good. The refined palate-
of a grand gourmand (in spite of the spice and wine the meat
has been fuddled and rubbed with) will perhaps still protest
against " Welch venison ;" and indeed we do not understand
by what conjuration allspice and claret can communicate the
flavour of venison to mutton. We confess our fears that the
flavour of venison (especially of its fat) is inimitable; but
believe you may procure prime eight-toothed wether mutton,
keep it the proper time, and send it to table with the accom-
paniments (Nos. 346 and 347, &c.) usually given to venison,
and a rational epicure will eat it with as much satisfaction
as he would " feed on the king's fallow deer."
VEAL. (No. 33.)
VEAL requires particular care to roast it a nice brown.
Let the fire be the same as for beef; a sound large fire for a
large joint, and a brisker for a smaller ; put it at some distance
from the fire to soak thoroughly, and then draw it near to
finish it brown.
When first laid down, it is to be basted ; baste it again
occasionally. When the veal is on the dish, pour over it half
a pint of melted butter (No. 256) : if you have a little brown
gravy by you, add that to the butter (No. 326). With those
joints which are not stuffed, send up forcemeat (No. 374, or
No. 375) in balls, or rolled into sausages, as garnish to the
dish, or fried pork sausages (No. 87) ; bacon (No. 13, or No.
526, or No. 527), and greens, are also always expected with
Fillet of Veal, (No. 34.)
Of from twelve to sixteen pounds, will require from four
to five hours at a good fire ; make some stuffing or forcemeat
(No. 374 or 5), and put it in under the flap, that there may
be some left to eat cold, or to season a hash ;* brown it,
and pour good melted butter (No. 266) over it, as directed
in No. 33.
Garnish with thin" slices of lemon and cakes or balls of
stuffing, or No. 374, or No. 375, or duck stuffing (No. 61),
or fried pork sausages (No. 87), curry sauce (No. 348), bacon
(No. 13), and greens, &c.
N.B. Potted veal (No. 533).
Obs. A bit of the brown outside is a favourite with the
epicure in roasts. The kidney, cut out, sliced, and broiled
(No. 358), is a high relish, which some bom vivants are
* To MINCE or HASH VEAL, see No. 511, or 511*, and to make a RAOOUT of cold
real, No. 512.
A Lorn, (No. 35.)
Is the best part of the calf, and will take about three
hours roasting. Paper the kidney fat, and the back : some
cooks send it up on a toast, which is eaten with the kid-
ney and the fat of this part, which is as delicate as any
marrow. If there is more of it than you think will be
eaten with the veal, before you roast it cut it out ; it will
make an excellent suet pudding : take care to have your
fire long enough to brown the ends ; same accompaniments
as No. 34.
Jl Shoulder, (No. 36.)
From three hours to three hours and a half; stuff it with
the forcemeat ordered for the fillet of veal, in the under side,
or balls made of No. 374.
Neck, best end, (No. 37.)
Will take two hours ; same accompaniments as Not 34.
The scrag part is best made into a pie, or broth.
From an hour and a half to two hours. Let the caul
remain till it is almost done, then take it off to brown it ;
baste, flour, and froth it.
06s. This makes a savoury relish for a luncheon or
supper : or, instead of roasting, boil it enough ; put it in a
cloth between two pewter dishes, Avith a weight on the upper
one, and let it remain so till cold ; then pare and trim, egg,
and crumb it, and broil, or warm it in a Dutch oven ; serve
with it capers (No. 274), or wow wow sauce (No. 328),
Breast of mutton may be dressed the same way.
Veal Sweetbread. (No. 39.)
Trim a fine sweetbread (it cannot be too fresh) ; parboil it
for five minutes, and throw it into a basin of cold water.
Roast it plain, or
Beat up the yelk of an egg, and prepare some fine bread-
crumbs : when the sweetbread is cold, dry it thoroughly in
a cloth ; run a lark-spit or a skewer through it, and tie it on
the ordinary spit ; egg it with a paste-brush ; powder it well
with bread-crumbs, and roast it.
For sauce, fried bread-crumbs round it, and melted butter^
with a little mushroom catchup (No. 439), and lemon-
juice (Nos. 307, 354, or 356), or serve them on buttered
toast, garnished with egg sauce (No. 267), or with gravy
Obs. Instead of spitting them, you may put them into a
tin Dutch oven, or fry them (Nos. 88, 89, or 513).
LAMB, (No. 40.)
Is a delicate, and commonly considered tender meat ; but
those who talk of tender lamb, while they are thinking of
the age of the animal, forget that even a chicken must be
kept a proper time after it has been killed, or it will be tough
Woful experience has warned us to beware of accepting
an invitation to dinner on Easter Sunday, unless commanded
by a thorough-bred gourmand; ouTincisores,molares, and prin-
cipal viscera have protested against the imprudence of
encountering young, tough, stringy mutton, under the misno-
men of grass lamb. The proper name for " Easter grass
lamb" is " hay mutton."
To the usual accompaniments of roasted meat, green
mint sauce (No. 303), a salad (Nos. 372 and 138*), is
commonly added ; and ' some cooks, about five minutes
before it is done, sprinkle it with a little fresh gathered and
finely minced parsley, or No. 318: lamb, and all young
meats, ought to be thoroughly done; therefore do not
take either lamb or veal off the spit till you see it drop
Grass lamb is in season from Easter to Michaelmas.
House lamb from Christmas to Lady-day.
Sham lamb, see 06s. to following receipt.
N.B. When green mint cannot be got, mint vinegar (No.
398) is an acceptable substitute for it ; and crisp parsley
(No. 318), on a side plate, is an admirable accompaniment.
Hind-Quarter, (No. 41).
Of eight pounds, will take from an hour and three-quarters
to two hours : baste and froth it in the same way as-directed
in $k>. 19.
Obs. A quarter of a porkling is sometimes skinned, cut,
and dressed lamb-fashion, and sent up as a substitute for it
The leg and the loin of lamb, when little, should be roasted
together ; the former being lean, the latter fat, and the gravy
is better preserved.
Fore-Quarter, (No. 42.)
Of ten pounds, about two hours.
N.B. It is a pretty general custom, when you take off the
shoulder from the ribs, to squeeze a Seville orange over
Jhem, and sprinkle them with a little pepper and salt.
Obs. This may as well be done by the cook before it
comes to table ; some people are not remarkably expert at
dividing these joints nicely.
Leg, (No. 43.)
Of five pounds, from an hour to an hour and a half.
(No. 44.)', . "?
With a quick fire, an hour.
See Obs. to No. 27.
Ribs, (No. 45.)
About an hour to an hour and a quarter: joint it nicely,
crack the ribs across, and divide them from the brisket after
it is roasted.
w, (No. 46.)
An hour and a quarter.
JWcfc, (No. 47.)
Three-quarters of an hour.
The prime season for pork is from Michaelmas to March.
Take particular care it be done enough: other meats
under-done are unpleasant, but pork is absolutely uneatable ;
the sight of it is enough to appal the sharpest appetite, if it*
gravy has the least tint of redness.
Be careful of the crackling; if this be not crisp, or if it br
burned, you will be scolded. '?
For sauces, No. 300, No. 304, and No. 342.
Obs. Pease pudding (No. 555) is as good an accompani-
ment to roasted, as it is to boiled pork ; and most palates are
pleased with the savoury powder set down in No. 51, or
bread-crumbs, mixed with sage and onion, minced very fine,
or zest (No. 255) sprinkled over it.
N.B. " The t western pigs, from Berks, Oxford, and Bucks,
possess a decided superiority over the eastern, of Essex,
Sussex, and Norfolk; not to forget another qualification
of the former, at which some readers may smile, a thick-
ness of the skin ; whence the crackling of the roasted pork
is a fine gelatinous substance, which may be easily mas-
ticated; while the crackling of the thin-skinned breeds is
roasted into good block tin, the reduction of which would
almost require teeth of iron." MOUBRAY on Poultry, 1816,
Of eight pounds, will require about three hours : score the
skin across in narrow stripes (some score it in diamonds),
about a quarter of an inch apart ; stuff the knuckle with sage
and onion, mineed fine, and a little grated bread, seasoned
with pepper, salt, and the yelk of an egg. See Duck Stuffing,
Do not put it too near the fire : rub a little sweet oil on
the skin with a paste-brush, or a goose-feather : this makes
the crackling crisper and browner than basting it with drip-
ping ; and it will be a better colour than all the art of cookery
can make it in any other way ; and this is the best way of
preventing the skin from blistering, which is principally
occasioned by its being put too near the fire.
Leg of Pork roasted -without the Skin, commonly called
MOCK GOOSE.* (No. 51.)
Parboil it ; take off the skin, and then put it down to roast ;
baste it with butter, and make a savoury powder of finely
minced, or dried and powdered sage, ground black pepper,
salt, and some bread-crumbs, rubbed together through a
colander; you may add to this a little very finely minced
onion : sprinkle it with this when it is almost roasted. Put
half a pint of made gravy into the dish, and goose stuffing
(No. 378) under the knuckle skin ; or garnish the dish with
balls of it fried or boiled.
* Priscilla Haslehurst, in her Housekeeper's Instructor, 8vo. Sheffield, 1819, p.
19, gives us a receipt " to'goosify a shoulder of lainb." " Un grand Cuisinier," in-
formed me that " to lambify" the leg of a porkling is a favourite metamorphosis ii>
die French kitchen, when house lamb is very dear.
Th$ Gra&w., (No. 52.)
Of seven or eight pounds, may be dressed in the same
manner. It will take an hour and a half roasting-.
A Bacon Spare-Rib, (No. 53.)
Usually weighs about eight or nine pounds, and will take
from two to three hours to roast it thoroughly ; not exactly
according to its weight, but the thickness of the meat upon
it, which varies veiy much. Lay the thick end nearest to
A proper bald spare-rib of eight pounds weight (so called
because almost all the meat is pared off), with a steady fire,
will be done in an hour and a quarter. There is so little
meat on a bald spare-rib, that if you have a large, fierce fire,
it will be burned before it is warm through. Joint it nicely,
and crack the ribs across as you do ribs of lamb.
When you put it down to roast, dust on some flour, and
baste it with a little butter ; dry a dozen sage leaves, and
rub them through a hair-sieve, and put them into the top ot
a pepper-box; and about a quarter of an hour before the
meat is done, baste it with butter ; dust the pulverized sage,
or the savoury powder in No. 51 ; or sprinkle with duels
stuffing (No. 61).
06s. Make it a general rule never to pour gravy over any
thing that is roasted ; by so doing, the dredging, &c. is washed
off, and it eats insipid.
Some people carve a spare-rib by cutting out in slices the
thick part at the bottom of the bones. When this meat is
cut away, the bones may be easily separated, and are es-
teemed very sweet picking.
Apple sauce (No. 304), mashed potatoes (No. 106), and
good mustard (No. 370,) are indispensable.
Lorn, (No. 54.)
Of five pounds, must be kept at a good distance from th^
are on account of the crackling, and will take about two.
hours ; if very fat, half an hour longer.
Stuff it with duck stuffing (No. 378). Score the skin in
stripes, about a quarter of an inch apart, and rub it with salad
oil, as directed in No. 50. You may sprinkle over it some
of the savoury powder recommended for the mock goost
A Chine. (No. 55.)
If parted down the back-bone so as to have but one side,